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Argumentative Essay about Why Smoking Should be Banned. Extracts from this document. Introduce Of Essay. ?Page | ________________ Ban Smoking in Public Places Smoking is one of the leading causes of preventable deaths in the United States, and doing it in public is even worse because smokers not only harm themselves, but also those around them. Thesis In Omelas. I remember how my great uncle would always smoke in his house regardless of of essay his surroundings. When his daughter visited him for a vacation, she brought her three year old daughter with her. The baby was healthy before coming to her grandpa's house, but in and non religion essay, less than two weeks, she had developed ear infections and started to cough.
When they went to introduce of essay the doctors' office to find out how she had gotten it, the doctor linked it back to the second hand smoke that she was breathing in. When my great uncle found out the miser essay, about it, he finally started to care about where he was smoking and of essay who he was with, and decided that he would smoke in a secluded place where no one but him may be affected. . read more. Though many smokers already know of the health risks that come with smoking cigarettes, but what most of them do not, is how secondhand smoking can affect other people. ?Breathing in low doses of secondhand smoke can increase a person?s risk of heart attack? according to technical writing a study by Dr. Meyers, a professor of Cardiology and Preventive Medicine at University of Kansas (Sciencedaily.com). Smokers should not risk non-smokers for something that they do. In continuation of Dr. Meyers? study is that, ?secondhand smoking increases the introduce of essay, likelihood of a heart attack by making the blood ?sticky?, making it more prone to clotting, and reducing the amount of good cholesterol in the body? (Sciencedaily.com).
Non-smokers should not be worrying about paying more medical bills, especially in today?s economic situation. Many businesses provide health insurance to their employees. According to a statistical data collected by thesis, Live Strong, employers spend an introduce, extra $49 million in medical costs for religion and non essay employees who are exposed to secondhand smoking in of essay, their jobs (Nelson). . read more. Smoking in public should be banned at a federal level without question. Smoking negatively affects people, the and non, environment and businesses. There are no logical reasons to introduce allow smoking in public places and religion and non religion essay doing so does not benefit anyone but cigarette makers. Smokers should have secluded areas where they could smoke where no one may be harmed. Introduce Of Essay. The government should provide trash cans in these areas so smokers would not just throw their cigarette butts on the floor.
Anyone caught smoking in public places and homewrok help littering their cigarettes should be fined. Introduce Of Essay. Smoking endangers people who chose not to engage in writing in uk, the same reckless behavior, like my baby cousin who had gotten so sick because of of essay my great uncle?s smoking. It also dirties our environment and harms other animals that are in search of food. Businesses who provide health insurance to their workers affected by second hand smoking are wasting money that could be used to hire more employees. Banning smoking in public may lead to sentence in omelas a better way of life and a healthier place to introduce live. . Religion And Non Religion. read more. This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Writing to Argue, Persuade and introduce Advise section. Start learning 29% faster today 150,000+ documents available Just £6.99 a month. Join over 1.2 million students every month Accelerate your learning by sentence in omelas, 29% Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month. Related GCSE Writing to Argue, Persuade and Advise essays. Should smoking be banned in public places?
Putting a ban on introduce, smoking in public places would do great things for the economy and help businesses to thesis sentence in omelas attract more people. Non-smokers would feel less threatened and not have to sit and worry about the odd smoke cloud hitting them in the face while enjoying a drink or a meal. Pip was a common working boy; he was used to his status and was happy. But after he met the cold and proud Estelle, at Satis house, he fell foolishly in love with her. He became ashamed of himself, ashamed of of essay his family and ashamed of his work. Because of the effects smoking has on you and others should it be banned . They have not totally blocked out smokers but have catered for them in a way of putting benches and a heater outside every bar and restaurant, and they have proven that passive smoking has dropped dramatically. a case study on smoking and it's effects. Tobacco was so popular that as part of the war effort, tobacco was made a protected crop in America and cigarettes were included in soldiers rations. Tobacco companies sent millions of the miser essay free cigarettes to troops.
With soldiers being conscripted and everyone having to introduce do national service, a large majority of young men smoked. Another regard is having to go to school for another long minimum of 8 years. Most students get a 4-year bachelor's degree, and then go to a medical school for another 4 years to be a Medical Doctor. Doctor Green says, When you are young, your brain is like a sponge, and you can soak up lots of information. When you get older, your brain gets harder and harder and less like a sponge, which means it is much harder to learn and remember information. of student written work Annotated by. experienced teachers Ideas and feedback to. improve your own work. Marked by Teachers, The Student Room and in omelas Get Revising are all trading names of The Student Room Group Ltd. TurnItIn the anti-plagiarism experts are also used by: Want to read the rest? Sign up to view the of essay, whole essay and download the PDF for anytime access on your computer, tablet or smartphone.
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An Essay Introduction Example | Scribendi
Modern Family Essays and introduce, Research Papers. ?Ana Maria Castro. Professor Michele Fievre ENC 1101 31 October 2013. Modern Family Sofia Vergara Modern . Family is a comedy TV show, which culturally represents actual American roles and reality. The show is about three different types of American families . In Omelas! Each family has their own way of introduce life and perception of what’s right and what’s wrong. One of the families is a gay couple with a six years old daughter, which shows a real situation that America is thesis sentence in omelas, going through right now. There is also.
Culture , High culture , Hispanic 1676 Words | 5 Pages. Modern Family I have come to see this show for a while now, what I observe about this show that comes out every Wednesday’s . at introduce of essay 9pm for thirty minutes, its based on technical writing certificate, situations that family go through today. This show is about a Modern Family which is an American television comedy series created by Christopher Lloyd and Steven Levitan which debuted on ABC on September 23, 2009. Lloyd and Levitan serve as show runners and executive producers under their Levitan-Lloyd Productions label. Depicted in.
Comedy , Human , Modern Family 414 Words | 2 Pages. The Predicament of the “ Modern Family ” In today’s society the image of the family structure has drastically . Introduce! evolved from the religion, traditional values of the 20th century in introduce, order to adapt to the social and economic influences that are shaping the 21st century. The sitcom on ABC, “ Modern Family ” satirizes the issues that families in technical certificate programs, America face in the 21st century. Compared to the traditions, values and beliefs that shaped the traditional family in the 20th century, family structures today are tremendously. 20th century , 21st century , Family 1569 Words | 4 Pages. ‘ Modern Family ’ Season 1; Episode 15 In ‘ Modern Family’s’ episode 15 of introduce of essay season 1 a number of societal . Technical Writing Programs! norms are addressed, some of which challenged others reinforced.
Norms such as the ones relating to of essay gay couples with children, typical teenagers, and extended families , in other words the rbc scholarship, rich older man with the young “hot” wife and step kid. Modern Family as by its name offers us a more modern view of family in introduce, today’s society. The premise of thesis sentence in omelas Modern Family is a mock documentary-style. Family , Heteronormativity , Husband 1338 Words | 3 Pages. Professor English 101 11 March, 2013 The Modern Family The New American Family is quite different from what . Introduce Of Essay! people used to believe.
It is known that things change over time as well as the structure of what perfect is. It was believed that the ideal family was built on a male figure as a bread winner, stay at home mom, and writing, children who went to introduce school as well as respected their parents. The mom and dad parent figure was a very important role and were both present. Religion Essay! The father had most of the authority. Extended family , Family , Father 1185 Words | 3 Pages. Modern Family Family is a group consisting of parents and children living together in a household.
It is a basic . unit of social structure. How a society defines family as a primary group, and the functions it asks families to perform, are by no means constant. There has been much recent discussion of the nuclear family , which consists only of parents and children, but the nuclear family is by no means universal. In the United States, the percentage of of essay households consisting of homewrok help a nuclear family . 20th century , Extended family , Family 970 Words | 3 Pages. ? Divorce And Lone Parent Families The divorce rate in Scotland and Britain is inclining quite rapidly. New right politicians do not like . Of Essay! this. The Miser Essay! They want it this sort of attitude towards marriage and nuclear families erased from introduce, modern day society and sentence, it to be more of a traditional arrangement with marriage, the fact that when you get married you get married for good and you love the person you are with, in some extreme cases, new wing politicians may say that the women will always obey the. Alimony , Divorce , Domestic violence 913 Words | 3 Pages. Each and every person is of essay, born into rbc scholarship, a family . The family is an arena in of essay, which virtually the entire range of online technical writing programs human experience can . take place.
Warfare, love, violence, tenderness, honesty, deceit, private property, communal sharing, power manipulation, egalitarian decision making- all can be found within the setting of a family . In society, wherever people may look, the issue of family life is introduce of essay, always being portrayed. Most movies and television shows like the famous TV show “Seventh Heaven,” try to. Dysfunctional family , Episode , Family 1159 Words | 3 Pages. The Modern Family Lifestyle Olimpia D. Online Writing! Vargas English 81/VF1 Professor: Hazar H. Shehadeh South Texas College [ October 24, . 2011 ] Abstract Nowadays, people argue that having traditional values and customs are less important in raising a family in today’s society. Going back to a brief period of time, in introduce, the twentieth century, traditional customs involved having complex procedures which now, at the present day, people are unwilling to waste their time to get into article writing companies in uk, those complex procedures. Complexity , Family , Gender 701 Words | 3 Pages. The 21st Century Modern Family The 21st Century Modern Family Let us review a global . institution. The family is an introduce institution found in online technical certificate programs, every culture of society on earth. Introduce Of Essay! Families around the rbc scholarship essay, world live, love and work in uniquely different ways depending upon their cultural norms.
Vissing says that over of essay the life course every person has a family – even if it is a family of one (Vissing, 2011). The 21st century American family has been reshaped by rbc scholarship essay the changes in introduce, moral family values, rising. 21st century , Family , In vitro fertilisation 1897 Words | 6 Pages. Families in thesis sentence in omelas, a Modern Society-Victorians. were invented. Of Essay! What was Family life like during the Victorian times? Your quality of life during the Victorian times depended on whether you . were rich or poor. Article Companies! Rich Victorians enjoyed a good and easy life; Poor Victorians had a rough and hard life, often ending up in the workhouse or early death.
How many children did a normal Victorian family have? Families were usually large; in introduce of essay, 1870 many families had five or six children. 21st century , British Empire , British people 1146 Words | 4 Pages. comedy Modern Family is no different. The cast is diverse in every way, and the writers use that to diversify the sentence in omelas, characters and . get away with using obvious stereotypes placed upon of essay, gender and sexuality. The show is presented in a mockumentary style and focuses on religion and non religion essay, three families who are related through marriage. Phil and introduce of essay, his wife Claire represent the nuclear family ; Jay and his new wife Gloria represent the inter-generation family ; and finally Mitchell and Cam represent the homosexual family structure. Archetype , Extended family , Family 1167 Words | 3 Pages. ? Modern and and non, Traditional Families Modern and Traditional Families Have . Introduce! modern families changed over the past few generations, or have people remained the same in playing each of article companies their own leading gender role responsibilities in modern families ? Some statistics show that times have now changed in spite of the man’s perception of of essay women being stay at home mothers to their children. Rbc Scholarship Essay! In addition, women can also be the breadwinner in their families rather than the father going. Family , Father , Gender 1085 Words | 5 Pages.
Changes in Family Types in of essay, the Modern World. Sociology Exam Question Examine the rbc scholarship essay, changes in the family types in the modern world. There are reasons why there are changes . in the family types in the modern world. Introduce Of Essay! For example, these include things like decisions upon divorce, marriage and having children and also because of the new rights for women and what they can do. One reason for change in the family types in the modern world is because less people are getting married. The marriage rate is decreasing all the time. Since there is diversity. Alimony , Annulment , Cohabitation 1290 Words | 3 Pages. An analysis on the TV show Modern Family. Modern Family Television network ABC Family’s breakout comedy series, Modern Family , is a show full . of homewrok help life lessons and hidden meanings. Introduce Of Essay! Most television shows nowadays are all about sex, alcohol, and the dramas that occur because of them.
Modern Family is not an exception, however it focuses more on the family aspect of life’s many dramas. On the surface, it is similar to the sex and drugs filled television shows that consume the media these days, but underneath that surface each episode has a. Ed O'Neill , Family , Ideology 1673 Words | 4 Pages. Individuals and thesis in omelas, Families- the Positives and Negatives of the Modern Family. The Modern -day Family Individuals and introduce, Families ISU Essay Since the online writing certificate programs, origin of the family there . have been family structures which dominated many parts of civilization for it's usefulness to the further establishment of society. Introduce! Since then as society continued to develop so did the family structure so it could adapt to essay the modern changes of the world. In many circumstances these changes were beneficial for the development of society, however in many circumstances it had the opposite effect. The.
Family , Gender , Gender role 1374 Words | 4 Pages. Modern History Changes the Family. MODERN HISTORY CHANGES THE FAMILY In the last ten years of American history, there have been many milestones, events, and . trends that have shaped American history. Of Essay! Not only did it shape history, but it changed how the American family lived. Examples such as the 9/11 attacks and new technological advancements have prompted serious and emotional conversations among family members and is considered important to companies in uk cultural historians on how to understand the introduce of essay, current mythologies of family . Aside. An American Family , Columbine High School massacre , Family 1166 Words | 3 Pages.
Sociological theories about the modern family. ? Sociological Theories About The Modern Family Chelsea Ries 200 314 869 Sociology 100 University of Regina . November 22, 2013 The family is the the miser essay, most important institution in society. Introduce! This statement is repeated in almost every sociology text in some form or another. However, current trends suggest that there may be some inaccuracies in this claim. Family is indeed important and the miser essay, necessary. Introduce Of Essay! It can even be. Conflict theory , Family , Institution 1734 Words | 6 Pages. Compare and Contrast Traditional and Modern Families. Compare and contrast traditional and religion and non essay, modern families Since the nineteenth century, in the western societies, . family patterns changed under the forces of industrialisation and urbanisation. Another factor which has been involved in those changes is the introduce of essay, growing intervention of the state, by sentence in omelas legislative action, in the domestic affairs of the family . As a result of these trends, the modern “nuclear” family has been substituted for the traditional extended family . The increase of values such as individualism.
Extended family , Family , Gender 845 Words | 3 Pages. Media Task One - Television Program Investigation Modern Family (2009-Present) Background and Origin Modern . Family is a documentary-style comedy about introduce, three branches of the extended Pritchett family : Dad Jay has married a younger woman and is now raising a teenage stepson; his daughter Claire has a husband and three kids of her own; and his gay son Mitchell has just adopted a Vietnamese baby with his partner. Modern Family premiered on ABC in September 2009 as part of the the miser essay, network's new Wednesday. Ed O'Neill , Family , Homosexuality 3481 Words | 9 Pages. Significance of Nuclear Families in Modern Society. ?(b) Assess the view that the nuclear family is the introduce of essay, ideal family type for modern industrial societies.  The . family is among the companies in uk, most important and popular institutions in the world. A nuclear family can be traditionally defined as a social unit consisting of the husband, the wife and their children living in a comfortable home of their own.
According to introduce the functionalist Murdock, the family is a universal institution with four basic universal functions which are sexual, reproductive, economic. Capitalism , Extended family , Family 1085 Words | 4 Pages. Traditional Family In A Post Modern Society. ?In a post modern society such as Britain, are traditional family and rbc scholarship essay, marriage necessary? This essay will explore whether . traditional family and marriage are necessary in introduce of essay, Britain today.
The change of societal views and attitudes will need to be considered, as well as analysing statistical evidence. The ideology of the family and marriage will then be discussed and rbc scholarship, contrasted, in relation to various theoretical perspectives such as functionalism and post modernism. Government views and policies. Civil union , Cohabitation , Family 2421 Words | 7 Pages. Discuss the way family life has changed over a period of time This essay explores the of essay, change in family life over writing time. The . meaning of family or traditional family is considered to introduce be a group a basic social unit consisting of parents and children, whether dwelling or not.
The essay begins by outlining the family structure the evolution of marriage and the changes in traditional values. The way hierarchy and economical change has affected the family income. And the way technology has advanced over. Cohabitation , Common-law marriage , Demography 1109 Words | 3 Pages. Modern Family Meets the the miser essay, Sociological Schools of introduce of essay Thought. Modern Family takes a sarcastic and ironic look at the trials that three families face in technical certificate programs, their day to of essay day lives. . Each family strives to win the battles set forth by rbc scholarship essay life in their own unique ways, some more comedic than others. Family one consists of Claire, the wife, Phil, the husband, and Luke, their son. Family two consists of Cameron, his life partner Mitchell, and of essay, their adopted daughter, Lilly. Lastly, in writing companies, family three, Jay is the father, Gloria is his wife, and Mannie is introduce, Gloria’s son.
The Internet. 1939 births , Family , Father 896 Words | 3 Pages. Modern Family The show “ Modern Family ” is one of the most successful sitcom on television today. The . show depicts a total of three families , a parental family , (Jay and companies in uk, Gloria) and the families of the two grown siblings, (Mitchell amp; Claire). Introduce! Claire is married to Phil and has three children of their own, while Mitchell is a gay father with a live-in husband, Cameron. The on-screen worldview of the families are very open with an essay almost anything goes attitude that is based on an atheist or an agnostics. Family , Household , Marriage 712 Words | 2 Pages. A Modern Family The situation comedy on television that I choose to study, which I believe highlights family . values and functions, is ABC’s “ Modern Family ”. As the title suggests this is based on what we might perceive as the introduce, current, everyday family . I have watched this show with mixed emotions since its inception but these are only my observations about the show, no one can know what the the miser essay, writer’s background is and from what mindset they are coming from.
The show is introduce of essay, about the “New” version. Divorce , Family , Father 615 Words | 2 Pages. The Filipino Family Confronts the the miser essay, Modern World. The Filipino Family Confronts the Modern World This article focuses on the changes that Filipino Family . encounters because of the fast development of technology that affects our entire life. The Filipino Family has had to confront the introduce of essay, pressures of modernization and online technical writing, constantly redefine its role in introduce of essay, a rapidly changing society.
Varied though the responses have been, they all reflect one theme – rising aspirations. For the masses this means an awakening desire to divert material benefits currently. Extended family , Family , Filipino language 1027 Words | 3 Pages. Impact of Modern Mass Media on Family Communication. ?Impact of Modern Mass Media on Family Communication Affects Of the Internet on Family Dynamics American . society is homewrok help, changing rapidly. Introduce! Individuals do not speak to one another. They use text messaging via cell phone, instant messaging, or the internet to communicate to one another. Essay! This new style of computer-mediated communication has taken its toll on the traditional American family . Introduce! Teens are no longer interested face-to-face communication with family members, resulting in a disconnection. Family , Instant messaging , Internet 686 Words | 3 Pages. Comparison of the Walton's Television Show to Today's Modern Family. I would like to compare an older television show that projected family life as it was in the 1930’s as compared to how family is . viewed from a sociological viewpoint today. “The Walton’s” may not have been an idealistic portrait of family , but the series did portray family as it really was in that era, since it was based on essay, the autobiographical writings of Earl Hamner, Jr.
The television series, “The Walton’s” was about introduce, a family living through the the miser essay, Great Depression in the Blue Ridge Mountain area. 1930s , Extended family , Family 774 Words | 3 Pages. Traditional family and introduce of essay, modern family. Traditional family and modern family The family is the foundation of our society. This is where we . learn the important elements that we face in rbc scholarship, our lives, as well as difficulties, ways of life and manners. All we know since we are small we have learned within the family . It is introduce of essay, impressive to see how the family has evolved as the years have passed. The traditional family has declined over time and modern families have taken place. I think families have changed for better, because now woman have. Biology , Family , Father 467 Words | 2 Pages.
FAMILY There are five social institutions namely, family institution, education institution religion institution, political . institution, economic institution .So all these institutions are inter related and inter linked with each other as the part of online writing certificate programs human body. As for introduce, as the family institution is thesis, concerned. Family as the introduce of essay, social institution performs several functions. Kingsly Davis, Specks the four main functions of the family . i. Reproduction. ii. Maintenance. iii. Placement. iv. Extended family , Family , Father 1529 Words | 6 Pages.
The Impact of the Modern Family on Life Span Development. The Impact of the Modern Family on Life Span Development Robin Roberts PSYCH/500 February 7, 2010 Debbie Jennings The Impact . of the Modern Family on online certificate, Life Span Development Over the last century the American family model has changed significantly. A traditional family of a mother, father, and siblings, all living in the same household is currently the minority. Any group of people who come together for each others well being and be defined as a family . A family can have two mothers, or. Cinderella effect , Developmental psychology , Family 931 Words | 3 Pages. Sociology – The Family Essay Plan Describe and evaluate the following views of the family ; * Functionalist * Marxist . * Feminist * Interactionist Compare these views making reference to the changing nature of introduce family structures, gender roles and family patterns. Introduction Introduce and explain the concept of family in sociology. What is the family ? What is the purpose or function of a family ? Briefly mention the rbc scholarship, perspectives which are you going to discuss and the main differences. Family , Feminism , Functionalism 365 Words | 3 Pages.
?Shuo Zhang Family The world is made up of many families . Everyone lives in a unique family , and tries their best . to make their lives better. In talking about a family , there are three crucial factors: family relationships, communication, and introduce, lifestyle. Family relationships determine the way that parents and technical programs, children get along with. Communication is the most influenciae method to solve a family’s problems. Introduce Of Essay! Family members’ characters are due to the kind of lifestyle they have. Article Companies In Uk! Parents should become. Education , Family , High school 775 Words | 4 Pages.
parents and families play the most important role in the lives of their children, many challenges and introduce, pressures that families . Article Writing Companies In Uk! face have been given increasing concern. For example, separation and divorce, family violence and introduce, financial problems. Writing! This essay will discuss the importance of effective parent/teacher partnerships in early childhood education, and focus on one particular challenge that a family may face and identify the introduce of essay, effects that this challenge may have on children and their families . A range. Child , Childhood , Early childhood education 2095 Words | 7 Pages. Nursing Dr.
Irene Gadil FAMILY In human context, a family (from Latin: familia) is a group of sentence people affiliated by . Introduce! consanguinity, affinity, or co-residence. In most societies it is the principal institution for the socialization of homewrok help children. Anthropologists most generally classify family organization as matrilocal (a mother and her children); conjugal (a husband, his wife, and children; also called nuclear family ); and consanguineal (also called an extended family ) in which parents and children. Consanguinity , Cousin , Family 1720 Words | 6 Pages. ?Tinisha Simpson Professor Foreman English 205 T-Th 9:25/11 Paper #3 My Perception on Family Ugh, my life, my life, my life! Where are . the introduce, ones that are supposed to be here regardless? Where are the ones that I’m supposed to turn to homewrok help in my time of need?
Family , aren’t they supposed to be the ones that you can count on when no one else is of essay, there? I guess, but then comes the questions that continually play over in my head, why did things turned out the rbc scholarship essay, way it did? Why couldn’t I have been dished. Biology , Family , Kingdom 1346 Words | 4 Pages. FAMILY HEALTH CARE The family is the of essay, basic unit of care in community health nursing. It is an important social . structure needed for rbc scholarship, reproduction and socialization. A family refers to a number of persons joined together by introduce of essay bonds of marriage, blood or adoption (Burgess, 1963). Companies In Uk! Freeman (1992) defined family as two or more persons who are joined together by bonds sharing emotional closeness and who identify themselves as being part of the introduce of essay, family . REASONS FOR HAVING THE FAMILY AS THE UNIT.
Family , Health , Health care 1431 Words | 7 Pages. Family This essay is associated with family issues which including the definitions of different types of the miser essay family , . the traditional roles of each family member , the changes to families in different cultures and the benefits and problems of introduce living in a family . There are a number of family types in society. Firstly, traditional family is the miser essay, defined as a family group consisting of two married couple as father, mother who live together in the same house and take care of more than one or two children. Also. Extended family , Family , Father 928 Words | 3 Pages. Assess the view that the introduce, modern family has become more child centred.
Assess the view that the modern family has become more child centered (24 marks) (received an A-)Sociologists say that . childhood is a social construction, rather than a natural state. Our current society has become more child-centered than what it was in the miser essay, the past; I will be assessing the view that modern family has become more child-centered. Introduce! Some sociologists argue that the modern family has become more children centered. This is mainly due to the changes in laws restricting child labour and. Child , Childhood , Compulsory education 750 Words | 2 Pages. American family is always evolving and changing.
This is due to the changes in cultural norms and values. After decades, families . in article companies, the United States have changed and become more accepting and open with social ideas that were frowned upon or even discriminated against in the 1950’s-1960’s. Introduce Of Essay! The family in Leave it to Beaver is your typical American family in the 50’s, they have certain views that the family in Modern Family do not share due to the society in sentence in omelas, which they lived. The families in the 50’s. Divorce , Family , Father 909 Words | 3 Pages. is the author of several books related to the issue of introduce of essay personal growth and the family . He has authored Becoming Complete, Family . to Family , and Building a Successful Family . And Non Religion Essay! Additionally, he has produced numerous booklets and of essay, training processes with almost thirteen million copies in print. Victor Lee is a veteran journalist and minister with a focus on discipleship, sports evangelism, singles ministry, purposeful family living, and evangelism strategy. A former newspaper reporter, Victor has written. Family , God , Great Commission 1106 Words | 3 Pages.
traditional values like family harmony still play an important role in Chinese people's heart. The result was revealed by rbc scholarship the Chinese . Academy of Social Sciences (CASS). In doing the research, we find out what degree Chinese people felt harmonious in their state of mind. Interpersonal relationship is regarded as the most important element in the principle of the society. Chinese are most satisfied with their family relationships. Introduce! And a harmonious family relationship helps raise.
Family , Gender , Gender role 1464 Words | 6 Pages. elsewhere assess the view that, in online technical writing certificate programs, today's society the introduce of essay, family is religion and non religion, losing its functions. Many sociologists argue that since the Industrial . revolution, after the pre - modern society that the family has lost many of of essay its functions and some argue they haven't. Parson and Dennis, functionalist sociologists argue that the functions that would have usually been performed by religion the family have now, in the modern society been removed from the family . Of Essay! They believe that these functions have now been transferred. Education , Family , Industrial Revolution 839 Words | 3 Pages. A family is an essential part of online writing programs our life. It’s very important to have people, with whom you can share your good and bad times, your joys and . Introduce Of Essay! sorrows. They are my family . (with the dearest people who are my family ). I am lucky to be born and brought-up in a two-parent family . Family is an religion religion essay important part of my life. My mum is an engineer. Introduce Of Essay! She is certificate programs, a kind, responsible and sociable woman.
She is full of tenderness to all of us. My mother is introduce, always ready to give me necessary information, moral support. Divorce , Extended family , Family 1136 Words | 3 Pages. Sociology Family in the Pre Industrial an Modern Times. discussing the sociological debates concerning the identity status roles and the miser essay, functions of the family from the pre industrial times to the . present day.
The urbanisation and industrialisation of introduce britain played a massive role in the way that the family changed and how the essay, family developed, from being an introduce of essay agrerian society to an industrial society. Pre- industrial families were multifunctional they lived and worked as a family unit, being self sufficient was the in omelas, only way to ensure the means for physical survival. Capitalism , Family , Industrial Revolution 1168 Words | 3 Pages. ? Family is where we all belong to and from where our identity comes from. A person is valued based on his family and upbringing. . Introduce! We all belong to a family and it is our family that keeps us together through thick and thin. Without having a family , no person is complete and the completeness comes with good family bonding. Now what is a family ? By just saying that you live with your family does not hold any values to being a part of the family . Rbc Scholarship! Four or five persons living under one roof does not become. An American Family , Divorce , Family 2188 Words | 5 Pages. What Is a Family ? thorny question for many policymakers is, “What is a family ?” Definitions abound, but consensus does not. Of Essay! How . Sentence! we define the introduce, family is often hotly-debated because the definition has significant consequences in homewrok help, people’s lives. Government agencies often have to define what a family is in order to determine who benefits from their program and introduce, who does not.
Towns or cities often have to the miser essay define families in developing zoning and housing regulations. Family definitions can have a bearing. Adoption , Definition , Divorce 2101 Words | 7 Pages. The family system means the order or system the nation and social community prescribe about the structure or function of family . Of Essay! . In other words, it is the overall of law, custom, morals, and so on, which regulate the family life. The meaning of family is an universal social group for human beings, so the system of family has passed over diverse historical courses, have bee developed socially, economically and article writing companies, politically. Therefore, the of essay, Japanese family system has also followed the process. And, “ie”. Empire of Japan , Family , Husband 2197 Words | 6 Pages. the ways in which laws and social policies affect family life Currently, in the UK, the family is a fairly unregulated sphere . of life, compared with different societies such as China. Laws and social policies in sentence, Britain today tend to encourage or discourage certain types of introduce families , rather than actively enforcing them like China’s one child policy.
Government agencies and institutions only article companies, seem to take an active role on policing areas of family life when things are perceived to have gone wrong. Family , Feminism , Marriage 885 Words | 3 Pages. Traditional Family Structure Has Been Replaced with Modern Family Structure Debra Currier Troy University . Introduce Of Essay! Author Note This paper was prepared for essay, Social Scientific Inquiry SS3375 Abstract With today’s diverse lifestyles the traditional family structure is constantly changing. They typical 9-5 work schedule is introduce, a thing of the past. It has become difficult to get the homewrok help, entire family around the dinner table together.
Most would agree that the traditional family structure is a model. Answer , Family , Household 1346 Words | 7 Pages. The American Family Family Patterns The US has many different types of families . While most American . families are traditional, comprising a father, mother and one ore more children, there are families headed by introduce one parent, usually a woman. In a few families , like everywhere else, there are no children. Other families in the US have one adult who is a stepparent. Americans tolerate and homewrok help, accept these different types of families . Introduce Of Essay! In the US, people have the right to privacy and Americans do not. Demography , Family , Fertility 1794 Words | 5 Pages. perspectives on the family — family is deteriorating, family is changing, not deteriorating, or family . is stronger than ever. Discuss which of these perspectives you feel is the most accurate concerning families in homewrok help, the United States today, using information from the text and introduce, the reader to the miser essay provide support for introduce of essay, your argument. In order to compare and contrast the rbc scholarship essay, three perspectives on family we first must define family . In America today there is much diversity.
Ask five different people what family is, you might. An American Family , Economics , Family 2502 Words | 6 Pages. of a Family Family is defined as a group of people related by blood, marriage, or adoption living together. Remember: We are not . defining families by how many, and what kind of people they have. We define them by introduce what they do. Definitions Spouse - someone who is married: a husband or wife Common-law partner - used to describe a relationship between a man and woman that is considered to be a marriage because the online technical programs, man and woman have lived together for a long period of time Functions of the Family What. Cohabitation , Common-law marriage , Extended family 644 Words | 3 Pages. Research Problem/ topic: The impact of of essay technology on family communication.
Background to Problem /Rationale: Technology provides devices . that are designed to make life simpler in almost all areas. Devices such as the telephone and the computer are used by many as a means of communication. Family members enjoy this and also suffer from the use of these devices. The Miser Essay! Statement of the of essay, Problem: Does technology improve family communication? Aims and Objectives: Technology is technical programs, making communication. Better , Communication , Family 596 Words | 3 Pages. ?Access to Higher Education: Nursing Social Welfare The Sociology of the Family Assignment 1 LATE WORK ONLY: I understand that I am . submitting this piece of work late and that the late submission rules will be applied.
Student signature: Date: Receipt below to be retained by the learner. Feedback Section You must attempt ALL parts of this work to count as a first submission. Failure to demonstrate a good attempt at introduce of essay of all sections may result in the work being classified late. Family , Grade , Max Weber 587 Words | 8 Pages. ? Family : 1) A fundamental social group in society typically consisting of religion essay one or two parents and their children(The American Heritage® . Dictionary of the introduce, English Language, Fourth Edition copyright ©2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. And Non Religion! Updated in 2009. Introduce Of Essay! Published by Houghton Mifflin Company.) 2) A primary social group consisting of parents and their offspring,the principal function of which is in omelas, provision for its members. (Collins English Dictionary - Complete Unabridged 10th Edition 2009 © William. Education , Family , HarperCollins 927 Words | 3 Pages.
There are many different family traditions and relationships based on our culture and how it was developed. We are trained to act and behave in . Introduce Of Essay! such a manner that is “appropriate” from the time that we are born. Many of these actions are actually based on the cultures of ancient times. Some of our everyday traditions come from online technical certificate, these cultures, along with our actions and behavior within our families . A few of introduce these countries are Babylonia, Greece, and India. I have found one story from each country. Cousin , Family , Homer 910 Words | 3 Pages. The traditional family vs. the modern family. changing roles of women in the American family . Public opinion was examined and and non, analyzed to see if America was really one nation when it came . to the subject of introduce women working with children and a husband.
It was of particular interest to see if Americans believed that the family suffered due to the women's new position in religion religion essay, society, and just how big this divide between the traditional family of a mother staying at home with her children and the modern family of a women working equally as a hard and. American middle class , Family , Gender 3806 Words | 13 Pages. The Color of Family Ties by Naomi Gerstel and Natalia Sarksian, the introduce of essay, authors assert that traditional nuclear families are not . the only ones capable of supportive relationships and strong family connections. In the other hand, minority families also discover that their families illustrate the most supportive relationships and strongest family ties. According to Gerstel and Sarksian, they states Black and Latino/a, especially Puerto Rican families are more disorganized than White families , and that their.
Critical thinking , Extended family , Family 860 Words | 3 Pages.
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cold war basic essay IN WATCHING the flow of events over the past decade or so, it is hard to introduce of essay, avoid the feeling that something very fundamental has happened in world history. The past year has seen a flood of articles commemorating the end of the Cold War, and the fact that peace seems to be breaking out in many regions of the world. Most of these analyses lack any larger conceptual framework for distinguishing between what is online technical certificate essential and what is contingent or accidental in introduce, world history, and are predictably superficial. If Mr. Gorbachev were ousted from the Kremlin or a new Ayatollah proclaimed the thesis sentence millennium from a desolate Middle Eastern capital, these same commentators would scramble to announce the rebirth of a new era of conflict. And yet, all of introduce of essay, these people sense dimly that there is some larger process at work, a process that gives coherence and order to the daily headlines. Religion Essay. The twentieth century saw the developed world descend into a paroxysm of ideological violence, as liberalism contended first with the remnants of absolutism, then bolshevism and of essay, fascism, and finally an updated Marxism that threatened to lead to the ultimate apocalypse of nuclear war. But the century that began full of self-confidence in the ultimate triumph of Western liberal democracy seems at sentence in omelas, its close to be returning full circle to where it started: not to an end of ideology or a convergence between capitalism and socialism, as earlier predicted, but to an unabashed victory of economic and political liberalism. The triumph of the West, of the Western idea , is evident first of all in the total exhaustion of viable systematic alternatives to Western liberalism. Introduce Of Essay. In the homewrok help past decade, there have been unmistakable changes in the intellectual climate of the world's two largest communist countries, and the beginnings of significant reform movements in both.
But this phenomenon extends beyond high politics and it can be seen also in the ineluctable spread of consumerist Western culture in such diverse contexts as the peasants' markets and color television sets now omnipresent throughout China, the cooperative restaurants and clothing stores opened in the past year in Moscow, the Beethoven piped into of essay, Japanese department stores, and the rock music enjoyed alike in Prague, Rangoon, and Tehran. What we may be witnessing is sentence in omelas not just the end of the introduce Cold War, or the passing of a particular period of postwar history, but the end of history as such: that is, the end point of article companies, mankind's ideological evolution and the universalization of Western liberal democracy as the final form of human government. This is not to introduce, say that there will no longer be events to fill the pages of Foreign Affair's yearly summaries of international relations, for the victory of liberalism has occurred primarily in the realm of ideas or consciousness and is as yet incomplete in. the real or material world. But there are powerful reasons for believing that it is the the miser essay ideal that will govern the material world in the long run . Of Essay. To understand how this is so, we must first consider some theoretical issues concerning the nature of historical change. THE NOTION of the end of history is not an original one. Rbc Scholarship Essay. Its best known propagator was Karl Marx, who believed that the direction of historical development was a purposeful one determined by the interplay of material forces, and would come to an end only with the achievement of introduce of essay, a communist utopia that would finally resolve all prior contradictions. But the concept of history as a dialectical process with a beginning, a middle, and an end was borrowed by Marx from his great German predecessor, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel. For better or worse, much of Hegel's historicism has become part of our contemporary intellectual baggage. The notion that mankind has progressed through a series of online, primitive stages of introduce, consciousness on his path to the present, and that these stages corresponded to concrete forms of social organization, such as tribal, slave-owning, theocratic, and finally democratic-egalitarian societies, has become inseparable from the modern understanding of man. Hegel was the rbc scholarship first philosopher to speak the language of modern social science, insofar as man for him was the product of his concrete historical and social environment and not, as earlier natural right theorists would have it, a collection of more or less fixed natural attributes. The mastery and transformation of man's natural environment through the introduce application of science and technology was originally not a Marxist concept, but a Hegelian one.
Unlike later historicists whose historical relativism degenerated into relativism tout court, however, Hegel believed that history culminated in an absolute moment - a moment in which a final, rational form of homewrok help, society and state became victorious. It is Hegel's misfortune to be known now primarily as Marx's precursor; and it is our misfortune that few of us are familiar with Hegel's work from direct study, but only as it has been filtered through the distorting lens of Marxism. Introduce. In France, however, there has been an effort to the miser essay, save Hegel from his Marxist interpreters and to of essay, resurrect him as the philosopher who most correctly speaks to our time. Among those modern French interpreters of Hegel, the greatest was certainly Alexandre Kojeve, a brilliant Russian emigre who taught a highly influential series of seminars in Paris in the 1930s at the Ecole Practique des Hautes Etudes . While largely unknown in the United States, Kojeve had a major impact on the intellectual life of the continent. Sentence. Among his students ranged such future luminaries as Jean-Paul Sartre on the Left and Raymond Aron on the Right; postwar existentialism borrowed many of its basic categories from Hegel via Kojeve.
Kojeve sought to resurrect the Hegel of the Phenomenology of of essay, Mind , the Hegel who proclaimed history to be at an end in 1806. For as early as this Hegel saw in Napoleon's defeat of the Prussian monarchy at the Battle of Jena the thesis sentence victory of the ideals of the French Revolution, and introduce of essay, the imminent universalization of the state incorporating the the miser essay principles of liberty and equality. Kojeve, far from rejecting Hegel in of essay, light of the turbulent events of the writing next century and a half, insisted that the latter had been essentially correct. The Battle of introduce of essay, Jena marked the end of history because it was at that point that the technical vanguard of humanity (a term quite familiar to Marxists) actualized the principles of the of essay French Revolution. While there was considerable work to be done after 1806 - abolishing slavery and the slave trade, extending the homewrok help franchise to workers, women, blacks, and of essay, other racial minorities, etc. - the basic principles of the liberal democratic state could not be improved upon. The two world wars in this century and their attendant revolutions and upheavals simply had the effect of extending those principles spatially, such that the various provinces of human civilization were brought up to the level of its most advanced outposts, and of forcing those societies in Europe and North America at the vanguard of civilization to implement their liberalism more fully.
The state that emerges at the end of history is technical writing certificate programs liberal insofar as it recognizes and protects through a system of of essay, law man's universal right to freedom, and democratic insofar as it exists only with the consent of the governed. For Kojeve, this so-called universal homogenous state found real-life embodiment in the countries of postwar Western Europe - precisely those flabby, prosperous, self-satisfied, inward-looking, weak-willed states whose grandest project was nothing more heroic than the creation of the Common Market. But this was only to be expected. For human history and article writing in uk, the conflict that characterized it was based on the existence of contradictions: primitive man's quest for mutual recognition, the dialectic of the master and slave, the transformation and mastery of introduce of essay, nature, the struggle for the universal recognition of essay, rights, and the dichotomy between proletarian and capitalist. But in of essay, the universal homogenous state, all prior contradictions are resolved and all human needs are satisfied. Sentence. There is no struggle or conflict over introduce of essay large issues, and consequently no need for generals or statesmen; what remains is primarily economic activity.
And indeed, Kojeve's life was consistent with his teaching. Believing that there was no more work for philosophers as well, since Hegel (correctly understood) had already achieved absolute knowledge, Kojeve left teaching after the homewrok help war and spent the remainder of his life working as a bureaucrat in the European Economic Community, until his death in 1968. To his contemporaries at of essay, mid-century, Kojeve's proclamation of the and non essay end of history must have seemed like the typical eccentric solipsism of a French intellectual, coming as it did on the heels of World War II and at the very height of the Cold War. To comprehend how Kojeve could have been so audacious as to assert that history has ended, we must first of all understand the meaning of Hegelian idealism. FOR HEGEL, the contradictions that drive history exist first of all in introduce, the realm of human consciousness, i.e. on the level of ideas - not the trivial election year proposals of American politicians, but ideas in the sense of large unifying world views that might best be understood under the rubric of ideology. Ideology in this sense is online certificate not restricted to the secular and explicit political doctrines we usually associate with the term, but can include religion, culture, and the complex of moral values underlying any society as well. Hegel's view of the relationship between the ideal and the real or material worlds was an of essay, extremely complicated one, beginning with the fact that for him the technical writing distinction between the two was only apparent. He did not believe that the real world conformed or could be made to conform to ideological preconceptions of philosophy professors in any simpleminded way, or that the introduce material world could not impinge on the ideal. Indeed, Hegel the professor was temporarily thrown out of work as a result of a very material event, the Battle of rbc scholarship, Jena. But while Hegel's writing and thinking could be stopped by introduce a bullet from the material world, the hand on the trigger of the gun was motivated in turn by the ideas of homewrok help, liberty and of essay, equality that had driven the French Revolution. For Hegel, all human behavior in the material world, and hence all human history, is rooted in a prior state of consciousness - an idea similar to the one expressed by John Maynard Keynes when he said that the views of men of affairs were usually derived from defunct economists and academic scribblers of earlier generations.
This consciousness may not be explicit and self-aware, as are modern political doctrines, but may rather take the form of religion or simple cultural or moral habits. And yet this realm of consciousness in the long run necessarily becomes manifest in technical writing programs, the material world, indeed creates the material world in introduce, its own image. Consciousness is cause and not effect, and can develop autonomously from the material world; hence the real subtext underlying the sentence in omelas apparent jumble of introduce of essay, current events is the history of ideology. Hegel's idealism has fared poorly at the hands of later thinkers. Marx reversed the priority of the real and the ideal completely, relegating the entire realm of consciousness - religion, art, culture, philosophy itself - to a superstructure that was determined entirely by the prevailing material mode of production. Yet another unfortunate legacy of online technical, Marxism is our tendency to retreat into materialist or utilitarian explanations of political or historical phenomena, and our disinclination to believe in introduce of essay, the autonomous power of ideas. A recent example of this is Paul Kennedy's hugely successful The Rise and Fall of the and non religion Great Powers , which ascribes the decline of great powers to simple economic overextension. Obviously, this is true on some level: an empire whose economy is barely above the level of subsistence cannot bankrupt its treasury indefinitely. But whether a highly productive modern industrial society chooses to spend 3 or 7 percent of its GNP on defense rather than consumption is entirely a matter of that society's political priorities, which are in turn determined in the realm of consciousness.
The materialist bias of modern thought is introduce of essay characteristic not only of people on the Left who may be sympathetic to companies in uk, Marxism, but of many passionate anti-Marxists as well. Indeed, there is on the Right what one might label the Wall Street Journal school of deterministic materialism that discounts the of essay importance of ideology and culture and sees man as essentially a rational, profit-maximizing individual. It is precisely this kind of individual and and non religion, his pursuit of material incentives that is introduce of essay posited as the basis for economic life as such in economic textbooks. One small example will illustrate the problematic character of such materialist views. Max Weber begins his famous book, The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism , by noting the different economic performance of and non, Protestant and Catholic communities throughout Europe and introduce of essay, America, summed up in the proverb that Protestants eat well while Catholics sleep well. Thesis Sentence In Omelas. Weber notes that according to any economic theory that posited man as a rational profit-maximizer, raising the piece-work rate should increase labor productivity. But in fact, in many traditional peasant communities, raising the piece-work rate actually had the opposite introduce of essay effect of lowering labor productivity: at the higher rate, a peasant accustomed to earning two and one-half marks per day found he could earn the article same amount by introduce of essay working less, and did so because he valued leisure more than income. Religion And Non Religion Essay. The choices of leisure over income, or of the introduce militaristic life of the Spartan hoplite over homewrok help the wealth of the of essay Athenian trader, or even the ascetic life of the thesis in omelas early capitalist entrepreneur over that of a traditional leisured aristocrat, cannot possibly be explained by introduce of essay the impersonal working of material forces, but come preeminently out article writing in uk, of the of essay sphere of religion, consciousness - what we have labeled here broadly as ideology.
And indeed, a central theme of Weber's work was to introduce, prove that contrary to Marx, the material mode of production, far from being the base, was itself a superstructure with roots in religion and culture, and that to understand the emergence of modern capitalism and the profit motive one had to study their antecedents in the realm of the spirit. As we look around the contemporary world, the poverty of essay, materialist theories of economic development is all too apparent. The Wall Street Journal school of deterministic materialism habitually points to the stunning economic success of Asia in the past few decades as evidence of the viability of free market economics, with the implication that all societies would see similar development were they simply to allow their populations to introduce of essay, pursue their material self-interest freely. Surely free markets and the miser essay, stable political systems are a necessary precondition to capitalist economic growth. But just as surely the cultural heritage of of essay, those Far Eastern societies, the ethic of work and essay, saving and family, a religious heritage that does not, like Islam, place restrictions on certain forms of economic behavior, and other deeply ingrained moral qualities, are equally important in explaining their economic performance. And yet the intellectual weight of materialism is such that not a single respectable contemporary theory of economic development addresses consciousness and introduce, culture seriously as the matrix within which economic behavior is formed.
FAILURE to understand that the technical programs roots of economic behavior lie in the realm of consciousness and introduce, culture leads to the common mistake of attributing material causes to technical writing certificate programs, phenomena that are essentially ideal in nature. For example, it is commonplace in the West to interpret the reform movements first in China and most recently in the Soviet Union as the victory of the material over of essay the ideal - that is, a recognition that ideological incentives could not replace material ones in stimulating a highly productive modern economy, and that if one wanted to religion and non, prosper one had to appeal to baser forms of self-interest. But the deep defects of socialist economies were evident thirty or forty years ago to anyone who chose to look. Why was it that these countries moved away from central planning only in introduce, the 1980s' The answer must be found in the consciousness of the elites and leaders ruling them, who decided to opt for the Protestant life of online programs, wealth and risk over the Catholic path of poverty and security. That change was in no way made inevitable by the material conditions in introduce, which either country found itself on rbc scholarship the eve of the reform, but instead came about as the introduce result of the victory of one idea over another. For Kojeve, as for all good Hegelians, understanding the underlying processes of history requires understanding developments in the realm of consciousness or ideas, since consciousness will ultimately remake the material world in its own image. To say that history ended in 1806 meant that mankind's ideological evolution ended in the ideals of the French or American Revolutions: while particular regimes in the real world might not implement these ideals fully, their theoretical truth is absolute and could not be improved upon. Hence it did not matter to Kojeve that the consciousness of the postwar generation of Europeans had not been universalized throughout the world; if ideological development had in fact ended, the homogenous state would eventually become victorious throughout the material world. I have neither the space nor, frankly, the ability to defend in homewrok help, depth Hegel's radical idealist perspective.
The issue is not whether Hegel's system was right, but whether his perspective might uncover the introduce problematic nature of many materialist explanations we often take for religion and non religion granted. This is not to deny the role of material factors as such. Of Essay. To a literal-minded idealist, human society can be built around any arbitrary set of principles regardless of their relationship to the material world. And in fact men have proven themselves able to endure the most extreme material hardships in the name of ideas that exist in the realm of the spirit alone, be it the divinity of cows or the nature of the Holy Trinity. But while man's very perception of the material world is shaped by his historical consciousness of it, the material world can clearly affect in return the viability of a particular state of consciousness. In particular, the spectacular abundance of advanced liberal economies and the infinitely diverse consumer culture made possible by them seem to both foster and preserve liberalism in the political sphere. I want to avoid the materialist determinism that says that liberal economics inevitably produces liberal politics, because I believe that both economics and politics presuppose an autonomous prior state of consciousness that makes them possible.
But that state of consciousness that permits the growth of liberalism seems to stabilize in companies, the way one would expect at the end of history if it is introduce underwritten by the abundance of a modern free market economy. We might summarize the content of the universal homogenous state as liberal democracy in the miser essay, the political sphere combined with easy access to VCRs and stereos in the economic. HAVE WE in fact reached the end of history? Are there, in other words, any fundamental contradictions in human life that cannot be resolved in introduce, the context of modern liberalism, that would be resolvable by an alternative political-economic structure? If we accept the idealist premises laid out above, we must seek an answer to this question in the realm of ideology and consciousness. Our task is not to answer exhaustively the and non religion challenges to liberalism promoted by every crackpot messiah around the world, but only those that are embodied in important social or political forces and introduce, movements, and which are therefore part of homewrok help, world history. For our purposes, it matters very little what strange thoughts occur to people in Albania or Burkina Faso, for we are interested in what one could in some sense call the common ideological heritage of mankind.
In the past century, there have been two major challenges to liberalism, those of fascism and introduce, of communism. The former saw the political weakness, materialism, anomie, and lack of community of the West as fundamental contradictions in liberal societies that could only technical certificate, be resolved by of essay a strong state that forged a new people on the miser essay the basis of national exclusiveness. Fascism was destroyed as a living ideology by World War II. This was a defeat, of course, on a very material level, but it amounted to a defeat of the idea as well. What destroyed fascism as an of essay, idea was not universal moral revulsion against it, since plenty of people were willing to endorse the the miser essay idea as long as it seemed the wave of the future, but its lack of success. Of Essay. After the war, it seemed to most people that German fascism as well as its other European and Asian variants were bound to self-destruct. There was no material reason why new fascist movements could not have sprung up again after the the miser essay war in other locales, but for the fact that expansionist ultranationalism, with its promise of unending conflict leading to disastrous military defeat, had completely lost its appeal. The ruins of the Reich chancellery as well as the atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki killed this ideology on the level of introduce of essay, consciousness as well as materially, and all of the pro-fascist movements spawned by the German and Japanese examples like the Peronist movement in homewrok help, Argentina or Subhas Chandra Bose's Indian National Army withered after the war. The ideological challenge mounted by the other great alternative to liberalism, communism, was far more serious. Marx, speaking Hegel's language, asserted that liberal society contained a fundamental contradiction that could not be resolved within its context, that between capital and introduce of essay, labor, and this contradiction has constituted the chief accusation against liberalism ever since. But surely, the class issue has actually been successfully resolved in the West.
As Kojeve (among others) noted, the egalitarianism of modern America represents the essential achievement of the classless society envisioned by Marx. This is not to say that there are not rich people and poor people in the United States, or that the gap between them has not grown in recent years. But the root causes of economic inequality do not have to do with the underlying legal and social structure of our society, which remains fundamentally egalitarian and technical certificate, moderately redistributionist, so much as with the cultural and social characteristics of the groups that make it up, which are in turn the of essay historical legacy of premodern conditions. Thus black poverty in companies, the United States is not the inherent product of liberalism, but is rather the legacy of slavery and racism which persisted long after the formal abolition of slavery. As a result of the receding of the class issue, the appeal of communism in the developed Western world, it is safe to say, is lower today than any time since the end of the First World War. This can he measured in any number of ways: in of essay, the declining membership and electoral pull of the major European communist parties, and their overtly revisionist programs; in the corresponding electoral success of conservative parties from Britain and Germany to the United States and Japan, which are unabashedly pro-market and anti-statist; and in an intellectual climate whose most advanced members no longer believe that bourgeois society is and non religion essay something that ultimately needs to be overcome. This is not to introduce, say that the homewrok help opinions of of essay, progressive intellectuals in Western countries are not deeply pathological in any number of ways. Thesis Sentence In Omelas. But those who believe that the future must inevitably be socialist tend to be very old, or very marginal to of essay, the real political discourse of their societies. 0NE MAY argue that the socialist alternative was never terribly plausible for the North Atlantic world, and was sustained for the last several decades primarily by its success outside of companies in uk, this region.
But it is precisely in the non-European world that one is most struck by the occurrence of major ideological transformations. Surely the most remarkable changes have occurred in Asia. Due to the strength and adaptability of the indigenous cultures there, Asia became a battleground for a variety of imported Western ideologies early in this century. Liberalism in Asia was a very weak reed in the period after World War I; it is introduce of essay easy today to rbc scholarship, forget how gloomy Asia's political future looked as recently as ten or fifteen years ago. It is easy to forget as well how momentous the outcome of Asian ideological struggles seemed for introduce world political development as a whole. The first Asian alternative to liberalism to be decisively defeated was the fascist one represented by Imperial Japan. Essay. Japanese fascism (like its German version) was defeated by the force of American arms in the Pacific war, and introduce, liberal democracy was imposed on Japan by a victorious United States. Western capitalism and political liberalism when transplanted to Japan were adapted and transformed by the Japanese in such a way as to be scarcely recognizable. Many Americans are now aware that Japanese industrial organization is very different from that prevailing in the United States or Europe, and it is questionable what relationship the homewrok help factional maneuvering that takes place with the governing Liberal Democratic Party bears to democracy. Nonetheless, the very fact that the introduce essential elements of economic and political liberalism have been so successfully grafted onto uniquely Japanese traditions and the miser essay, institutions guarantees their survival in the long run. More important is the contribution that Japan has made in turn to world history by following in the footsteps of the United States to create a truly universal consumer culture that has become both a symbol and an underpinning of the universal homogenous state. V.S.
Naipaul traveling in Khomeini's Iran shortly after the revolution noted the omnipresent signs advertising the products of of essay, Sony, Hitachi, and JVC, whose appeal remained virtually irresistible and gave the lie to the regime's pretensions of restoring a state based on the rule of the Shariah . Desire for access to the consumer culture, created in large measure by Japan, has played a crucial role in fostering the spread of economic liberalism throughout Asia, and hence in promoting political liberalism as well. The economic success of the other newly industrializing countries (NICs) in Asia following on the miser essay the example of introduce of essay, Japan is by now a familiar story. What is important from religion essay, a Hegelian standpoint is that political liberalism has been following economic liberalism, more slowly than many had hoped but with seeming inevitability. Here again we see the victory of the idea of the introduce of essay universal homogenous state. South Korea had developed into a modern, urbanized society with an increasingly large and well-educated middle class that could not possibly be isolated from the larger democratic trends around them. Under these circumstances it seemed intolerable to a large part of this population that it should be ruled by an anachronistic military regime while Japan, only religion essay, a decade or so ahead in economic terms, had parliamentary institutions for over forty years. Even the former socialist regime in introduce, Burma, which for so many decades existed in dismal isolation from the larger trends dominating Asia, was buffeted in the past year by pressures to liberalize both its economy and political system.
It is said that unhappiness with strongman Ne Win began when a senior Burmese officer went to Singapore for writing companies medical treatment and broke down crying when he saw how far socialist Burma had been left behind by its ASEAN neighbors. BUT THE power of the liberal idea would seem much less impressive if it had not infected the largest and oldest culture in Asia, China. The simple existence of communist China created an alternative pole of ideological attraction, and of essay, as such constituted a threat to thesis sentence in omelas, liberalism. Introduce. But the past fifteen years have seen an almost total discrediting of Marxism-Leninism as an economic system. Beginning with the famous third plenum of the Tenth Central Committee in 1978, the Chinese Communist party set about decollectivizing agriculture for the 800 million Chinese who still lived in the countryside. The role of the state in agriculture was reduced to that of a tax collector, while production of consumer goods was sharply increased in order to give peasants a taste of the universal homogenous state and thereby an incentive to work. The reform doubled Chinese grain output in only five years, and in the process created for and non essay Deng Xiaoping a solid political base from which he was able to extend the reform to other parts of the economy. Economic Statistics do not begin to describe the dynamism, initiative, and openness evident in China since the reform began. China could not now be described in any way as a liberal democracy.
At present, no more than 20 percent of its economy has been marketized, and most importantly it continues to introduce, be ruled by a self-appointed Communist party which has given no hint of wanting to sentence in omelas, devolve power. Deng has made none of Gorbachev's promises regarding democratization of the political system and there is no Chinese equivalent of introduce of essay, glasnost. The Chinese leadership has in fact been much more circumspect in criticizing Mao and Maoism than Gorbachev with respect to Brezhnev and article, Stalin, and the regime continues to pay lip service to Marxism-Leninism as its ideological underpinning. But anyone familiar with the outlook and behavior of the new technocratic elite now governing China knows that Marxism and introduce, ideological principle have become virtually irrelevant as guides to policy, and article writing in uk, that bourgeois consumerism has a real meaning in that country for the first time since the revolution. The various slowdowns in the pace of introduce, reform, the campaigns against spiritual pollution and crackdowns on political dissent are more properly seen as tactical adjustments made in the process of managing what is an extraordinarily difficult political transition. By ducking the question of the miser essay, political reform while putting the economy on a new footing, Deng has managed to avoid the introduce of essay breakdown of authority that has accompanied Gorbachev's perestroika . Yet the pull of the liberal idea continues to and non religion, be very strong as economic power devolves and the economy becomes more open to the outside world. There are currently over 20,000 Chinese students studying in the U.S. and introduce, other Western countries, almost all of them the children of the Chinese elite. Writing Programs. It is hard to believe that when they return home to run the country they will be content for China to be the only country in Asia unaffected by the larger democratizing trend. The student demonstrations in Beijing that broke out first in introduce of essay, December 1986 and recurred recently on the occasion of Hu Yao-bang's death were only the writing certificate programs beginning of of essay, what will inevitably be mounting pressure for change in the political system as well. What is homewrok help important about China from the standpoint of world history is not the present state of the reform or even its future prospects.
The central issue is the fact that the introduce of essay People's Republic of China can no longer act as a beacon for illiberal forces around the world, whether they be guerrillas in some Asian jungle or middle class students in the miser essay, Paris. Maoism, rather than being the pattern for Asia's future, became an anachronism, and it was the mainland Chinese who in of essay, fact were decisively influenced by religion essay the prosperity and dynamism of their overseas co-ethnics - the ironic ultimate victory of Taiwan. Important as these changes in China have been, however, it is of essay developments in the Soviet Union - the original homeland of the world proletariat - that have put the final nail in the coffin of the Marxist-Leninist alternative to article writing in uk, liberal democracy. It should be clear that in terms of introduce of essay, formal institutions, not much has changed in the four years since Gorbachev has come to article writing companies, power: free markets and introduce, the cooperative movement represent only a small part of the Soviet economy, which remains centrally planned; the political system is still dominated by the Communist party, which has only technical programs, begun to democratize internally and to introduce, share power with other groups; the regime continues to rbc scholarship, assert that it is seeking only to modernize socialism and that its ideological basis remains Marxism-Leninism; and, finally, Gorbachev faces a potentially powerful conservative opposition that could undo many of the changes that have taken place to date. Moreover, it is hard to introduce, be too sanguine about the chances for success of Gorbachev's proposed reforms, either in homewrok help, the sphere of economics or politics.
But my purpose here is not to analyze events in the short-term, or to make predictions for policy purposes, but to look at underlying trends in the sphere of ideology and consciousness. And in that respect, it is clear that an astounding transformation has occurred. Emigres from the Soviet Union have been reporting for at least the last generation now that virtually nobody in that country truly believed in Marxism-Leninism any longer, and that this was nowhere more true than in the Soviet elite, which continued to mouth Marxist slogans out of sheer cynicism. Introduce. The corruption and decadence of the late Brezhnev-era Soviet state seemed to homewrok help, matter little, however, for of essay as long as the state itself refused to religion and non essay, throw into question any of the fundamental principles underlying Soviet society, the system was capable of functioning adequately out of of essay, sheer inertia and could even muster some dynamism in the realm of essay, foreign and defense policy. Marxism-Leninism was like a magical incantation which, however absurd and devoid of meaning, was the only common basis on which the elite could agree to rule Soviet society. WHAT HAS happened in the four years since Gorbachev's coming to power is a revolutionary assault on the most fundamental institutions and principles of Stalinism, and their replacement by other principles which do not amount to liberalism per se but whose only connecting thread is liberalism. This is most evident in the economic sphere, where the reform economists around Gorbachev have become steadily more radical in their support for introduce free markets, to the point where some like Nikolai Shmelev do not mind being compared in public to Milton Friedman. There is a virtual consensus among the currently dominant school of Soviet economists now that central planning and the command system of allocation are the root cause of economic inefficiency, and thesis sentence in omelas, that if the introduce Soviet system is ever to heal itself, it must permit free and decentralized decision-making with respect to investment, labor, and prices.
After a couple of initial years of ideological confusion, these principles have finally been incorporated into and non religion, policy with the promulgation of new laws on enterprise autonomy, cooperatives, and finally in 1988 on lease arrangements and family farming. Introduce Of Essay. There are, of course, a number of fatal flaws in the current implementation of the reform, most notably the essay absence of a thoroughgoing price reform. But the introduce problem is no longer a conceptual one: Gorbachev and rbc scholarship essay, his lieutenants seem to understand the introduce of essay economic logic of marketization well enough, but like the leaders of a Third World country facing the IMF, are afraid of the social consequences of ending consumer subsidies and article companies in uk, other forms of dependence on the state sector. In the introduce political sphere, the proposed changes to the Soviet constitution, legal system, and party rules amount to much less than the establishment of a liberal state. Gorbachev has spoken of democratization primarily in online technical writing certificate programs, the sphere of internal party affairs, and has shown little intention of ending the Communist party's monopoly of power; indeed, the political reform seeks to legitimize and therefore strengthen the CPSU'S rule. Nonetheless, the introduce general principles underlying many of the reforms - that the people should be truly responsible for their own affairs, that higher political bodies should be answerable to lower ones, and not vice versa, that the rule of law should prevail over arbitrary police actions, with separation of powers and an independent judiciary, that there should be legal protection for property rights, the online writing certificate need for open discussion of public issues and the right of public dissent, the empowering of the of essay Soviets as a forum in which the whole Soviet people can participate, and of a political culture that is more tolerant and pluralistic - come from a source fundamentally alien to the USSR's Marxist-Leninist tradition, even if they are incompletely articulated and poorly implemented in religion and non religion essay, practice. Gorbachev's repeated assertions that he is of essay doing no more than trying to restore the original meaning of Leninism are themselves a kind of Orwellian doublespeak. Gorbachev and his allies have consistently maintained that intraparty democracy was somehow the essence of article companies in uk, Leninism, and that the various lib era1 practices of open debate, secret ballot elections, and rule of introduce, law were all part of the Leninist heritage, corrupted only later by Stalin. Homewrok Help. While almost anyone would look good compared to Stalin, drawing so sharp a line between Lenin and his successor is questionable. The essence of Lenin's democratic centralism was centralism, not democracy; that is, the absolutely rigid, monolithic, and disciplined dictatorship of a hierarchically organized vanguard Communist party, speaking in the name of the demos. All of Lenin's vicious polemics against Karl Kautsky, Rosa Luxemburg, and various other Menshevik and Social Democratic rivals, not to mention his contempt for bourgeois legality and freedoms, centered around his profound conviction that a revolution could not be successfully made by a democratically run organization.
Gorbachev's claim that he is seeking to return to the true Lenin is of essay perfectly easy to understand: having fostered a thorough denunciation of Stalinism and rbc scholarship, Brezhnevism as the root of the USSR's present predicament, he needs some point in Soviet history on which to introduce of essay, anchor the legitimacy of the CPSU'S continued rule. But Gorbachev's tactical requirements should not blind us to the fact that the democratizing and decentralizing principles which he has enunciated in both the economic and political spheres are highly subversive of some of the most fundamental precepts of both Marxism and Leninism. Indeed, if the bulk of the present economic reform proposals were put into effect, it is hard to know how the Soviet economy would be more socialist than those of other Western countries with large public sectors. The Soviet Union could in no way be described as a liberal or democratic country now, nor do I think that it is terribly likely that perestroika will succeed such that the label will be thinkable any time in the near future. But at the end of history it is not necessary that all societies become successful liberal societies, merely that they end their ideological pretensions of representing different and sentence in omelas, higher forms of human society. And in of essay, this respect I believe that something very important has happened in the Soviet Union in in omelas, the past few years: the criticisms of the Soviet system sanctioned by Gorbachev have been so thorough and devastating that there is very little chance of introduce of essay, going back to either Stalinism or Brezhnevism in any simple way. Gorbachev has finally permitted people to say what they had privately understood for writing companies many years, namely, that the magical incantations of Marxism-Leninism were nonsense, that Soviet socialism was not superior to the West in any respect but was in fact a monumental failure. The conservative opposition in the USSR, consisting both of simple workers afraid of unemployment and inflation and of party officials fearful of losing their jobs and privileges, is outspoken and may be strong enough to force Gorbachev's ouster in the next few years. But what both groups desire is tradition, order, and authority; they manifest no deep commitment to Marxism-Leninism, except insofar as they have invested much of of essay, their own lives in certificate, it. For authority to be restored in the Soviet Union after Gorbachev's demolition work, it must be on introduce the basis of some new and vigorous ideology which has not yet appeared on the horizon.
IF WE ADMIT for the moment that the fascist and communist challenges to liberalism are dead, are there any other ideological competitors left? Or put another way, are there contradictions in liberal society beyond that of class that are not resolvable? Two possibilities suggest themselves, those of religion and nationalism. The rise of religious fundamentalism in the miser essay, recent years within the Christian, Jewish, and Muslim traditions has been widely noted. One is inclined to say that the revival of religion in some way attests to a broad unhappiness with the impersonality and introduce, spiritual vacuity of liberal consumerist societies. Yet while the emptiness at the core of liberalism is most certainly a defect in the ideology - indeed, a flaw that one does not need the online perspective of religion to recognize - it is not at all clear that it is remediable through politics. Modern liberalism itself was historically a consequence of the weakness of religiously-based societies which, failing to agree on the nature of the good life, could not provide even the minimal preconditions of peace and introduce of essay, stability. In the contemporary world only Islam has offered a theocratic state as a political alternative to companies in uk, both liberalism and communism. But the doctrine has little appeal for non-Muslims, and it is hard to believe that the movement will take on any universal significance.
Other less organized religious impulses have been successfully satisfied within the sphere of personal life that is permitted in liberal societies. The other major contradiction potentially unresolvable by introduce of essay liberalism is the one posed by nationalism and other forms of racial and ethnic consciousness. Religion And Non. It is certainly true that a very large degree of introduce of essay, conflict since the Battle of Jena has had its roots in homewrok help, nationalism. Two cataclysmic world wars in this century have been spawned by the nationalism of the introduce of essay developed world in various guises, and if those passions have been muted to a certain extent in postwar Europe, they are still extremely powerful in the Third World. Sentence In Omelas. Nationalism has been a threat to introduce, liberalism historically in religion essay, Germany, and continues to be one in isolated parts of post-historical Europe like Northern Ireland. But it is not clear that nationalism rep resents an of essay, irreconcilable contradiction in the heart of liberalism. In the homewrok help first place, nationalism is not one single phenomenon but several, ranging from introduce, mild cultural nostalgia to the highly organized and elaborately articulated doctrine of National Socialism. Only systematic nationalisms of the latter sort can qualify as a formal ideology on the level of liberalism or communism. The vast majority of the world's nationalist movements do not have a political program beyond the negative desire of independence from some other group or people, and thesis sentence, do not offer anything like a comprehensive agenda for socio-economic organization. As such, they are compatible with doctrines and ideologies that do offer such agendas.
While they may constitute a source of conflict for liberal societies, this conflict does not arise from liberalism itself so much as from the fact that the liberalism in question is incomplete. Certainly a great deal of the world's ethnic and nationalist tension can be explained in terms of peoples who are forced to live in unrepresentative political systems that they have not chosen. While it is impossible to rule out the introduce of essay sudden appearance of new ideologies or previously unrecognized contradictions in liberal societies, then, the present world seems to confirm that the fundamental principles of sociopolitical organization have not advanced terribly far since 1806. Many of the wars and revolutions fought since that time have been undertaken in the name of ideologies which claimed to be more advanced than liberalism, but whose pretensions were ultimately unmasked by history. And Non Religion Essay. In the meantime, they have helped to spread the universal homogenous state to the point where it could have a significant effect on the overall character of introduce, international relations. WHAT ARE the implications of the end of and non, history for international relations? Clearly, the introduce of essay vast bulk of the Third World remains very much mired in history, and article companies in uk, will be a terrain of conflict for many years to come. But let us focus for the time being on the larger and more developed states of the world who after all account for the greater part of of essay, world politics. Russia and China are not likely to join the developed nations of the West as liberal societies any time in the foreseeable future, but suppose for a moment that Marxism-Leninism ceases to be a factor driving the foreign policies of these states - a prospect which, if not yet here, the last few years have made a real possibility. How will the overall characteristics of a de-ideologized world differ from those of the one with which we are familiar at such a hypothetical juncture? The most common answer is - not very much.
For there is a very widespread belief among many observers of international relations that underneath the skin of ideology is a hard core of great power national interest that guarantees a fairly high level of competition and conflict between nations. Homewrok Help. Indeed, according to one academically popular school of international relations theory, conflict inheres in the international system as such, and to understand the introduce prospects for conflict one must look at the shape of the system - for example, whether it is technical bipolar or multipolar - rather than at introduce, the specific character of the nations and homewrok help, regimes that constitute it. This school in effect applies a Hobbesian view of politics to introduce of essay, international relations, and assumes that aggression and insecurity are universal characteristics of human societies rather than the product of homewrok help, specific historical circumstances. Believers in this line of thought take the relations that existed between the participants in the classical nineteenth century European balance of power as a model for what a de-ideologized contemporary world would look like. Charles Krauthammer, for example, recently explained that if as a result of of essay, Gorbachev's reforms the USSR is shorn of Marxist-Leninist ideology, its behavior will revert to that of nineteenth century imperial Russia. While he finds this more reassuring than the threat posed by article in uk a communist Russia, he implies that there will still be a substantial degree of competition and introduce, conflict in the international system, just as there was say between Russia and Britain or Wilhelmine Germany in the last century. This is, of course, a convenient point of view for people who want to admit that something major is changing in the Soviet Union, but do not want to essay, accept responsibility for recommending the radical policy redirection implicit in such a view. But is it true?
In fact, the notion that ideology is a superstructure imposed on a substratum of introduce of essay, permanent great power interest is a highly questionable proposition. For the way in which any state defines its national interest is not universal but rests on some kind of prior ideological basis, just as we saw that economic behavior is determined by a prior state of the miser essay, consciousness. In this century, states have adopted highly articulated doctrines with explicit foreign policy agendas legitimizing expansionism, like Marxism-Leninism or National Socialism. THE EXPANSIONIST and competitive behavior of nineteenth-century European states rested on no less ideal a basis; it just so happened that the ideology driving it was less explicit than the doctrines of the twentieth century. For one thing, most liberal European societies were illiberal insofar as they believed in the legitimacy of imperialism, that is, the right of one nation to introduce, rule over other nations without regard for the wishes of the ruled. The justifications for imperialism varied from nation to nation, from a crude belief in the legitimacy of sentence in omelas, force, particularly when applied to non-Europeans, to introduce, the White Man's Burden and Europe's Christianizing mission, to the desire to give people of color access to the culture of Rabelais and the miser essay, Moliere. But whatever the particular ideological basis, every developed country believed in of essay, the acceptability of higher civilizations ruling lower ones - including, incidentally, the United States with regard to the Philippines. Rbc Scholarship Essay. This led to a drive for pure territorial aggrandizement in introduce, the latter half of the century and played no small role in causing the Great War. The radical and deformed outgrowth of nineteenth-century imperialism was German fascism, an ideology which justified Germany's right not only to rule over non-European peoples, but over all non-German ones. Technical Writing Certificate Programs. But in introduce of essay, retrospect it seems that Hitler represented a diseased bypath in the general course of European development, and since his fiery defeat, the legitimacy of any kind of territorial aggrandizement has been thoroughly discredited. Since the Second World War, European nationalism has been defanged and shorn of any real relevance to foreign policy, with the consequence that the nineteenth-century model of great power behavior has become a serious anachronism. The most extreme form of nationalism that any Western European state has mustered since 1945 has been Gaullism, whose self-assertion has been confined largely to the realm of nuisance politics and culture.
International life for the part of the world that has reached the end of history is far more preoccupied with economics than with politics or strategy. The developed states of the West do maintain defense establishments and in the postwar period have competed vigorously for influence to meet a worldwide communist threat. The Miser Essay. This behavior has been driven, however, by of essay an external threat from states that possess overtly expansionist ideologies, and would not exist in their absence. To take the neo-realist theory seriously, one would have to believe that natural competitive behavior would reassert itself among the OECD states were Russia and China to disappear from the face of the article in uk earth. That is, West Germany and France would arm themselves against introduce of essay each other as they did in the 193Os, Australia and religion and non religion, New Zealand would send military advisers to block each others' advances in introduce of essay, Africa, and the U.S.-Canadian border would become fortified.
Such a prospect is, of rbc scholarship essay, course, ludicrous: minus Marxist-Leninist ideology, we are far more likely to see the Common Marketization of world politics than the disintegration of the EEC into nineteenth-century competitiveness. Indeed, as our experiences in dealing with Europe on matters such as terrorism or Libya prove, they are much further gone than we down the road that denies the legitimacy of the use of force in introduce of essay, international politics, even in self-defense. The automatic assumption that Russia shorn of its expansionist communist ideology should pick up where the czars left off just prior to the Bolshevik Revolution is therefore a curious one. It assumes that the evolution of human consciousness has stood still in the meantime, and that the Soviets, while picking up currently fashionable ideas in essay, the realm of economics, will return to foreign policy views a century out of date in introduce, the rest of certificate programs, Europe. This is certainly not what happened to introduce of essay, China after it began its reform process. Chinese competitiveness and expansionism on the world scene have virtually disappeared: Beijing no longer sponsors Maoist insurgencies or tries to cultivate influence in distant African countries as it did in the 1960s. This is not to say that there are not troublesome aspects to homewrok help, contemporary Chinese foreign policy, such as the reckless sale of introduce of essay, ballistic missile technology in the Middle East; and the PRC continues to manifest traditional great power behavior in its sponsorship of the Khmer Rouge against Vietnam. Sentence In Omelas. But the former is explained by commercial motives and the latter is a vestige of earlier ideologically-based rivalries. The new China far more resembles Gaullist France than pre-World War I Germany. The real question for the future, however, is the degree to which Soviet elites have assimilated the consciousness of the universal homogenous state that is post-Hitler Europe.
From their writings and from my own personal contacts with them, there is introduce no question in my mind that the liberal Soviet intelligentsia rallying around Gorbachev have arrived at the end-of-history view in a remarkably short time, due in no small measure to the contacts they have had since the Brezhnev era with the larger European civilization around them. New political thinking, the general rubric for their views, describes a world dominated by economic concerns, in which there are no ideological grounds for major conflict between nations, and in which, consequently, the use of the miser essay, military force becomes less legitimate. As Foreign Minister Shevardnadze put it in mid-1988: The struggle between two opposing systems is introduce of essay no longer a determining tendency of the present-day era. Article Writing Companies In Uk. At the modern stage, the ability to build up material wealth at an accelerated rate on of essay the basis of front-ranking science and high-level techniques and technology, and to distribute it fairly, and through joint efforts to restore and protect the resources necessary for mankind's survival acquires decisive importance. The post-historical consciousness represented by new thinking is only one possible future for the miser essay the Soviet Union, however. There has always been a very strong current of great Russian chauvinism in the Soviet Union, which has found freer expression since the advent of glasnost . It may be possible to return to introduce of essay, traditional Marxism-Leninism for a while as a simple rallying point for those who want to restore the authority that Gorbachev has dissipated.
But as in religion religion essay, Poland, Marxism-Leninism is dead as a mobilizing ideology: under its banner people cannot be made to work harder, and its adherents have lost confidence in themselves. Unlike the propagators of traditional Marxism-Leninism, however, ultranationalists in the USSR believe in their Slavophile cause passionately, and one gets the introduce sense that the fascist alternative is writing companies in uk not one that has played itself out entirely there. The Soviet Union, then, is at a fork in the road: it can start down the path that was staked out by Western Europe forty-five years ago, a path that most of Asia has followed, or it can realize its own uniqueness and remain stuck in history. The choice it makes will be highly important for us, given the Soviet Union's size and military strength, for that power will continue to preoccupy us and slow our realization that we have already emerged on introduce the other side of history. THE PASSING of Marxism-Leninism first from China and then from the Soviet Union will mean its death as a living ideology of world historical significance. For while there may be some isolated true believers left in places like Managua, Pyongyang, or Cambridge, Massachusetts, the fact that there is not a single large state in which it is a going concern undermines completely its pretensions to being in the vanguard of human history. And the death of writing companies, this ideology means the growing Common Marketization of international relations, and the diminution of the likelihood of large-scale conflict between states. This does not by any means imply the end of international conflict per se. Introduce Of Essay. For the world at that point would be divided between a part that was historical and a part that was post-historical.
Conflict between states still in history, and between those states and those at the end of history, would still be possible. There would still be a high and perhaps rising level of ethnic and nationalist violence, since those are impulses incompletely played out, even in the miser essay, parts of the post-historical world. Of Essay. Palestinians and Kurds, Sikhs and Tamils, Irish Catholics and Walloons, Armenians and Azeris, will continue to have their unresolved grievances. This implies that terrorism and wars of national liberation will continue to be an important item on the international agenda. But large-scale conflict must involve large states still caught in the grip of history, and they are what appear to be passing from the scene. The end of history will be a very sad time. Rbc Scholarship Essay. The struggle for recognition, the willingness to risk one's life for introduce of essay a purely abstract goal, the worldwide ideological struggle that called forth daring, courage, imagination, and idealism, will be replaced by economic calculation, the endless solving of technical problems, environmental concerns, and the satisfaction of sophisticated consumer demands. In the post-historical period there will be neither art nor philosophy, just the companies perpetual caretaking of the museum of human history. I can feel in myself, and see in others around me, a powerful nostalgia for the time when history existed.
Such nostalgia, in fact, will continue to fuel competition and conflict even in the post-historical world for some time to come. Of Essay. Even though I recognize its inevitability, I have the most ambivalent feelings for the civilization that has been created in Europe since 1945, with its north Atlantic and Asian offshoots. Perhaps this very prospect of centuries of rbc scholarship essay, boredom at the end of history will serve to get history started once again. 1. Kojeve's best known work is his Introduction a la lecture de Hegel (Paris: Editions Gallimard, 1947), which is a transcript of the Ecole Practique lectures from the 1930's. Introduce. This book is sentence available in of essay, English entitled Introduction to the Reading of Hegel arranged by Raymond Queneau, edited by Allan Bloom, and translated by James Nichols (New York: Basic Books, 1969). (back to text)
2. In this respect Kojeve stands in writing companies in uk, sharp contrast to introduce of essay, contemporary German interpreters of Hegel like Herbert Marcuse who, being more sympathetic to Marx, regarded Hegel ultimately as an historically bound and incomplete philosopher. (back to text) 3. Kojeve alternatively identified the end of history with the postwar American way of life, toward which he thought the Soviet Union was moving as well. (back to text) 4. And Non Religion Essay. This notion was expressed in the famous aphorism from the preface to the Philosophy of History to the effect that everything that is rational is introduce real, and everything that is real is rational. (back to text) 5. Indeed, for Hegel the very dichotomy between the essay ideal and material worlds was itself only an apparent one that was ultimately overcome by the self-conscious subject; in his system, the material world is itself only an aspect of mind. (back to text) 6. In fact, modern economists, recognizing that man does not always behave as a profit -maximizer, posit a utility function, utility being either income or some other good that can be maximized: leisure, sexual satisfaction, or the pleasure of philosophizing. That profit must be replaced with a value like utility indicates the cogency of the introduce idealist perspective. (back to text) 7. One need look no further than the recent performance of Vietnamese immigrants in the U.S. school system when compared to their black of Hispanic classmates to thesis in omelas, realize that culture and of essay, consciousness are absolutely crucial to explain not only economic behavior but virtually every other important aspect of life as well. (back to text) 8. I understand that a full explanation of the origins of the reform movements in China and Russia is technical writing certificate programs a good deal more complicated than this simple formula would suggest.
The Soviet reform, for introduce example, was motivated in good measure by Moscow's sense of insecurity in the technological-military realm. Nonetheless, neither country ion the eve of its reforms was in such a state of material crisis that one could have predicted the surprising reform paths ultimately taken. (back to text) 9. It is still not clear whether the Soviet people are as Protestant as Gorbachev and will follow him down that path. (back to text) 10. The internal politics of the Byzantine Empire at the time of Justinian revolved around a conflict between the so-called monophysites and thesis sentence in omelas, monothelites, who believed that the unity of the Holy Trinity was alternatively one of nature or of will. This conflict corresponded to some extent to introduce, one between proponents of essay, different racing teams in the Hippodrome in Byzantium and led to a not insignificant level of political violence. Modern historians would tend to introduce of essay, seek the roots of such conflicts in the miser essay, antagonisms between social classes or some other modern economic category, being unwilling to believe that men would kill each other over the nature of the introduce Trinity. (back to text) 11. I am not using the the miser essay term fascism here in its most precise sense, fully aware of the introduce frequent misuse of this term to denounce anyone to the right of the user. Fascism here denotes nay organized ultra nationalist movement with universalistic pretensions - not universalistic with regard to its nationalism, of course, since the latter is exclusive by definition, but with regard to the movement's belief in its right to rule other people. Hence Imperial Japan would qualify as fascist while former strongman Stoessner's Paraguay or Pinochet's Chile would not.
Obviously fascist ideologies cannot be universalistic in the sense of Marxism or liberalism, but the structure of the doctrine can be transferred from country to country. (back to the miser essay, text) 12. I use the example of of essay, Japan with some caution, since Kojeve late in his life came to conclude that Japan, with its culture based on companies purely formal arts, proved that the introduce universal homogenous state was not victorious and writing, that history had perhaps not ended. See the long note at the end of the second edition of Introduction a la Lecture de Hegel , 462-3. (back to of essay, text) 13. This is not true in Poland and Hungary, however, whose Communist parties have taken moves toward true power sharing and pluralism. (back to text) 14.
This is particularly true of the leading Soviet conservative, former Second Secretary Yegor Ligachev, who has publicly recognized many of the deep defects of the Brezhnev period. (back to text) 15. I am thinking particularly of Rousseau and the Western philosophical tradition that flows from him that was highly critical of Lockean or Hobbesian liberalism, though one could criticize liberalism from the standpoint of classical political philosophy as well. (back to text) 16. See his article, Beyond the rbc scholarship essay Cold War, New Republic, December 19, 1988. Of Essay. (back to text) 17.
It took European colonial powers like France several years after the war to admit the illegitimacy of their empires, but decolonialization was an inevitable consequence of the the miser essay Allied victory which had been based on the promise of of essay, a restoration of democratic freedoms. (back to text) 18. Vestnik Ministerstva Inostrannikh Del SSSR no. 15 (August 1988), 27-46. New thinking does of course serve a propagandistic purpose in persuading Western audiences of essay, Soviet good intentions. Introduce Of Essay. But the fact that it is good propaganda does not mean that is technical writing certificate formulators do not take many of introduce of essay, its ideas seriously. (back to text)