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bibliography adalah #8220;Jumlah artikelnya banyak banget, mana yang harus saya pilih untuk dibaca?#8221;, tanya mahasiswa di pertemuan ke empat. Usa? Sebelum menjawab pertanyaan tersebut, saya balik bertanya, #8220;Apakah paper itu semuanya sudah masuk dalam meta-analysis?#8221; #8220;Sudah Pak, tapi baru dibaca sekilas, yang penting kolom-kolom dalam tabel hasil meta-analysis terisi semua!#8221;, jawabnya dengan cepat. On Heroic? #8220;Mari kita latihan mengutip dan membuat Annotated Bibliography! #8220; , sambung Saya. Collections? Annotated Bibliography ( AB ) berarti memberikan catatan, informasi atau ulasan tambahan terhadap sebuah pustaka (bibliography) yang dikutip dalam penelitian kita. Kita lihat dulu pengertian dari pustaka atau bibliography yang standar, yaitu informasi rinci tentang sumber rujukan yang mencakup nama penulis, waktu penerbitan, judul, serta nama dan lokasi penerbitnya. Thesis? Rincian informasi tersebut biasanya untuk sebuah buku atau textbook . Essay Collections? Jika publikasinya berupa jurnal ilmiah maka informasinya mencakup nama peneliti, waktu publikasi, judul artikel, nama jurnal, volume, issue, dan jumlah halaman.
Nanti kita dapat melihat daftar rujukan tersebut di Daftar Pustaka. Greed? Jika informasi pustaka tersebut ditambakan dengan informasi atau ulasan lainnya maka itulah yang dimaksud dengan AB . Essay Collections Usa? Jadi AB secara umum adalah deskripsi singkat tentang sebuah rujukan atau kutipan yang mencakup informasi yang dianggap penting, misalnya masalah dan tujuan penelitian, metodologi, atau kesimpuan hasilnya, yang relevan dengan rencana topik penelitian kita. Essay A Level? Setelah membaca AB, nanti Anda pun bisa menilai apakah artikel tersebut relevan dengan topik penelitian Anda, apakah artikel tersebut mempunyai mutu atau bobot ilmiah yang tinggi, serta apakah artikel tersebut mutakhir atau tidak. Tidak elok jika penelitian atau artikel Anda hanya mengutip artikel dari koran, majalah, atau sebuah blog pribadi, tanpa ada artikel yang dibuat berdasarkan hasil penelitian empiris. Essay? Namun bukan berarti tidak boleh mengutip artikel atau tulisan di sebuah website.
Intinya adalah relevansi dan mutu sumber rujukan, dan jangan lupa, Anda membaca artikel ilmiah secara langsung, bukan dari tulisan lain yang mengutip artikel ilmiah tersebut. Thesis Statements For The? Artikel ilmiah biasanya dipublikasikan dalam seminar nasional atau international, atau jurnal nasional atau international. Collections Usa? Jenis publikasi tersebut sangat menentukan bobot ilmiahnya. German Essay Phrases A Level? Misalnya, artikel pada jurnal international dianggap mempunyai bobot ilmiah yang lebih tinggi dibandingkan jurnal nasional. Jurnal Nasional sendiri mempunyai bobot ilmiah lebih tinggi dibandingkan artikel yang hanya diseminarkan dan tertuang dalam prosiding seminar. Collections? #8220; Oh, pantesan teman saya yang jadi dosen pada berlomba menulis artikel di jurnal nasional dan international, katanya angka kreditnya lebih tinggi ! #8220;, sela seorang mahasiswi. Good Thesis For The Story? #8220; Wah pak, artikel yang sudah saya download, ternyata jurnal international semua nih, bermutu semua dong? #8220;, tanya mahasiswa. Usa? #8220; Coba anda lihat di website jurnal internationalnya, berapa citation index-nya? #8220;, jawab Saya, yang langsung ditanggapi oleh mahasiswa dengan diam dan wajah kebingunan. Essays On Heroic? Saya pun langsung menjelaskan bahwa jurnal international yang bermutu adalah jurnal yang artikelnya banyak dikutip oleh orang. Usa? Misalnya, sebuah artikel yang ditulis oleh Mr X (2006) tercantum dalam daftar pustaka atau dikutip dalam 100 artikel lain. Thesis? Jika ada artikel lainnya- misalnya ditulis oleh Mr Z (2005) , hanya dikutip oleh 25 artikel lain, maka artikel Mr X (2006) mempunyai high impact yang lebih tinggi dibandingkan artikel Mr Z (2006) . Essay? Kita tunda dulu diskusi tentang bagaimana menghitung citation index. Kita kembali ke Annotated Bibliography. Good Story? #8220; Masih bingung Pak, jadi yang memberikan informasi atau ulasan tambahan itu kita ya? #8221; #8220; Ya, anda harus membacanya terlebih dahulu, lalu mencatat hal-hal yang menarik terkait dengan topik riset Anda! #8220; Saya langsung menayangkan contoh AB yang pernah saya buat ketika menyusun artikel untuk dipublikasikan pada sebuah jurnal international. Collections? #8220; Boleh gak Pak jika deskripsinya adalah menarasikan dalam bentuk paragraf dari isi tabel hasil meta-analysis #8220;, tanya mahasiswi yang terlihat masih antusias. Essay? Saya mempersilahkan mereka membuat deskripsi seperti contoh di atas.
Bahannya dari tabel hasil meta analysis yang sudah mereka presentasikan pada pertemuan sebelumnya Kami pun terlibat diskusi. Usa? Saya berkeliling dari satu ke meja lain, sekedar memberikan saran dalam pembuatan AB . Harvard Delivering Customer Service? Sebagian besar dari mereka masih kesulitan dalam menuangkan informasi dalam tabel tersebut ke dalam beberapa kalimat. Collections? Namun semangat dan kerja keras masih terpancar dari mereka. Introduction Thesis? Setelah setengah jam, Saya mempersilahkan salah seorang mahasiswa untuk mempresentasikan hasil AB yang telah dibuatnya, seperti disajikan di bawah ini. #8220; Pak, jadi setiap pustaka yang kita kutip harus dibuat seperti itu? #8220;, tanya temannya yang cuma melotot tak berkedip melihat tayangan contoh AB di dinding kelas yang masih terlihat putih bersih. Usa? Saya pun menjelaskan bahwa AB tersebut menjadi bahan tulisan anda, bisa dipilah dan dipilih, mana yang disajikan di Bab1, Bab2, Bab3, bahkan Bab 4. Case Study Delivering Service? Kita membuat kutipan di Bab 1 jika sangat mendukung atau mempunyai relevansi tinggi dengan masalah penelitian kita. Essay? Artikel-artikel yang ditulis berdasarkan hasil penelitian empiris dapat kita kutip hasil penelitian dan analisisnya sebagai premis dari hipotesis- atau kadang dalam bentuk kerangka pemikiran di Bab 1. Essays Deeds? Kita bisa mengatakannya sebagai premis yang kuat jika artikel tersebut berisi variabel dan metododologi yang relatif sama dengan variabel dan metodologi yang digunakan dalam penelitian kita. Collections Usa? Dan artikel yang bermutu juga tentunya. Essays Deeds? Artikel tersebut juga bisa dikutip lagi di Bab 4 (Hasil dan Pembahasan), namun lebih dititikberatkan pada perbandingan hasil penelitian kita dengan artikel tersebut. Usa? Jika ada artikel yang isinya masih relevan dengan topik kita, namun isi atau pernyataannya kurang kuat untuk dijadikan premis untuk hipotesis, maka kutipan dari artikel tersebut dapat disajikan di Bab 2 tentang tinjauan pustaka, misalnya kutipan tentang pengertian dan karakteristik E-banking yang menjadi wilayah penelitian kita.
Kutipan di Bab 3 (Metodologi) bisanya berkaitan dengan metode yang kita gunakan, yang tentunya sudah ditemukan sebelumnya oleh Peneliti lain. Thesis Statements Story? Jadi kita sebaiknya menyebutkan penemu dari metode tersebut. Essay Collections? Apalagi jika kita menggunakan instrumen penelitian (kuisener) yang diadaptasi atau dimodifikasi dari kuisener yang pernah digunakan di artikel pada penelitian sebelumnya. Persuasive Essay? Defisinisi variabel pada kuisener yang digunakan oleh kita pun kadang mengambil dari definisi, dimensi, dan indikator pertanyaan dari berbagai sumber kutipan. Jadi kita harus memastikan bahwa artikel yang dikutip dalam penelitian kita adalah sangat relevan, bermutu, dan mutakhir.
Itulah salah satu kegunaan utama dari AB . Essay Collections? #8220; Pak, tadi Bapak mengatakan, kita harus membaca langsung artikel tersebut, bukan dari artikel lain yang mencantumkan kutipan dari artikel pertama. Essays On Heroic Deeds? Padahal isi pada artikel pertama itu sangat relevan dengan topik saya pak? #8220;, tanya mahasiswa yang barusan mempresentasikan AB . Usa? #8220; Terus pak, cara mengutip dan membuat daftar pustaka juga pak. German Essay Phrases? Kok di artikel jurnal international yang saya baca, cara menulis kutipan dan daftar pustakanya beda-beda lho pak? #8220;, tambahnya. Usa? #8220; Nanti kita bahas pada pertemuan berikutnya !#8221;, jawab Saya dan langsung menutup perkuliahan. Versi untuk penyusunan Skripsi bisa dilihat di buku:
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mozart effect essay Dr. Thomas Anderson. We are living in an exciting time of exploration into the most mysterious and essay usa, complex object known to man: the brain. Recently created technological procedures such as positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging now allow researchers to study the famous working brain in great detail. This research is essay, rapidly increasing our understanding of various mental disorders and disabilities, of the greed essay neurological basis for behavior, of memory and learning -- of quite literally how we think. As early as 1989, Congress noted the enormous rate at which scientific information on essay collections, the brain was amassing. Harvard Case Starbucks Delivering Service! The sophistication of computer science which had become sufficient to process neuroscience data, maximizing usefulness to both researchers and clinicians, and the advances in math, physics, and brain imaging, led them to declare the last decade of the twenty-first century The Decade of the Brain.
Changes in the attitudes of the scientific community have also added to this expanding collection of knowledge: For nearly a century, the science of the mind (psychology) developed independently from the science of the brain (neuroscience). Psychologists were interested in collections, our mental functions and capacities -- how we learn, remember, and german essay a level, think. Neuroscientists were interested in how the brain develops and essay collections usa, functions. It was as if psychologists were interested only in our mental software and neuroscientists only in our neural hardware. Essays On Heroic Deeds! Deeply held theoretical assumptions in usa, both fields supported a view that mind and brain could, and good statements story, indeed should, be studied independently. Usa! It is only in essayists, the past 15 years or so that these theoretical barriers have fallen.
Now scientists called cognitive neuroscientists are beginning to study how our neural hardware might run our mental software, how brain structures support mental functions, how our neural circuits enable us to think and essay, learn. Harvard Starbucks Customer Service! This is an exciting and collections usa, new scientific endeavor, but it is also a very young one. As a result we know relatively little about learning, thinking, and remembering at the level of brain areas, neural circuits, or synapses; we know very little about essays on heroic deeds, how the brain thinks, remembers, and learns. One area that has generated much interest in the scientific and business communities, as well as the media, is the role (or roles) that music plays in essay collections usa, the processes of thought and learning. Essay A Level! There is an essay collections usa ever building volume of research suggesting that music may actually hard wire the brain, building links between the two hemispheres that can thereafter be utilized for phrases a variety of collections cognitive activities. The effect of learning to play music is thought to for the story, be strongest in early childhood, but there may be a connection between merely listening to music and improved intelligence throughout maturity. I chose to research one aspect of this theory, and found an amazing abundance of both serious and usa, pseudo/commercial scientific literature. People interested in easy ways to boost the IQs of themselves and their children, along with entrepreneurs whose apparent motivation centered on easy profits, eagerly embraced a recently released pop psychology book by Don Campbell called The Mozart Effect : Tapping the Power of starbucks customer service Music to collections usa, Heal the Body, Strengthen the Mind and Unlock the Creative Spirit . Campbell based his book loosely on: The works of Dr. Alfred Tomatis, a French Ear, Nose, and Throat Doctor that hypothesized the lack of sound stimulation, or abnormal stimulation in utero and/or early childhood can cause aberrant behaviors and delayed or disabling communication skills Common music therapy experimentation The title topic, which I have chosen to scrutinize: research specifically involving the works of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. While the proposition that listening to Mozart's music increases I.Q. American! might actually have some merit, the collections usa benefits that Campbell promotes are overstated and generally unfounded.
Michael Linton, professor of Music Theory and Composition at Middle Tennessee State University wryly observed, Trademarking the name Mozart Effect, Campbell has even gone cable with infomercials for his book and its accompanying compact discs and cassettes. In the great tradition of P. T. Barnum and the Veg-O-Matic, Mozart has now hit the mainstream of American life. Indeed, the book, along with subsequent speaking engagements, CDs, tapes, and a well orchestrated media blitz, has created the impression that listening to the music of greed essay Mozart will magically increase verbal, emotional and spatial intelligence, improve concentration and memory, enhance right-brain creative processes and strengthen intuitive thinking skills, as the promotion for one of the many Mozart Effect CDs promises. While Campbell's book and the unfortunate mass of commercially motivated hyperbole it has generated are generally aimed at an unsophisticated audience, there is serious research that suggests that music does have a impact on cognitive ability. The Mozart Effect Studies. Early experimentation on essay collections usa, the effect of music on the brain was conducted in 1988, when neurobiologist Gordon Shaw, along with graduate student Xiaodan Leng, first attempted to model brain activity on german phrases, a computer at collections the University of California at Irvine . They found in simulations that the persuasive essay introduction way nerve cells were connected to one another predisposed groups of cells to adopt certain specific firing patterns and rhythms. Shaw surmises that these patterns form the basic exchange of mental activity. Inquisitively, they decided to turn the output of essay usa their simulations into good thesis of an, sounds instead of a conventional printout.
To their surprise, the rhythmic patterns sounded somewhat familiar, with some of the characteristics of baroque, new age, or Eastern music. Shaw hypothesized: If brain activity can sound like music, might it be possible to begin to understand the neural activity by working in reverse and observing how the brain responds to music? Might patterns in music somehow stimulate the brain by activating similar firing patterns of essay usa nerve clusters? He later joined two other researchers, Frances Rauscher and Katherine Ky, in creating the study that coined the american essayists term Mozart Effect. In the essay October 14, 1993, issue of Nature they published a short summary of the findings from their experiment. For The Story! They assigned thirty six Cal-Irvine students to one of three groups, and offered the same pretest to each of the students. Essay Collections! One group then listened to a selection by Mozart (Sonata in D major for Two Pianos, K488). A second group listened to what was called a relaxation tape, and greed essay introduction, the third group was subjected to ten minutes of silence.
All of the students were given the usa same test, which was designed to measure spatial IQ. This test is described as mentally unfolding a piece of paper is that has been folded over several times and then cut. The object is to correctly select the final unfolded paper shape from five examples. The students who listened to the Mozart sonata averaged an 8&endash;9 point increase in their IQ as compared to the average of the students who had listened to the relaxation tape or who had experienced silence. Thesis For The! The increase in IQ of the Mozart group was transitory, lasting only usa, about the time it took to take the test-- from ten to fifteen minutes. This test stirred enough interest in for the of an, the academic community to induce several other research teams to conduct similar experiments, with disparate results. In 1994, Stough, Kerkin, Bates, and Mangan, at the University of Aukland, failed to produce any Mozart effect.
This may be due in collections usa, part to the fact that the spatial IQ test used in New Zealand was from Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices, while the harvard case delivering customer Rauscher et al. study used the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale. Essay Usa! However, Kenealy and Monseth (1994) did use the same test (Stanford-Binet) to essay introduction, measure the thirty subjects they used in their study; these subjects showed no mean differences in scores after listening to Mozart, disco music, and silence. Rauscher, Shaw, and essay collections, Ky reproduced and thesis statements, augmented their original Mozart Effect experiment in collections, 1995, by dividing seventy-nine students into essay, three groups. This time a work by the modern experimental composer Philip Glass was substituted for the relaxation tape. Again, the group that listened to the Mozart selection showed an usa increase in essays on heroic deeds, spatial IQ test scores. Essay Usa! A further test showed that listening to phrases, other types of music (non-specified dance musis) did not have the same effect. In 1995, researchers (Newman, Rosenbach, Burns, Latimer, Matocha, and Vogt) at State University of New York at Albany replicated the original test. They broadened the test group to 114 subjects, and the age spread from 18 to 51 years with a mean age of 27.3.
Not only did they find no similar increase in spatial IQ scores after listening to essay, Mozart, but they also polled the subjects on previous musical background, and found no correlation to higher spatial IQ scores and music lessons earlier in life, or a correlation to higher spatial IQ scores and a preference for classical music. Similar results were found the same year in a study by two Canadian University researchers, Nantais and Schellenberg. They reproduced the essay fundamental Mozart Effect experiment, and extended the study to essay, investigate the relationship between listening to other forms of music and IQ. They found that the listener's preference--to either music or the narration of a story, and essays on heroic, not particularly listening to Mozart, made for improved test performance. In 1996 and 1997, however, two studies at collections usa Ursinus College in Collegeville, Pennsylvania, by famous, Rideout and Taylor supported and usa, added further evidence to suggest a Mozart effect. One study replicated the Rauscher et al. German Phrases! study and, using two different spatial-reasoning tasks, measured higher spatial IQ scores after listening to a Mozart selection. Collections! In the introduction other study, Rideout and Laubach required 8 college students to listen to a Mozart piano sonata in essay, one condition and no music in greed essay introduction, another condition. Usa! They measured changes in EEG ( brain wave activity) prior to listening to the Mozart and then again after listening to the Mozart while engaged in two spatial-reasoning tasks.
The EEG recordings were somewhat correlated with the students' performance, as increased brain activity was associated with an increase in spatial-reasoning performance after listening to the Mozart. In 1998, Rideout, this time with Dougherty and greed essay, Wernert, found that music with characteristics similar to the works of essay collections usa Mozart provided the same increase in study, temporary spatial IQ test scores. Two other studies, both published in 1997, contradicted the Mozart effect. Kenneth Steele, Ball, and usa, Runk of Appalachian State University presented 36 college students a backwards digit span task, described as recalling 9-digit strings in persuasive introduction thesis, reverse order, in three conditions--after listening to Mozart music, a recording of rain, or silence. The results found no difference between these three conditions. Carlson, Rama, Artchakov, and Linnankoski of the Institute of Biomedicine affiliated with University of Helsinki, Finland, chose monkeys to see if any Mozart effect would show up in another animal. He used a memory task to test various experimental conditions including Mozart music, simple rhythms, white noise, and silence. The results were intriguing.
The monkeys actually performed highest in the white noise condition and lowest in the Mozart music condition. Perhaps inspired by the Carlson et al. test using monkeys, Rauscher and her colleagues chose to study the Mozart effect on laboratory rats in 1998. These rats were exposed both in utero and for collections two months postpartum to Mozart's piano sonata. The other comparison groups included rats that were exposed in the same time frame to introduction, minimalist music, white noise, or silence. The rats who were exposed in the Mozart group learned to maneuver a T-maze considerably faster and usa, with fewer errors than rats in essay, the other three groups. Christopher Chabris, in 1998 a graduate student at Harvard University (now a research fellow at usa Harvard Medical School and Massachusetts General Hospital), questioned the net result of studies on famous american essayists, the Mozart effect that had been done over the previous five years. He examined sixteen of the studies and analyzed their conclusions. The results do not show any real change in I.Q. or reasoning ability. There's a very small enhancement in learning a specific task, such as visualizing the result of folding and cutting paper, but even that is not statistically significant.
The improvement is smaller than the average variation of a single person's I.Q. Essay Usa! test performance. His conclusion was that There's nothing wrong with having young people listen to classical music, but it's not going to make them smarter. Other skeptics have been convinced that a Mozart effect does exist. Lois Hetland of the on heroic Harvard Graduate School of Education attempted to collections, replicate earlier Mozart effect studies in broader depth, including a total of 1014 subjects. Her findings were that the Mozart listening group outperformed other groups by greed, a higher margin than could be explained by chance, although factors such as the subject's gender, musical tastes and training, innate spatial ability, and collections usa, cultural background made a difference in the degree to which the persuasive Mozart would increase test scores. She did not find the Mozart effect to be as strong as Rauscher et al. had found, however. Essay Collections Usa! Her belief, however, is that even these small effects are impressive because so many other factors could obscure them. In the early stages of story of an research in essay collections, a field, we would expect the measured effect to be small until we learn to separate the signal from the essayists noise in the research method.
She noted that Chabris had only studied the experiments that compared listening to Mozart to silence, and which had not included listening to other compositions. Psychologist Eric Seigel at essay Elmhurst College, Illinois, (who had been a self-described skeptic), set out to essay introduction, disprove the Mozart Effect. He chose a different spatial reasoning test, one that involves the subject's ability to discriminate between shifted positions of the letter E as various rotations are given. The brief time that it takes to judge whether the usa letter is the same or different effectively measures spatial reasoning. Subjects in the Mozart listening group did significantly better. It was as though they had practiced the test. we have another way to essay phrases a level, measure the essay usa Mozart Effect says Seigel. Rauscher and Shaw explained the inconsistent results of the Mozart effect tests in persuasive introduction thesis, a work published in Perception and Motor Skills (1998) , Vol. 86, p. 835-841). Essay Usa! They stated that the reason the results do not concur is that the essay various studies designed to find the Mozart effect have utilized diverse subjects and different methodological designs, such as music compositions, listening conditions, and measures. The most recent Mozart effect study was by Kenneth Steele of Appalachian State University, this time with Karen Bass and collections, Melissa Crook in 1999. They chose to precisely replicate the 1995 Rauscher et al. with the rationale that the comparison was methodologically cleaner than the 1993 study published in Nature (Steele).
The experiment compared the performance of 44 college students who had just listened to the Mozart piano sonata against 39 students who had just listened to a performance by Phillip Glass and 42 students who had waited an equivalent time period in silence. The two musical selections used the essay introduction same performances used in the 1995 study. Immediately after exposure to a listening condition, all subjects were tested on their ability to solve paper-folding and essay usa, cutting items, the task used in both original experiments. A paper-folding and cutting item is a visual puzzle that represents a piece of paper undergoing a series of fold and cut transformations on famous, the top row of a display. On the bottom row are several possible outcomes of this folding and cutting sequence. Essay Collections! The task for the subject is to pick the outcome that would be produced by the changes in the top row.
The subjects had training with this task in american, a prior session, consistent with the procedure used in the 1995 UCI study. On average, the essay collections students answered 10 of 16 items correctly in the training session and 12 of 16 items correctly in the experimental session, on average. This general improvement from the training session is german essay a level, a practice effect, reflecting familiarity with the task and indicating the collections usa importance of evaluating changes against comparison or control conditions. Good Thesis Of An! The average number of correct answers in the experimental session was 11.77 for the Mozart group, 11.6 for the Silence group, and 12.15 for the Glass group. These small differences were not statistically different, failing to support the original experiment. An additional statistical technique that checked for essay collections differences in individual improvement also produced non-significant results. Gary Kliewer. Steele seems to have taken offense at Rauscher's defensive stance of her research, saying, There has been considerable concern about the existence of the Mozart Effect among researchers, despite its popular acceptance by politicians and educators. Several immediate attempts in introduction, other laboratories in England, New Zealand, and the United States to produce the essay usa effect were fruitless. Replication is one of the most important items in the scientist's toolbox. This experiment took investigators back to a common starting place, the UCI experiments, and the results showed that the effect was not present.
This experiment, in combination with several others, suggests strongly that the original positive reports were in error. What sense can be made of all this conflicting information? One ought not to be concerned about the persuasive introduction current lack of consensus, because this is a normal part of the scientific enterprise. Rather, we should be delighted that the usa subject has become important, because it has been largely ignored in the past. We can look forward to exciting developments in the search to good thesis, fully understand the roles of music in essay collections usa, cognitive processes and behavior. Scientific Explanations for the Mozart Effect.
While no definitive results have yet been attained, scientists who are gaining knowledge of the neurological wirings and harvard study, workings of the brain, as well as those trained in the science of the mind and essay collections usa, behavior, are slowly beginning to american essayists, develop theories as to why music might have an effect on collections, intelligence. Rauscher et al. hypothesized that the effect of music on intelligence may be explained by the initial research by Shaw and Leng that proposed hearing complex music actually excites the cortical firing patterns that are analogous to those used in spatial reasoning. The researchers were testing the introduction thesis suspicion that there might be a kind of music box analogous to Chomsky's famous yet-undiscovered language box. Collections Usa! Might the symmetries and patterns characteristic of music be fundamentally connected to the symmetries and patterns researchers were tracking in brain waves? If so, might not music really be tapping into a structure inherent in deeds, the brain itself? And if this were true, ultimately might music be a kind of essay fundamental, or pre-linguistic--or even supra-linguistic--speech? Musical perception is processed in greed introduction, the right hemisphere of the brain--the same hemisphere that performs spatial cogitation and long-term sequencing operations.
Musical perception does involve the analysis of spatial excitation patterns along the auditory receptor organ.. (Roederer) Other researchers agree that there are neurological foundations for music's effects on cognitive ability. John Hughes, a neurologist at the University of Illinois Medical Center in essay collections, Chicago, examined hundreds of compositions and introduction, concludes that music sequences that regularly repeat every 20 - 30 seconds, just as Mozart's compositions do prevalently, may trigger the usa strongest response in the brain, because many functions of the phrases central nervous system such as the onset of essay collections sleep and brain wave patterns also occur in 30-second cycles. He notes that Minimalist music by the composer Philip Glass and popular tunes score among the lowest on american, this measure, while music of Mozart scores two to three times higher. Hughes used Mozart's music on a group of patients described as severely epileptic, constantly seizing to the point of being comatose. Twenty-nine out of the 36 subjects showed significant improvement by suffering fewer and less severe seizures when listening to Mozart. The same test group showed no improvement while they listened to a Glass composition, popular melodies from the 1930's, or silence. Essay Collections! Skeptics could criticize the IQ studies, Hughes says, but this is on paper: you can count discharges and watch them decrease during the Mozart music. Julene Johnson of the Institute of Brain Aging and Dementia at the University of California at Irvine found that people that suffer from Alzheimer's disease show improvement on the paper folding portion (measuring spatial IQ) of the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale after 10-minute portions of essay introduction Mozart, but not after silence or popular music from the 1930s.
Patient's scores generally improved by essay collections usa, a margin of 3 to 4 correct answers out of 8 test items. Neurobiologist Gordon Shaw, co-researcher of the a level original Mozart effect joined fellow neurobiologist Mark Bodner of the University of California at Los Angeles in a study using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to chart the regions of essay collections subjects' brains to essay introduction, determine the specific area that responds while listening to various types of music. They used the essay collections usa Mozart Sonata in on heroic, D major for Two Pianos K488, some '30s pop music, and Beethoven's Für Elise. Usa! Shaw and Bodner found that all the greed essay introduction styles of music activated the auditory cortex (where the brain processes sound) and essay collections usa, periodically triggered the parts of the brain that are associated with emotion. Only the Mozart, though, also activated areas of the brain known to process fine motor coordination, vision, and other higher thought processes, all of which could explain improved spatial reasoning. Christopher Chabris, the skeptic who steadfastly maintains that a Mozart effect does not exist observes, this effect, if indeed there is one, is much more readily explained by established principles of neuropsychology--in this case, an effect on mood or arousal--than by some new model about persuasive, columnar organization of neurons and neuron firing patterns. Nantais and Schellenberg also have a alternate theory, based from a psychologist's perspective:
On the surface, the collections usa Mozart effect is similar to robust psychological phenomena such as transfer or priming. For example, the effect could be considered an instance of positive, nonspecific transfer across domains and modalities (i.e., music listening and visual-spatial performance) that do not have a well-documented association. Transfer is said to occur when knowledge or skill acquired in one situation influences performance in essays on heroic deeds, another (Postman, 1971). In the case of the Mozart effect, however, passive listening to essay, music-rather than overt learning--influences spatial-temporal performance. Kristin M. Nantais and E. Glenn Schellenberg. Maria Spychiger of the University of Fribourg, Switzerland concurs with this theory. Essayists! She asked an incisive question. #133;why does no one even ask #133; whether maths can improve the mind? Or whether language could? Probably, these questions are too silly or strange; everyone knows the essay usa answer is 'yes'. Spychiger conducted a study which showed that children given a curriculum which increased music education and decreased language and mathematics improved at language and reading, and did no worse at math than students who had increased time on these academic subjects without the additional music instruction.
Spychiger theorized that the transfer effects between music and other subjects was probably specific and essays deeds, based on the similarities between the collections two activities, just as are many other known transfer effects. Thus, instead of speaking about music's effects, one needs to determine which aspects of music account for which transfer effects. This position heralds the theme that the effects of music cannot be understood unless one specifies which components of the musical experience may be relevant to specific aspects of other tasks or areas. An example is music's facilitation of learning to read. This is believed to result from learning to listen for essay phrases changes in pitch in music, which is thought to promote the ability to sound out new words. Norman M. Weinberger. Another explanation for increased test scores after listening to usa, music would be the established theory of sensory stimulation.
Stimulation excites the brain. It propagates more synapses between brain cells, ultimately creating more and more efficient conduits of brain function. Essayists! Research indicates that there are windows of prime times for this activity. Most of the studies conducted so far demonstrate that much of this hard wiring occurs prenatally and in early childhood. However, new studies are ever increasingly discovering that the brain can create new neural pathways long after childhood. When the essay brain is deprived of introduction proper stimulation, it is believed that the essay collections usa neural pathways atrophy and ultimately are lost.
Robert Dolman. M.D., founder of the National Academy for essays on heroic Child Development, stated,Sensory deprivation studies show us that sudden and nearly complete deprivation of stimulation through the five senses can lead to dramatic changes in usa, the brain's efficiency with a partial loss of memory, a lowering of the I.Q., and personality changes. G. F. Reed, after analyzing studies of the cognitive effects of sensory deprivation, adds documentation. Essays On Heroic! He found that subjects tested lower on most parts of tests of essay usa complex intellectual processes after periods of sensory deprivation, noting that ..logical, analytical thought, based on verbal symbols, deteriorates at the same time that there is more involuntary imagery in various sensory modalities, particularly the visual. stimulus deprivation appears to increase the kind of information processing (such as) intuitive, configurational procedures at the expense of analysis, language, and logic. Music is aural stimulation. The successful Mozart effect studies at best indicated that one area of cognitive processing increased only for a very short time, after listening to music for a short period of time. However, this does lead to speculation that listening to certain types of music will facilitate and famous american, improve mental function. Usa! Many people express an increased ability to concentrate when certain background music is a level, played.
Karen Allen, associate director, and Jim Blascovich, associate professor of psychology research associate with the University of Buffalo, NY Center for the Study of Biobehavioral and Social Aspects of Health found that surgeons performed a basic surgeon-related task better and more efficiently while listening to music. The music of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart is both physically and aesthetically accessible to the general public. Essay Usa! A number of studies have indicated that listening to Mozart's work may temporarily increase cognitive skills. Other studies have found no statistically significant Mozart effect. It is unfortunate that the media and commercial ventures have taken the case customer initial modest, unverified study and conjured up a pseudo-science which gave rise to, and which continues to promote, a full-blown industry. Exaggerated and even false claims that listening to collections, Mozart's music will augment intelligence have become so prevalent that the truth of the matter has become hopelessly obscured. This has been a disservice to legitimate scientists, music therapists, and the public. Music educators should be aware of the controversy, and german essay a level, neither center music curricula around certain types of music for maximum intelligence building, nor exclude the possibility that there may be a link between listening to music and intelligence.
There needs to essay, be further serious research into this intriguing area of science, and far less unsubstantiated, profit motivated action. H. Introduction Thesis! J. Essay Collections! Res. 174, Joint Resolution of the 101st Congress (July 25, 1989) Available: http://sun.hallym.ac.kr/ neuro/kns/tutor/brainlaw.html [2000, May 5] Bruer, John T. (1999) In Search of . . . Brain-Based Education. Kappan Professional Journal [Online] V.80 No.
9 Page 648 May1999. Available: http://www.pdkintl.org/kappan/kbru9905.htm [2000, May 5] Moore, Pam (May 1996) Baby's Brain. KRON [Online] Available:http://www.kron.com/nc4/healthbeat/stories/baby1.html [2000, May 5] Campbell, Don. (1997) The Mozart Effect: Tapping the Power of Music to Heal the Body, Strengthen the Mind and Unlock the Creative Spirit. Avon Books.
Sollier, Pierre. (1996) Overview of the Tomatis Method [Online] Available:http://www.tomatis.com/overview.html [2000, May 5] Dejean, Valerie.(1998) The Theory Underlying the Tomatis Method of Sound Stimulation [Online] Available: http://www.his.com/ spectrum/abouttomatis.html [2000, May 5] (No Author Given) Classical music to create more neural pathways and enhance intelligence. Commercial Website. [Online] Available:http://www.thesmartbaby.com/subjectmusic.htm [2000, May 5] (No Author Given) Core Scientific Research [Online] Music Intelligence Neural Development Institute Available: http://www.mindinst.org/MIND2/tMI.html [2000, May 5] Leng, X., Shaw, G. L., Wright, E. L. (1990). Coding of musical structure and the trion model of cortex. Music Perception , 8, 49-62.
Rauscher FH, Shaw GL, Ky KN. (1993) Music and Spatial Task Performance, Nature 1993;365:611. Radocy, Rudolf. (no date given) Arts and famous essayists, Education Featured Guests: Dr. Frances H. Rauscher [Online] Available: http://artsedge.kennedy-center.org/nb/guests/Rauscher1.html [2000, May 5] McCullough, Andrea K. (1997) When is Music Used to Change Mood. [Online] Available: http://www.mwsc.edu/ psych/research/psy302/spring97/andrea_mccullough.html [2000, May 5] Stough, C.K., Kerkin, B. Bates, T.C. and Mangan, G.L. Essay! (1994) Music and IQ tests. The Psychologist , 7:253. Newman, J., Rosenbach, J., Burns., K. Latimer B., Motocha, H., and Rosenthal Vogt, K. (1995) An Experimental Test of essay introduction The Mozart Effect: Does Listening to his Music Improve Spatial Ability? Perceptual and Motor Skills , 1995, 81, 1379-1387 Available: http://hobbes.uvm.edu/lies4thedition/Classfolder/MozartEffect/Newman.html [2000, May 5] Nantais, K. and Scellenberg, E.G. (1995) The Mozart Effect: An Artifact of Preference [Online] Available:http://hobbes.uvm.edu/lies4thedition/Classfolder/MozartEffect/Nantais.html [2000, May 5] Example of Raven's Progressive Matrices [Online] Available: http://www.sigmaxi.org/amsci/articles/97articles/ncap3.html [2000, May 5]
Rauscher, F., Shaw G. Ky, K (1995) Listening to Mozart Enhances Spatial-temporal Reasoning: Towards a Neurophysiological Basis. Neuroscience Letters , Vol: 185, Issue: 1, February 6, 1995 pp. 44-47. Kliewer, Gary (1999) The Mozart Effect. New Scientist [Online] November 6, 1999 Available: http://www.newscientist.com/ns/19991106/themozarte.html [2000, May 5] (No Author Given) (1999) The Mozart effect: Is There Truly an Effect? [Online] Society for Auditory Intervention Techniques Website Available:http://www.teleport.com/ sait/mozart.html [2000, May 5] Azar, Beth (1996) Musical Studies Provide Clues to Brain Functions [Online] American Psychological Association Monitor, April 1996 Available: http://www.apa.org/monitor/apr96/neural.html. Carlson S, Rama P, Artchakov D, Linnankoski I (1997) Effects of Music and White Noise on Working Memory Performance in Monkeys. Collections! Neuroreport 1997 Sep 8;8(13):2853-6 Abstract available: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/htbin-post/Entrez/query?uid=9376518form=6db=mDopt=b [2000, May 5]
Snell, J.L., Peterson, B., Grinstead, C. Hou, F. and Snell,J. Mozart Sonata's IQ Impact: Eine Kleine Oversold? [Online] CHANCE News 8.08 August 18, 1999 to October 6, 1999 Available:http://www.dartmouth.edu/ chance/chance_news/recent_news/chance_news_8.08.html [2000, May 5] Steele, K. M., Bass, K. E., Crook, M. D. (1999). The mystery of the Mozart effect: Failure to replicate. Psychological Science , 10, 366-369.
July 10, 1999 (vol. 10, pages 366-369) Weinberger, Norman.(1995) Does Listening to Mozart Affect Spatial IQ? [Online] The Music and Science Information Computer Archive Volume II, Issue 2, Fall 1995 Available: http://www.musica.uci.edu/mrn/V2I2F95.html#mozart [2000, May 5] Weinberger, Norman.(1999) Can Music Really Improve the Mind? The Question of Transfer Effects.[Online] The Music and Science Information Computer Archive Volume VI, Issue 2, Spring 1999 Available: http://www.musica.uci.edu/mrn/V6I2S99.html#improve [2000, May 5] Weinberger, Norman.(2000) The Mozart Effect [Online] The Music and Science Information Computer Archive Volume VII, Issue 1, Winter 2000 Available: http://musica.uci.edu/mrn/V7I1W00.html Mozart Effect [2000, May 5]
Linton, M. (1999) The Mozart Effect. [Online] First Things First 91 (March 1999): 10-13. Available: http://www.firstthings.com/ftissues/ft9903/linton.html [2000, May 5] Roederer, Juan G. Essay Introduction! (1994) The Physics and Psychophysics of Music (pg 13 53) Springer-Verlag 1995. Hughes, John. (1998) The Mozart effect on Epileptiform Activity. Perceptual and Motor Skills , vol 86, p 835 (1998) Johnson JK, Cotman CW, Tasaki CS, Shaw GL. Enhancement of spatial-temporal reasoning after Mozart listening condition in Alzheimer's disease: a case study.
Neuro. Essay Collections! Res. 1998; 20: 666. Doman, Robert J. (1980) Sensory Stimulation [Online] Journal of the National Academy for Child Development. 1980 Volume 1, No. Good Thesis! 1 Available: http://www.nacd.org/articles/senstim.html [2000, May 5] Doman, Robert J. (1984) Sensory Deprivation [Online] Journal of the National Academy for Child Development. 1984 Volume 4, No. 3 Available: http://www.nacd.org/articles/sensdep.htm [2000, May 5] Reisen, Austin H. ed. (1975) The Developmental Neuropsychology of usa Sensory Deprivation Academic Press NY 1975.
Suedfeld, Peter (1980) Restricted Environmental Stimulation pg. 44 Wiley-InterScience Publications John Wiley Sons New York 1980. Allen, K, and Blascovich, J. (1994) Effects of Music on essay a level, Cardiovascular Reactivity Among Surgeons. Usa! [Online] Journal of the American Medical Association. 272.11 (21 Sept. 1994): 882-4. Available: http://wings.buffalo.edu/publications/reporter/vol26/vol26n5/17.txt [2000, May 5] Reimer, Bennett (1999) Facing the Risks of the famous Mozart Effect.
Music Educators Journal . Vol. Usa! 86 No.1 July 1999 (pgs 37-43)
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United States: Essays 1952-1992: Gore Vidal: 9780679414896
analysis poem essay How to write a University Paper - Sample Essay - First Year Literary Analysis of a Poem. Home Is So Sad - Philip Larkin. On the surface, a house and a home are interchangeable words. They both describe a place where someone lives, but with a deeper analysis, we find that a house is simply the structure or the building. An actual home is much more complex. It is filled with objects and memories, which grow and collections, change along with its residents. Home is a place we come back to after a long day's work, the thesis, place where we go to seek shelter and solace . When the essay collections usa, world is changing outside, home remains constant, molded to the people who live and greed essay, breathe inside. Essay Collections Usa? It is home, sweet home.
This popular cliché sheds a warm and comforting light on a home, giving it personality and feeling, the main factors that distinguish it from a house. However, in german phrases a level, Philip Larkin's poem Home Is So Sad, the speaker describes a home with a personality different from the sweet stereotype, portraying it as a place of loneliness and essay usa, longing after its inhabitants have long deserted their dwellings. No longer is introduction home thought of as sweet or warm. Collections? Ironically, even without its family, the house still remains a home, which is yearning and waiting for its family to return . The speaker personifies the house and its objects, using a melancholy and detached tone, and a crumbling structure to introduction illustrate the breaking down of universal hope and the emptiness that results when a home is abandoned by its family. To emphasize the feeling of usa loneliness, the speaker personifies the empty home and essayists, its contents as objects that miss and long for their owners . Usa? This gives emotion and personality to the house, helping readers better understand its situation. Instead of saying the home remains as it was left, the speaker states clearly [h]ome is thesis statements of an so sad / [i]t stays as it was left . . .(line 1). Usa? The narrative gives the home emotion and sentiment, which decreases the distance between man and famous american essayists, object . Readers begin to mourn for the home in collections usa, the same way that the greed essay, home grieves for the missing family. The speaker shows the home wanting to win back its inhabitants because it is bereft/ [o]f anyone to please, it withers so(3-4). One would not normally think of a home trying to win over anything or anyone, but this personification creates such a sensation of longing that, we too, feel a loss. Usa? A loss that, without this description and personification, humans are apt to harvard case study overlook.
Inside the home there are memories and nostalgia that the residents leave behind, and from these memories, the home is [s]haped to the comfort of the last to go . Collections Usa? . .(2). By characterizing the home , we are able to understand that the feelings the home is experiencing are quite parallel to the sad emotions people have when leaving their own home. Readers can fully relate and sympathize with the home because of this parallel. Case Starbucks Delivering Customer Service? Most people have experienced leaving home for the first time or moving away. Because the emotions the usa, speaker gives the home are so close to what a human's would be in reverse situation, we are able to recognize the similar emotions the home is dealing with. This personification further emphasizes the home's loss of its family. The tragic loss and helplessness is also exemplified through a removed and nostalgic tone . When reading the poem, one feels distant and case study starbucks delivering service, detached. A caesura, or a natural pause, is collections usa created by the gap between the two stanzas. This mid-sentence pause seems almost as if the home is sighing in pain or suffering. On Heroic? When read aloud, it sounds as if the home is talking, and stops mid-sentence to reminisce about the times when it still had its family.
The home [has] no heart to put aside the theft , it does not have the courage and ability to forget about its loss and become only a building, a structure, a house, and turn again to what it started as . . .(5-6). The home cannot bear to face the fact that it no longer has the essay collections usa, means to stay alive, stay a home. It does not want to accept the fact that it no longer has its family. The lines describing this denial are broken up between two stanzas. Something as simple as the white space dividing the beginning and end of the sentence creates hesitation, the essays on heroic, same hesitation the home feels about accepting its loss. Also, all of the words in the poem are very monotonous and simple. Larkin easily could have used more complex vocabulary , but he uses words like so sad, stays(1), and you can see(8), for a reason. It establishes an empty and lacking tone, which is similar to how the essay collections, home is portrayed to feel. Similarly, simple and short lines, consisting of sentences broken up often by commas also work together to create this reflective and distant tone. These words also suggest more about the character of the home. The simple diction tone shows that the home is genuine rather than pompous or selfish.
If, perhaps, the home were more concerned about itself rather than its inhabitants, we would see more of a lavish extravagant tone, instead of one that is plain and distant. Essays On Heroic Deeds? The detachment also helps with the speaker's apparent view that the distance between what one originally plans and what one ends up achieving can be greater than expected. The family came into this house, and the house welcomed the family with a joyous shot at how things ought to be(6). Collections Usa? Unfortunately, those joyous shots do not materialize and the home is left mourning their evaporation. The detached tone of the famous american essayists, poem illustrates how the collections, home becomes more and more hopeless with the passing of time by wishing for a shot at hope that has [l]ong fallen wide. Furthermore, the deterioration of the home's hope can also be seen in the deterioration of the structure and syntax of the last stanza. The crumbling and harvard case customer service, falling apart of the poem's ending shows the hopelessness from the loss of a family or heart . Near the essay collections usa, end of the second stanza the sentences begin to fall apart as the home realizes that it is truly empty and that its family is not going to return. Up until the end of the poem, the lines are all part of one sentence . Case Delivering Customer Service? It is not until the end that Larkin includes other sentences , like [y]ou can see how it was:/ [l]ook at collections the pictures and the cutlery(8-9).
They are short and fragmented, very different from the flowing and continuous form of the previous eight lines . This style mimics the home's helplessness and greed introduction, collapse of hope. One reason the sentences become so brief is to capture the stillness of the inanimate objects. These specific objects are very important in themselves, and without the short and succinct lines, they may be overlooked. Usa? The ending is also the first time that the speaker addresses the audience in the poem, telling us to see how it was(8). The inclusion of the audience also shows the break down of hope, as the persuasive thesis, you is used almost like an order. Collections? The speaker is telling us to [l]ook at the pictures and essays deeds, the cutlery. Collections? /The music in the piano stool. That vase(9-10). He or she is good thesis statements story of an directing our attention to these specific objects, that each carries their own significance.
Photographs often represent memories and the past. Through the speaker's orders to look at the pictures . . we are further able to realize . . .how it was . Collections? . . and how different and depressing it has become since then (8-9). The music is in the piano stool because it has not been played and is not going to be played. It is still and greed essay, silent. Nevertheless, we get a feeling that it is yearning to be played like the home is yearning for its family.
The music has been put away and the storage in the piano seat represents the essay usa, ending of a life, the ending the home has yet to essay come to terms with. That vase is a very powerful way to conclude the poem. It is so simple yet so descriptive. The extremely short fragment emphasizes how demoralized and broken down the house has become. Importantly, the vase is alone, without flowers.
Like the home, it is an collections empty vessel, hollow and now useless. It no longer has a purpose. There aren't any flowers to hold, similar to how the home has no family to accommodate. The crumbling syntax and style of the last stanza illustrates the absence life pumping through either the vase or the essays, house. They both are unfilled, hollowed out, and helpless with no meaning or character, simple objects longing to be what they once were. When the owners and inhabitants of essay a home desert it, we see a different side to home sweet home, a side of longing and unsettlement caused by this abandonment.
This is the phrases a level, case in Philip Larkin's poem Home Is So Sad. Without the family, the heart and usa, soul of this home, there is no character or meaning left, nor purpose to keep living as a character. The home views itself as a vessel or vase for a family, and when the family gone , its fundamental identity is destroyed. The home is not just sad, but despondent and without hope. A home with no heart and no family is much more sad than one with a despondent family, or an unhappy heart. The home mourns and wishes for its family because without them, it will be what it was before, a house. Just like the empty vase, one of the few objects that remain inside, it has lost all meaning without life pumping through its core.
Larkin shows this loss through a depressing personification, separated and detached tone, and the slow crumbling structure. The home is not yet a house because it is still filled with memories of the past, which it is case starbucks delivering customer desperately grasping onto. Those memories - the pictures, the cutlery, the collections usa, music in the piano, and essay, that vase, are the only things that remain. Essay Collections? They are the home's last hope for life when all else has disappeared, the home's last hope from avoiding a depressing transformation back into a house. Larkin, Philip. Home Is So Sad.
Literature and the Writing Process . Elizabeth McMahan et al. (*) 1st Canadian ed . Toronto: Pearson, 2005. 444. The writing style (language and tone) throughout manages to be formal without seeming strained and american, stilted. Faulty Parallelism: include a verb here such as imitates or duplicates or mimics Vague referent.Ideally: This personification gives Brackets indicate that a letter or word has been altered or added. Use a slash to indicate a line break.
Person and object for gender neutral writing. Essay? Try not to rely on this pronoun. It often disrupts the immediacy of the argument and makes the essay seem too formal. Syntax:Makes it seem? Should really have a line ref here. This comment may cause some confusion and needs to be more precise. Famous American Essayists? Parallelism: the previous verb directing needs to usa be balanced by another verb in the present continuous tense. For example stressing that each carries. Subject-verb Agreement: each so its Generally it is good statements for the story of an best to avoid contractions. Subject – verb agreement. Word omission: family is gone or family departs etc.
Subject-verb agreement: remains Center and essay collections, delete colon. Include Print following the period. This sentence can also be easily recast to read Larkin avoids complex vocabulary using words like…to establish the lack of family the home feels. Essay? Not all of the previous 8 lines are flowing and essay usa, continuous but the point can be qualified by inserting many of here or maybe just more flowing Uses accepted form of address for the voice in the poem. Alert awareness of irony Introduces personification as main topic. Exploration of tone as a literary feature. Makes use of literary vocabulary.
Effective use of good thesis statements for the story precise vocabulary. Student name instructor's name course number and date should appear on the left side. Student sir name and page number appears on the top right side of each page. Essay Collections? Essay needs a title of essays on heroic deeds its own that incorporates this poem title and possibly the poet’s name. Titles should attempt to be creative and informative. They should be centered; titles within the title should be formatted appropriately (quotation marks for shorter works: poems short stories and essays; italics for book and essay collections usa, play titles) Each paragraph is indented and the essay is double-spaced throughout.
Topic should be rewritten to make it a little less specific since the essay introduction thesis, paragraph also introduces other elements like the use of direct address and the close attention to collections usa objects. Persuasive Essay? This could be more specific: changes the form or pattern of collections his sentences Works cited should be double-spaced and use hanging indentations.
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Invasion USA: Essays on Anti-communist Movies of the 1950s and 1960s
college eton resume YOU ARE VISITING THE PAGES OF THE U.K. N.R.A. HISTORIC ARMS RESOURCE CENTRE - MINIATURE CALIBRE RIFLES RESEARCH SITE - COPYRIGHT 1997- Click text or images below to view the various devices:
The SUB-TARGET MACHINE by collections, the Wilkinson Sword Co. Below, the persuasive essay introduction front pages of the Wilkinson Sword company's brochure of essay collections 1906 are reproduced. The device was the invention of an American - Mr. Henry Havelock Cummings of Boston, Mass., and built under licence in Britain at a time when Lord Roberts and other senior military men and politicians were putting into german phrases force a plan to render every male subject of the United Kingdom well versed in the art of rifle shooting . This device is essay usa one of many which evolved to that end, not least of which was the setting up of the Society of Miniature Rifle Clubs. A.J. Comber, a Bisley King's Prize winner, is seen demonstrating the essay introduction machine. The continuing remainder of the brochure's text is here reproduced: and consequently more rapidly corrected.
It is an instrument that records not only the actual result of a shot made at a mark, but the position of the Rifle during the process of aiming and at the moment of pulling the trigger, and thus demonstrating to the instructor the reasons for a hit or miss on the objective target. DIFFICULTIES OF MARKSMANSHIP. If Rifles were constructed as cannon are, for firing from a rest, many of the collections usa difficulties of marksmanship would disappear, because the rest at moment of aiming would hold the weapon absolutely steady, but a man with a Rifle cannot do this. In watching a good shot firing in the prone position, the barrel looks to be quite still. But the marksman, holding a barely visible bull balanced on his fore-sight, is aware of essay introduction more or less movement of the Rifle, and knows how very slight a tremor will spoil his shot.
The novice very soon knows that too, but it comes with something of essay a shock to him to realise that tremor in his case is frequently represented by a wobble that may send the bullet to the edge of the harvard study starbucks delivering target, over it, or anywhere round the face of the clock. PRINCIPLE OF SUB-target RIFLE. The principle of the Sub-target Rifle can be explained without a great deal of essay usa difficulty. In the illustrations it will be seen that a strong and american essayists heavy upright pillar supports, in any position required—standing, kneeling, or prone—the head. Above this. head is usa placed a delicate rod with a universal movement. At the forward extremity of the rod a needle point is fixed, and in a little grooved frame a target, about the size of a visiting card, is delivering placed.
That is the Sub-target. The objective target is an ordinary one, placed preferably at 30 yards range, which is ringed to proper dimensions to appear the usa size of case delivering customer service a standard target at any desired distance, say 200 or 500 yards. ORDINARY RIFLE IS USED - PERFECT FREEDOM OF MOVEMENT. An ordinary Rifle is used for essay usa, taking aim, and it is so ingeniously connected to the machine that there is no point of on heroic deeds rest. The weight or the collections parts attaching the Rifle to the instrument is exactly balanced by essays on heroic deeds, the weight of the counterpoised ball seen in the illustrations, so that the marksman has only the weight of the Rifle to collections, support, aud sufficient freedom of movement is given to allow of the Rifle being aimed off the study starbucks customer service target in any direction. The rifle connections are mounted on ball bearings, and are connected to the steel rod which is swung on a four-point universal joint on tlie head of the machine. This rod moves coincidentally with the line of sight along the rifle barrel, and transfers its gyrations, through an ingenious ball differential movement, to the needle. Essay Usa! The relation of the objective target 20 yards away and the Sub-target on the. machine itself is determined by calculation of angles, but to famous american, allow for variations in eyesight, or constant peculiarities of aiming, the head may be adjusted both vertically and horizontally by usa, means of screws. These variations from the introduction normal are- recorded on two dials, one corresponding to collections, degrees of elevation on the back sight, and thesis statements for the story the other to lateral movement for windage. In using the machine, the marksman may first sight the Rifle with the essay radial rod locked, so that if any adjustments are necessary to get the sights properly aligned on the bull's eye these adjustments can be made.
The radial rod is then released, the Rifle cocked, and the marksman aims at the objective target and pulls the trigger. SLIGHTEST MOVEMENT INDICATED. On the tiny Sub-target every movement of the Rifle is indicated by the delicate pointer until at the pulling of the trigger the card, darts forward and takes the impress of the needle, exactly corresponding to the aim on the objective target. BUT THEY CANNOT SHOOT. In many of the introduction public schools of the country, military organisations exist and military tactics are taught.
The boys march. well and go through the manual of arms without a hitch, but they cannot shoot. It is considered unsafe to allow the schoolboys to practise shooting with loaded Rifles as some serious accidents have happened. It is essay usa a matter of much interest and a cause for congratulation that the schools are becoming interested in the Sub-target Rifle—which is phrases a level safe as it is used withou t ammunition—and are beginning to adopt it for instructing the boys in marksmanship. Eton was the first College in England to adopt this apparatus. This remarkable machine, it will be understood, requires no attention beyond the preliminary setting, as the little Sub-target is electrically actuated. There is a dry battery in the pillar, and essay collections usa the head contains a powerful magnet, the armature of which impels the target on to the needle when the circuit is closed. BLANK CAN BE USED. This closing of the circuit results from pulling the trigger. Essay! There can be used, if desired, a blank cartridge in the Rifle, but as the apparatus is designed for aiming, not for essay usa, shooting, this serves no purpose beyond that of accustoming the user. to the noise of the discharge.
It has also been found excellent training to get men used to the explosion by mixing blank cartridges with empty shells, so that the marksman must always anticipate the explosion although it only harvard starbucks delivering occasionally occurs. WINDAGE ALLOWANCE CAN BE TAUGHT. Windage allowance can be taught, by the instructor purposely deflecting the apparatus from its normal direction, with the aid of a lateral adjustment lever. Magazine pratice can be carried out on the Sub-target Rifle. Any kind of target can be used except the running man, and the reports prove that the collections usa instrument is capable of persuasive introduction being used. to great advantage with the disappearing target, as well as for snap shooting.
Some of the places where the Apparatus has been installed and can be inspected. ( as at 1906 !) Marine Barracks, Chatham. Royal Military College, Camberley. Royal Military Academy, Woolwich. Guards' Depot, Caterham. Royal Horse Guards.
11 th Hussars—Curragh. King's Dragoon Guards. 7th Dragoon Guards. 1st Battalion Grenadier Guards. 1st Battalion Coldstream Guards. 1st ,, Scots Guards. 2nd Bn. Lincoln Regiment. 1 st , Royal Welsh Fusiliers. 2nd , Black Watch—India.
2nd , Northumberland Fusiliers. 1st , Norti Staffordshire Regiment. 1st Bn. West Riding Regiment—Bombay. 3rd , Northamptonshire Regiment. 1st , South Wales Borderers. 1st , Yorks Light Infantry—Gibraltar.
1st , Rifle Brigade—Malta. 1st , Royal Irish Rifles—India. 1st , Seaforth Highlanders. Somersetshire Light Infantry. Scottish Horse—Blair Athol. Middlesex Imperial Yeomanry. Bombay and Baroda Railway Volunteers. Malay States Guides. East London R.E.
Volunteers. 3rd V.B. Essay Usa! Royal Fusiliers. 1st V.B. York and american Lane. Regiment. The Stock Exchange Rifle Club. St. Anne's Asylum, Redhill. Sussex County Cricket Club. rders for Machines have also teen received on.
H.I.M. The Sultan of Turkey. The Roumanian Government. The Maharajah of Gwalior. Kaid Sir Harry Maclean for the Sultan. The Duke of Manchester. The Countess of Dysart. The Marquis of Tullibardine. The Emperor of Abyssinia.
Messrs. Walter Locke Co., Calcutta. At 1024 x 768 pixel resolution on essay collections usa, a 19 screen, these TARGETS should be shown at actual size. Copies of harvard study delivering customer service Letters from. KING'S PRIZE WINNERS, 1904-1905. THE SUB-TARGET GUN COMPANY. GENTLEMEN,—It affords me pleasure to testify to the value of the Sub-target Rifle, one of which was set up on the steamer, and was in collections, constant use by the members of the introduction Canadian Rifle Team during the voyage from Montreal to Liverpool, and. afterwards at the Canadian Headquarters at Bisley, where it was in collections usa, almost constant use. I consider it of great value in the. instruction of recruits in holding and sighting, and also in detecting and correcting the individual errors of eyesight.
For. practice in famous essayists, trigger-pulling it is of great advantage, even to the experienced marksman. My daily use of the usa Machine at essays deeds, Bisley, was, I feel, of essay advantage to me in my work on the ranges, where I was winner. of the King's Prize. Very truly yours, (Signed) S. J. PERRY, Gold Medalist, 1904. BISLEY CAMP, SURREY. THK SUB-target GUN COMPANY. GENTLEMEN,—Having used the Sub-target Rifle frequently during the N.R.A. Meeting at essays on heroic deeds, Bisley, just closed, I am pleased. to testify to its value in promoting steadiness in holding, sighting and trigger-pulling, To the essay recruit it must be especially useful in these respects, as the tell-tale needle points out every fault of the man, I believe that its general adoption and use by the Army, Navy, Volunteers, Rifle Clubs and in the Public Schools would go a long way towards making a nation of persuasive reliable shots for Imperial Defence.
Very truly yours. (Signed) ALF. J. COMBER. Gold Medalist, 1905. Copy of Report received from. THE MUSKETRY CAMP AT PIRBRIGHT. Referring to your letter of the essay 15th inst., I have prepared a table showing the various figures of merit obtained by parties of. recruits that have been exercised by me this year. I have another party here now, and I think they will do as well as the 3rd party on my table did. The figures, I think, show a wonderful improvement in their shooting, which must largely be attributed to harvard case study delivering, ihe Sub-target Rifle. Usa! At first when I had the Machine I was very much afraid of it being damaged if used without an good thesis for the, instructor or responsible person who understood it being present, but since I spoke to Mr.
Stratton on this point I have let all my men use it as they like, and collections usa it is seldom idle for a second from morning till night. It tends to a great extent to make musketry training more interesting, as it is a very interesting instrument to use, and to a large extent the use of it here by my men has rendered the tedious musketry parades no longer necessary. If I had another Machine it would be also used continuously, as there is essay phrases great keeness to practice with the present one. Several men when they are practicing with the collections usa Machine won't give it up till they have shot a good card with it. I make a point of making every man practice with it daily under the tuition of his own instructor. As I have about 42 men down here, and allow them only five minutes each, it takes three and a half hours to get them all through, and when three hours are spent on the range, it does not leave much spare time. Good Thesis For The Story! The ease with which a recruit can be taught to shoot well on collections usa, it alone is a level astonishing. In the cases of recruits that develop the common faults called bobbing and jerking the trigger, these faults can. all be overcome with practice on the Sub-target Rifle. If recruits are taught shooting on this instrument from the.
beginning they can't help becoming good shots. Copy of collections Preliminary Report on SUB-target RIFLE, Whale Island Staff. This instrument has now been under trial for three months, and has been constantly used during this period for german essay, training the. boys of H.M.S. St. Vincent. A statement of the results so far obtained is attached.
The Machine is still in good order, and in daily use, the collections only parts that have given trouble being two of the electric contacts, these having been put in order, and slightly modified, the whole arrangement is now found to be very reliable. When the short rifle is adopted (ed: the S.M.L.E.) , the Sub-target Rifle will be a necessity, in order that the correct adjustment of the sight may be properly taught. Essays Deeds! No other system can do this. I consider the Machine of collections usa very great value for teaching new entries and bad shots, and to fire properly. It is of especial value in showing up any individual who pulls or bobs. It is particularly noteworthy that the persuasive introduction superiority of the training given by the Machine is shown in the vanishing target practice and snap-shooting, The comparison given is not quite fair to the Machine, as some boys not trained with it were found to be extremely bad and essay collections usa unable to hit a target. Such boys were sent back, and were practised at american, the Machine, where their faults were invariably noticed and corrected.
Blank ammunition has been used in conjunction with the Machine. AVERAGES OF 100 BOYS' FIRINGS. Copy of Letter from. COMMANDER H. CHRISTIAN, R.N. dated 20th June, 190. DEAR SIRS,—We have had the Sub-target Rifle in essay collections, use here for a good number of essay months now. Its value as a teacher of the art of essay collections rifle shooting is undoubted, and superior to anything else yet invented—bar with unlimited practice with the actual rifle, of course. The results we have produced with the St. Vincent boys are quite extraordinary, and I should imagine that the Army will go for it for all they are worth directly they see it at work. (Signed) HAROLD CHRISTIAN,
I HE WILKINSON SWORD COMPANY, LIMITED. Copy of Further Report received from. SENIOR STAFF OFFICER, Whale Island, dated 19th June, 1905. We do not teach moving target with Sub-target Rifle, only a form of vanishing or snap-shooting target, this by fitting a. shutter over a special target, and working it by a string and weight. As the boy may not come to the present till he sees. his target, it does not matter much if he knows pretty well where it is. We leave the target in sight for good thesis statements story, four or five seconds, and. have a special target and sub-TARGETS which we make, and so reproduce our range conditions as nearly as possible. The. Machine is essay working very well indeed, and the boys do extraordinarily well after using it.
The last lot beat a class of old. hands, and good old hands at that, that is to say, men who were doing advanced course of gunnery to better themselves, and deeds so were keen. Copy of Letter from. ETON COLLEGE, dated 22nd June, 1905. ORDERLY ROOM, ETON COLLEGE. DEAR SIR,—I regret I am unable as yet to essay collections usa, make a full report on the Sub-target Rifle Machine, owing to good thesis story of an, the short time. it has been in essay, our possession. The Shooting VIII. and those who are qualifying have been exercised ; they show the greatest. keenness and persuasive interest in the practice.
The Second Squad of Recruits were exercised this morning for the first time—they will. have seven more half hours before going on the range to collections usa, fire their course. I will then let you know the result, comparing the. squad trained with the S.T.R. and a squad trained with the famous american Morris Tube. I have tested the Machine in every way myself, and find it exceedingly accurate. It shows every movement of the rifle and. every fault made by the shooter, such as bobbing, pulling, jerking, taking too much or too little foresight.
On wet days it. will be invaluable. I remain, Yours truly, G. A. SOLTAU-SYMONS.CAPT. The target frames are reminiscent of those used nearly forty years later for the Swift Training Rifle. E.J.D. Newitt wrote of the collections usa machine, in some detail, in his 1906 book The Citizen Rifleman. He evidently saw much advantage in the system. THE SUB-TARGET GUN MACHINE. Another phase in the development of appliances for good statements, teaching marksmanship is one in which the rifle is used without ammunition. The office performed by ammunition in target practice is to indicate the accuracy of aim at the instant of discharge, which its projectile does within the limits of its own and the rifle's accuracy.
In the sub-target gun machine the same office is performed by a pointer, which punctures a small hole in a miniature target attached to the machine, and this method possesses many advantages. In the first place, the cost of ammunition is avoided, whilst no range is required; and in the second, there are so many circumstances other than incorrectness of aim which cause a misplaced hit, that the position is not always a reliable guide for enabling the instructor to essay, diagnose the cause. Inaccuracy of rifle and ammunition will falsify the most perfect aim and discharge, and famous when even this is beyond suspiciond, unsteady hold and discharge, the most frequent of causes are not observable whilst actually taking place. Consequently the most careful instructor may easily misconceive the true cause and lead his pupil farther astray by his instructions for correcting it. When using the rifle in conjunction withth the sub-target gun machine every movement of the collections rifle whilst aiming at the target is essay phrases a level duplicated on collections, a smaller scale by the pointer, which moves over the face of the thesis statements for the story of an sub-target immediately under the instructor's eye. Essay Collections Usa! When the trigger is famous american pulled the usa sub-target instantaneously responds by jumplng forward and, in coming sharply in contact with the pointer, receives an, indelible record, which exactly corresponds with the position the hit would have occupied had the rifle been actually fired with a cartridge. Throughout the famous american essayists act of essay aiming the instructor has been able to observe every movement, and can say with certainty whether the aim was correct or otherwise, or if his pupil pulled off badly. It has been found very difficult to produce an famous, illustration which fully explains the machine and its operations. The rifle is attached by essay collections, freely moving pivots to a cradle, which is in turn pivoted by a universal joint to the pointer. Essay Introduction! A convenient stand supports the whole mechanism.
A pair of electric contacts close a circuit when the trigger is collections pulled and actuate the sub-target, The wei^ of the cradle, which would otherwise be added to the rifle, is counterpoised by harvard case study delivering service, the weight seen at the end of its supporting arm. The rifle is essay collections held and aimed at an ordinary target placed at adistance, and essays deeds all its movements are conveyed to the pointer through the essay universal joint. Thesis Story Of An! Immediately in front of the pointer is a target having exactly the same ratio of size to the target aimed at with the rifle as the movements of the essay pointer have to the movements of the rifle. It would be difficult to enumerate the many possibilities of this machine. For instruction in case service, the first principles of aiming, holding, and discharge it is invaluable, and may be used in barracks, schools, and institutes by day, or in artificial light, thus prolonging the hours during which instruction may be given. On the range, when the shooter is performing wildly, an adjournment to the sub-target gun machine will generally determine the cause before much costly ammunition is wasted, and after a few minutes' instruction he may resume firing in the ordinary way with increased confidence and improved results.
Even the experienced marksman may sometimes learn that the cause of that unaccountable outer might more reasonably have been attributed to a bad pull-off than a change of essay collections usa wind. Regular contests can be held on essays, the machine, and afford the most useful practice to marksman and novice alike. The entire absence of any element of collections usa danger renders it particularly suitable for use in deeds, schools; indeed, it is essay collections usa already largely so used in harvard starbucks customer, the United States of America, where the annual inter-school championship contest is an event to which great public interest attaches. Its merits are fully recognised in England, and machines are now in use at the School of Musketry at Hythe, the Royal Military Academy, Woolwich, in the Royal Navy, and at the headquarters of collections usa many Regular and study starbucks customer service Volunteer. regiments.
The cost of £50 is an item against which may be set off the cost of ammunition, which would otherwise be necessary, and in some cases the cost of erecting and equipping a range. The greatest credit is due to Mr. H. H. Cummings, the inventor, whose ingenuity has produced a device which overcomes many of the technical difficulties incidental to the teaching of marksmanship, and collections minimises, most of those caused by the necessity, hitherto, of using ranges and ammunition, which may now be postponed to a later stage, when the german essay a level pupil has acquired sufficient skill in the first principles to study the factors introduced by his ammunition, without wasting it. Below; images from the pamphlet The Sub-target Gun Machine firstly in use Standing and Kneeling. We are most grateful to have been been passed images of a postcard sent to the American N.R.A. in April 1908. The postcard depicts the use of the machine during the. SCHOOL BOY RIFLE SHOOTING TOURNAMENT. under the auspices of the Capitol Rifle and usa Revolver Association.
and the National Rifle Association of America. WASHINGTON April 7-25 1908 Postcard images kindly provided by Brian Woodall of the N.S.R.A. of Great Britain. The S.M.L.E. mounted Sub-target device by the Wilkinson Sword Co. The company also manufactured their own device which clamped to the nose-cap of an S.M.L.E. rifle. Little is known of this piece of equipment. The example here is held in the Ministry of Defence Enfield Pattern Room collection. ( images by their courtesy).
It operates on a principle similar to famous, that of the sub-target unit for the 1896 Swedish Mauser rifle illustrated below. Any further information on this device would be most gratefully received; please email the essay collections usa editor. The HOLLIFIELD COMBINATION RIFLE ROD SUB-target DEVICE. often known as the Hollifield DOTTER Manufactured by the Hollifield target Practrice Rod Company. of Middletown, New York. General George Wingate patented a basic device of this nature in the mid to late 1870s. The design was several times modified through the famous american essayists years, no doubt due both to improvements necessary and to permit use in collections usa, various rifles, and essays on heroic deeds finally ended production in the hands of the Hollifield company in 1927. The kit was supplied with two 'rods', each in the form of a flanged brass tube housing a spring-loaded 2 mm diameter hardened steel rod with point ground onto its 4mm diameter knurled muzzle end. One of these tubes was the full length of the barrel and chamber and the other only the length of the collections usa barrel rifling and starbucks leed.
The second, shorter unit, required the dummy cartridge to be chambered for the striker of the rifle's bolt to hit the after end and project the rod onto the target at a distance of usa around six inches from the rifle muzzle. The longer unit could be used without the dummy cartridge and good statements for the story was intended for basic, single shot, practice. The cartridge option permitted more realistic bolt actioning and the use of a clip for usa, either basic loading practice or even a five round 'rapid' discipline. The tube is simply held in the rifle barrel by dint of a one inch long split section near, the muzzle, which is sprung open slightly to maintain pressure inside the bore. There is no other location; the instructions advise the gentle opening up of this split should the american tube become slack in the barrel! The TARGETS were provided in a booklet with perforated, tear out, page sections. These were for 50 yard or 100 yard range representations.
The upper target is the aiming mark, and the lower one the impact point for the striking rod. The height between is one and essay usa one-sixteenth inches, being the height between the sight-line and the rifle bore. Left: the 50 yard TARGETS ; approx. actual size. Below; the 100 yard TARGETS , also approximately actual size. Below, the left image is of what is simply a representative spotting target for instruction. It is pasted inside the essay box lid and has a handwritten instruction that it is not to be fired upon! Presumably written shortly after someone had! The other two images illustrate how the essay box can be hung on persuasive, a wall or board at essay collections, any suitable height for prone, kneeling or standing practice.
The target carrying block is of hard rubber and persuasive essay thesis can be slid up and down, within the box, for fine adjustment. The serrated section above the TARGETS is for windage assessment where required. The two instruction sheets, showing their age, are copied below. One is pasted into the bottom of the box, and the latter one is pasted to the inside of the essay collections usa hinged wooden lid. Below: the key for essays on heroic, the kit of parts as applied to the U.S. Springfield Model 1903 - 1906 rifle. Two practice rod devices, equivalent to the Hollifield Dotter, were marketed by A.G. Parker and Parker-Hale between the collections usa two World Wars.
The first, of Canadian manufacture, was advertised here in about 1925, around two years before the Hollifield unit went out of production. Below is their advertisement for the same unit - under Parker-Hale's name - still going eight years later in 1933. The advertisement now carries what appears to greed, be a facsimile of the essay collections usa note of recommendation made by Lord Roberts ( founding president of the Society of Miniature Rifle Clubs, who died in thesis for the story of an, 1914 whilst visiting his troops on the Western Front), presumably part of an internal memo within the military, later passed to Messrs. Parker or Hale or the manufacturers in Canada. The handwriting can be compared with that of a letter written by collections usa, Roberts to Mr. Hyam regarding the setting up of the S.M.R.C. It is harvard study service amusing to note that, even without prior knowledge of such patented equipment as these practice rods, man's ingenuity continually provides for essay usa, their re-invention - even informally. The following was observed on a forum in which the Hollifield Dotter was under discussion. I never realized there was a commercial application of this device.
While shooting competively in the Navy, I used to take a common wood pencil and place two bands of 1/2 masking tape around the pencil until the pencil and tape was a sliding fit in the bore of the pistol. Then take a sheet of paper, can be very small, and greed essay introduction make a dot about 1/32 in diameter in the center. Tape the paper to the wall the usa same distance from the floor as the pistol muzzle in a natural stance you use. Move toward the essays deeds target until the muzzle is about 1 from the essay usa target. Place the pencil in the bore and german phrases a level cock the hammer, in my case a 1911 A1 Navy 45. Tip the pistol muzzle up to seat the eraser end towards the firing pin. Now sight the target as you would at a standard NRA 50 yd bull. Dry fire the shot and call the shot. The pencil will be propelled down the bore by the firing pin strike. You will find the essay mark the pencil made to be where you called the shot if you are honest with yourself.
This practice works wonders for your marksmanship. THE CUMMINGS DOT RIFLE. Similar in basic design principle to the Swedish arrangement, this rifle has an equally complex sub-target apparatus fitted to the rear of the barrel over the receiver, instead of at the muzzle. It is understood that the modified cocking-piece, at the rear of the bolt, is the drive point for the system. This rifle was manufactured, circa 1918, by the Cummings Gun Works of essay introduction Boston, Mass.
It is constructed around the shortened stock of a Russian designed Mosin-Nagant rifle, presumably a matter of availability at a time when wartime U.S. service rifle production was under extreme pressure. The M1891 Mosin-Nagant was manufactured by both the Remington and Westinghouse companies, between 1915 and essay collections 1917, for essay, the Imperial Russian and Kerensky Governments. More than a million-and-a-half were produced at Ilion and Springfield, and the government of the essay usa United States themselves purchased over a quarter-of-a-million for what is believed to have mainly been training use. (figures from Smith's Book of Rifles) Should you not already have done so, please also view the page detailing.