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Essay on social networking

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SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips. Essay On Social Networking. Are you considering taking an how to structure a research paper AP English class at some point during high school? You might have noticed that AP offers two English courses – AP English Literature and Composition and AP English Language and essay on social Composition. (Those titles are a mouthful, so we’ll just refer to them as AP Literature and AP Language in this post.) So what are some of the differences between the two classes? Should you take both, or just choose one? We will explain the difference between the two courses to help you decide.

Some schools offer AP Literature and AP English Language as a sequence, with AP Language and essay Composition as a sophomore or junior course, and AP Literature as a junior or senior course. But some schools only offer the essay on social, courses during senior year, and students have to writing company choose between them. Or your school might not have strict requirements at all, and you might be wondering if you should take both, one, or none. First we will reveal which course is more difficult. Then we will discuss the similarities between the networking, two courses, and then the buy book report, differences. Finally, we will ask you some guiding questions to on social help you decide between the essay company, two classes. Which is Harder: AP Literature or AP Language?

You’re probably wondering. out of the two AP English courses, which one is harder? Well, it turns out both AP Literature and AP Language are not super easy to pass, and quite difficult to networking get a 5 (the highest score) on. Writing Company. (For more on AP test scoring, see our post.) Both exams have low pass rates and very low 5 rates. Their pass rates are both about on social networking, 55% – making them the 7 th and 9 th lowest-passed AP exams in 2015 (out of the 38 total exams). Their 5 rates are also low. AP Language has a 9.9% 5 rate. AP Literature has just a 7.6% 5 rate.

To put that in context, on other AP exams, it’s typical for between 10% and 20% of buy book report, students to networking earn a 5. Introduce. There are a few factors that could explain why both AP English exams have low pass rates and essay on social low 5 rates. The first is the fact that they are both very popular exams. AP Language is the number one most popular AP exam – over buy book report, 520,000 students took the test in 2015 alone! AP Literature is the third most-popular AP exam, with over 400,000 exams taken in 2015. This means that both tests have a very wide pool of exam-takers, which suggests there might be more students who take the exam who are unprepared. However, the fact that their 5 rates are so low suggests that both exams are more difficult than average to do well on.

Given that the essay on social networking, difference in writing, pass rates is essay networking so small between the two tests, it’s unlikely one AP English class is dramatically harder than the essay, other. Networking. Which test is harder for you will depend on your strengths and weaknesses, as both AP English classes have different readings and buy book report goals. Instead, to figure out which exam is best for essay on social, you, we have to compare the two classes and short essay on outsourcing the content they cover . First, we will note how the essay on social networking, classes are similar, and then we will explain what makes each AP English class unique. So what are the introduce, similarities between AP Literature and AP Language? We will compare both the AP tests and the classes. The exam format is very similar for both AP English classes. The first part of AP Literature has 55 multiple-choice questions and on social networking the first part of AP Language has 52-55 multiple choice questions. On both tests section I is how to worth 45% of your total score. These questions mainly have you read passages and analyze them.

The AP English Literature questions will be focusing on literary devices, character, and theme while the AP English Language questions will focus on rhetorical strategies and tone. However, both tests will include comprehension questions and will require you to networking be able to persuasive essay letter read complex passages quickly and understand them. The second part the on social, exam is worth 55% and has 3 essay questions. This means that both exams also require very fast writing skills. Buy Book Report. You need to essay plan, outline, write, and edit 3 essays in 2 hours, or in about 40 minutes per essay. Both exams also require you to essay on outsourcing be able to very quickly read and networking analyze a text by writing an essay essay, since the essay networking, essay questions often ask you to analyze a piece of writing. On Outsourcing. The only major difference in exam format is that the AP Language exam has a 15-minute reading period before the free response section, while AP Literature does not. This is to give you time to prepare for the synthesis question, which is unique to the AP Language test. The synthesis question has you incorporate several different sources into a coherent argument.

To sum up, the format of the two AP English exams is on social very similar. You can expect the AP exam for either class to be quite challenging. Both AP English classes are English courses and thus will mainly consist of reading and writing assignments. In particular, both emphasize writing clear, analytical essays. This is very different than just summarizing a book or writing your own stories like you might have in done previous English classes.

Since both classes are meant to teach the same skills as an introductory college English class, the emphasis is on analyzing and writing about texts, rather than just reading, summarizing, and creating your own work. However, even though the exam and class formats are quite similar, the subject matter they tackle is introduce of essay very different . Next we will explore which makes each AP English course unique. The main difference between the two courses is that AP Literature focuses on on social analyzing literature and poetry, while AP Language has a much broader scope. This means that one AP English class might be better for your future major than the other. We will explain what each class focuses on persuasive letter to help you decide which one to on social take. AP English Language and Composition teaches you to introduce deconstruct arguments and rhetorical strategies in mostly non-fiction works.

Non-fiction is a broad term, and essay can include journalism, memoirs, essays, satire, comics, and even photography. In other words, you will read (and watch!) material that is likely much more far-reaching than your past English classes. Buy Book Report. Even if you rarely read newspapers anymore, you might encounter them in networking, AP Language! You will also do lots of persuasive essay letter, writing, learning to maximize your argument and/or effectiveness across different forms, from persuasive essays to memoir writing. Essay On Social. As an example, in my AP Language course, our writing assignments included persuasive essays, reports on essay on outsourcing current events, memoir writing, poetry, and keeping a nature journal, a la Henry David Thoreau in Walden . (If you don’t know who that is, you probably will after taking AP Language!) Of course, every teacher will handle the class differently, since it has so many different potential readings and assignments, but in general you can expect to on social networking do a wide variety of writing. The essays on the exam are designed to “test your skill in composition and require close reading, thoughtful rhetorical analysis, and purposeful argumentation.” As we mentioned above, AP Language has a synthesis prompt that requires you to introduce pull together several different sources and on social networking write a cohesive argumentative essay. The synthesis prompt is buy book report similar to the Document-Based Question you’ll find on AP history exams. If you’re curious about what AP Language essay prompts look like, you can actually read all of the recent past free response topics here. In short, for AP Language, you will read a wide range of networking, materials and focus on making your writing effective and clear. Processes. The skills you learn in this class are broadly applicable to not only the humanities, but to the social sciences as well. On Social. If you’re interested in political science, sociology, or economics, the how to structure a research paper, skills you learn in AP Language will be directly applicable to your college coursework.

AP Language is also a good choice if you are interested in natural science or engineering, since learning to break down arguments and read non-fiction texts will likely be more helpful in on social networking, your chosen field than analyzing poetry and literature. In any field, having strong writing skills is very helpful. AP Language is how to structure a great way to essay networking build those skills if you’re not a fan of poetry and literature. AP English Literature teaches you to how to paper read and analyze works of literature and poetry with different lenses - for example, characterization, tone, or description. In that sense, it has less breadth but more depth than AP Language . Essay. You will work to discover a work’s theme or intent via use of literary devices, as opposed to analyzing its argument or effectiveness. AP Literature is generally a more reading-intensive course , since you have to read several books in preparation for the AP exam. For example, my class read several novels, including very long ones like Crime and Punishment , as well as plays, short stories, and poetry. And Procedures. Your essays for class will be mainly analytical. For example, you will explain how a novel achieves a certain tone by closely analyzing quotations. In most cases, you won’t be arguing for a point or saying how good or bad something is.

You will simply read literature closely and try to figure out essay networking what makes it tick. You can read all the recent past AP Literature free response questions here to get a sense of what the test is like. Note that one prompt has you analyze poetry, one has you analyze a passage of prose, and the last prompt has you pick a novel or play to write about. For the last prompt, the company, AP Literature test does not give you relevant quotes or summaries of the works you can write about. This means you have to be familiar with at least a few books and be able to write about them without having the books with you when you take the on social, exam.

As an example, here is the 2014 open response prompt: The prompt gives you a wide variety of books and plays that you could write about, but also allows you to analyze any work of “comparable literary merit.” ( Twilight isn’t going to cut it.) But the prompt doesn’t give you any more info than the work’s title – you need to be able to supply the of essay, evidence from that particular work based on memory. Some students memorize important quotes and page numbers to be prepared for this question, but this isn't essential if you have a strong grasp of the plot, characters, tone, themes, motifs, and so on. Furthermore, to write these essays well, you need to networking know literary devices, like allegory and hyperbole, to name a couple, and short essay on outsourcing be able to use them as evidence. In contrast, the AP Language exam provides most of the sources for you to analyze. Just one essay asks you to consider outside sources, but doesn’t require specific books, and in networking, fact allows you to processes essay draw from networking, your own experience. To sum up, AP Literature has a narrower focus and will likely require more reading. You will gain writing skills useful in any field, but this class has a very specific humanities/fine arts focus. Also, the third essay question on the test may be more difficult since you have to write about a book from memory. Buy Book Report. Both AP Language classes have key similarities – like exam structure – and on social differences, like the type of structure a research paper, reading you’ll do. So how will you pick which one to essay on social networking take?

Consider each of the following factors before making your decision. As a general rule, AP Language has a broader focus and will be more directly applicable to your work in various college majors, while AP Literature is and procedures essay a great choice if you are interested in the arts or humanities. Networking. For example, if you know for essay, sure you want to pursue engineering in college, then AP Language is probably the best choice. You’ll pick up some writing skills but not be overloaded with tons of reading – saving you time for other challenging courses in math and science. But if you know you want to study the humanities – including philosophy, history, English or World Literature – the depth of reading you’ll do in AP Literature will give you a solid base of knowledge to build on in college. But what if you have no clue what you want to study in college? Keep reading! AP Literature and AP Language have very different focuses and reading lists.

So think about what you tend to enjoy reading! If you like the reading for a class, you are much more likely to complete it all and be interested in on social, the assignments – meaning you’ll get a better grade. For example, if you follow the news, read lots of blogs or magazines, and enjoy non-fiction books, you’ll probably enjoy the AP Language reading. If you read fiction books for fun and enjoy writing your own stories, you might prefer AP Literature. Sure, you won’t be doing lots of creative writing, but studying what makes literature great will help you be a better writer.

Who Teaches These Classes at Your School? Preferences and future major aside, your experience in the class will really depend on how it’s taught at your school and how good the paper, teacher is. If you can, get a syllabus from both of this year’s classes. Essay On Social Networking. There isn’t required reading for either course, although AP has many suggested authors, so teachers have a lot of writing company, freedom in designing their reading lists. Essay Networking. You might be much more interested in on outsourcing, one class’s reading than another, and that will help you decide. On Social Networking. You can also ask upperclassman and your guidance counselor about the reputation and pass rate of the different classes at essay, your school. Chances are, both AP English teachers will be pretty good, if not excellent. On Social. But if, for example, everyone raves about the AP Literature class and how to a research paper say that they learned a ton and on social loved the processes and procedures essay, teacher, consider taking it even if you’re leaning towards AP Language. Essay. Never underestimate the effect of an amazing teacher!

If you really can’t decide, see if it’s possible to take both classes. Writing Company. Don't choose just one path! Colleges want to see that you are taking a challenging course load based on what’s available at your school. Essay On Social Networking. That could mean fitting in both AP English courses, but if that causes you to have to sacrifice other AP classes or an extracurricular, taking one is persuasive essay plenty. Again, this will also depend on your intended major. For example if you’re a future engineer, taking both AP English classes won’t vastly improve your chances, while fitting in both AP Calculus and AP Physics will. But if you are interested in the humanities, it would make sense to take both. Personally, I took both AP English classes: AP Language in 10 th grade, and AP Literature in 11 th grade.

They were both challenging, but I liked taking them in that order, since Language was broader and on social networking gave me an introduction to writing AP essays. I was able to essay use the skills I developed in Language to do well in Literature. For me, Literature was more challenging, mainly because I had to know a few books and networking plays inside and out to be ready for the free response section of the AP test. I found both test’s multiple-choice sections equally challenging. I found the persuasive essay, skills I built in both classes to be incredibly useful to me across a range of college classes – from economics to political science to English. Both AP English classes will improve your writing skills.

Both AP English classes have challenging exams. The main difference between the two is what types of reading they focus on. Hopefully reading about the two classes gave you an idea about which one you are leaning towards. If not, make an essay appointment to talk to your guidance counselor to discuss which class is best for essay letter, you. Whether you decide to take AP Literature, AP Language, or both, you might also be wondering how many AP classes total you should take in high school. See our guide to essay networking choosing the right number. Also studying for the SAT or ACT? Learn which reading section is harder, and get tips for persuasive essay letter, an 800 SAT Reading score from our full-scorer. Essay On Social. Want to improve your SAT score by 160 points or your ACT score by 4 points? We've written a guide for each test about the top 5 strategies you must be using to have a shot at improving your score. Short. Download it for essay on social networking, free now: Have friends who also need help with test prep?

Share this article! Halle Edwards graduated from how to, Stanford University with honors. In high school, she earned 99th percentile ACT scores as well as 99th percentile scores on SAT subject tests. She also took nine AP classes, earning a perfect score of 5 on seven AP tests. As a graduate of a large public high school who tackled the college admission process largely on her own, she is networking passionate about helping high school students from different backgrounds get the knowledge they need to writing essay be successful in the college admissions process. You should definitely follow us on social media.

You'll get updates on our latest articles right on your feed. Follow us on all 3 of networking, our social networks: Have any questions about this article or other topics? Ask below and we'll reply! Series: How to Get 800 on Each SAT Section: Series: How to Get to 600 on buy book report Each SAT Section: Series: How to Get 36 on Each ACT Section: Our hand-selected experts help you in a variety of other topics! Looking for Graduate School Test Prep? Check out our top-rated graduate blogs here: Get the latest articles and test prep tips! © PrepScholar 2013-2015.

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Bruckheimer), Leah Striker (assistant camera), Eve Swannell (assistant production coordinator : re-shoots), Francis Taaffe (video assist operator), Travis Tarr (development assistant), Nick Waldron (assistant location manager : UK), Jrg Widmer (camera operator); Musique : Hans Zimmer. Clive Owen (Lucius Artorius Castus [Arthur]) - Ioan Gruffudd (Lancelot) - Mads Mikkelsen (Tristan) - Joel Edgerton (Gawain) - Hugh Dancy (Galahad) - Ray Winstone (Bors [Bohort]) - Ray Stevenson (Dagonet) - Keira Knightley (Guinevere [Gunièvre]) - Stephen Dillane (Merlin) - Stellan Skarsgörd (Cerdic, roi des Saxons) - Til Schweiger (Cynric, fils de Cerdic) - Sean Gilder (Jols) - Pat Kinevane (Horton, secrétaire de Germanius) - Ivano Marescotti (évêque Germanius [saint Germain d'Auxerre]) - Ken Stott (Marcus Honorius) - Lorenzo De Angelis (Alecto) - Stefania Orsola Garello (Fulcinia, épouse de Marcus Honorius) - Alan Devine (Geoffrey, éclaireur breton) - Charlie Creed-Miles (Ganis, serf) - Johnny Brennan (Lucan) - David Murray (lieutenant de Merlin) - Ned Dennehy (moine 1) - Phelim Drew (moine antipathique) - Des Braiden (moine 3) - Malachy McKenna (éclaireur de Cerdic) - Brian McGuinness (officier de Cerdic 1) - Patrick Leech (officier de Cerdic 2) - Bosco Hogan (faux évêque) - David Wilmot (homme bleu épargné par Lancelot) - Lochlainn O'Mearain [Lochlann O'Mearain] (commandant romain) - Paul McGlinchey (mercenaire) - Dessie Gallagher (mercenaire) - Maria Gladkowska (mère d'Arthur) - Shane Murray-Corcoran (Arthur, jeune) - Daire McCormack (Agustus) - Dawn Bradfield (Vanora) - Lesley Ann Shaw (villageoise écossaise) - Joe McKinney (Saxon estropié) - Gerry O'Brien (conseiller Hommes Bleus) - Brian Condon (garde du corps de Cerdic) - Donncha Crowley (moine) - Chick Allen (Saxon) - Elliot Henderson-Boyle (Lancelot, jeune) - Clive Russell (Henzil, père de Lancelot) - Stephanie Putson (mère de Lancelot) - Graham McTavish (officier romain). BE/ 28 juillet 2004. Scénario bouclé fin mai 2001. Buy Book Report! Tournage dans la région de Wicklow, près de Dublin (Irlande), commencé en juillet 2003 et terminé en novembre. On Social Networking! Pour les besoins du film le mur d'Hadrien fut reconstruit sur 950 m, ainsi que deux villages avec maisons en pierre et toits de chaume, par trois cents ouvriers. Sept cent cinquante figurants et cascadeurs se partagent les rôles des cavaliers romains, celtes, sarmates et saxons, et sont vêtus de tissus fabriqués à l'ancienne. On Outsourcing! Budget : 90 millions de dollars. CD : Hans Zimmer, King Arthur, Hollywood Records, réf. Essay On Social Networking! 5050467-4664-2-5. 1. Writing! Moya Brennan, Tell Me Now (What You See) (4' 34), 2. Essay Networking! Woad To Ruin (11' 31), 3. Essay! Do You think I'm Saxon ? (8' 42), 4. On Social! Hold The Ice (5' 42), 5. Writing Essay Company! Another Brick in essay, Hadrian Wall (7' 11), 6. Buy Book Report! Budget Meeting (9' 43), 7. Networking! All Of Them ! (10' 24).

Christophe Chadefaud, Le Roi Arthur, Ciné Live, n 80, juin 2004, pp. Letter! 98-99, 116-117; Daniel De Belie, Le film raconté, Ciné-TéléRevue, n 30, 22 juillet 2004, pp. Essay! 28-29; Christophe Chadefaud, Le Roi Arthur. Buy Book Report! Un nouveau règne commence. Networking! King Size Story, Ciné Live, n 81, été 2004, pp. Processes Essay! 84-86; Philippe Manche, Les beaux jours du roi Arthur. Essay On Social Networking! Antoine Fuqua, le réalisateur de Training Day, revisite la légende du Roi Arthur, Le Soir (Bruxelles), mercredi 28 juillet 2004; Maggy Pierre Thonon, Où l'histoire est plus crue que la belle légende. Processes Essay! La vie des Chevaliers de la Table Ronde du Roi Arthur 600 ans avant que Chrétien de Troyes les idéalise, L'écho de la Bourse (Bruxelles), mercredi 28 juillet 2004; A. Essay! Lo., Quand Arthur s'appelait Arturius.

Après Troie, c'est la légende du roi Arthur qui est revue à l'aune des faits historiques, La Libre Belgique (Bruxelles), mercredi 28 juillet 2004; Valérie Lejeune, Clive Owen. Buy Book Report! Audience royale, Le Figaro magazine, n 18657, samedi 31 juillet 2004, pp. On Social Networking! 56-57. Frank Thompson (d'après le scénario de David Franzoni), King Arthur, New York, Hypérion éd., réf 0-7868-9083-5, 2004, 349 p.; id., Le Roi Arthur, J'Ai Lu, n 7431, 2004, 251 p. Frank Thompson évite soigneusement de donner trop de détails historiques pour ce film décidément fâché avec la chronologie. Introduce! Pour les besoins de la cause, il arrange aussi à sa manière certains détails : ainsi, pour rendre crédible l'arrachage par Arthur de l'épée fichée sur la tombe paternelle - coutume réputée sarmate par la logique du film -, le père de L. Essay Networking! Artorius Castus passe pour avoir lui-même été un sarmate romanisé.

Quand au traducteur anonyme, il élague largement le texte américain pour le raccourcir d'une centaine de pages, et, non sans désinvolture, traduit l'anglais crossbowmen, arbalétriers, par arquebusiers. Writing Essay! Pourquoi se gêner. On Social Networking! De même le nom du pape qui désire récupérer son neveu Alecto n'est pas révélé dans le film ni dans la novelisation; se fiant sur les données du film, Ciné-Live (n 80, p. Short On Outsourcing! 99) identifie le jeune homme comme le futur pape Léon - celui qui arrêtera Attila en route pour Rome en 452 - mais c'est là, croyons-nous, pure spéculation du journaliste. (Grande-Bretagne, 452 de n.E.) Fils d'un noble romain et d'une bretonne, Lucius Artorius Castus mène au combat son escadron de mercenaires sarmates composé de Lancelot aux deux épées, Bohort au crâne rasé, Gauvain au faucon, Tristan, Galahad et Dagonet ( 1 ) à la hache. On Social! Quinze années de bons et loyaux services qui touchent à leur fin, conclues par la victorieuse couverture de l'escorte de l'évêque Cnaeus Germanius tombé dans une embuscade tendue par des Pictes ( 2 ). Buy Book Report! Le rusé évêque - à qui les choses de la guerre n'étaient point étrangères - avait endossé la tenue d'un légionnaire et s'était dissimulé parmi les membres de son escorte, laissant dans son carrosse un faux évêque se laisser massacrer à sa place. A l'étape, Germanius est logé dans le fortin qui sert de base aux auxiliaires sarmates, quelque part sur le mur d'Hadrien ( 3 ). Essay On Social Networking! Logé dans la propre chambre de leur officier, Artorius, l'évêque fouille dans ses affaires et y découvre un portait du moine hérésiarque Pélage dont il poursuit les disciples. Letter! Il brise l'effigie avec mépris, mais s'abstient d'en faire le reproche à Artorius car il a encore besoin de lui et de ses hommes pour une ultime mission, avant de leur remettre le diplôme qui les libérera de leur service. Essay Networking! Peuple de la steppe, les Sarmates, en effet, ont naguère été vaincus par les Romains, auxquels ils sont obligés de fournir des cavaliers lourdement cuirassés qui servent pendant quinze ans comme auxiliaires des légions. Essay On Outsourcing! Aussi ne sera-ce pas sans quelque désappointement que les sept hommes voient différé leur retour au pays, si toutefois ils survivent à cette périlleuse mission en dehors de leur contrat.

Il s'agit, en effet, d'aller en pays picte évacuer la villa du noble Marius Honorius, ou tout au moins d'en ramener coûte que coûte son fils Alecto, neveu du pape, lequel pressent le jeune homme pour lui succéder. Bohort fait ses adieux à sa concubine Vanora, et à ses fils Gilly, son préféré, et la demi-douzaine d'autres bâtards prénommés Un, Deux, Trois, etc. On Social! dont quelques-uns ne seraient pas de lui mais du galant Lancelot ! L'hiver nappe la forêt picte de son blanc linceul. Buy Book Report! Les Sarmates, qui sont païens, découvrent avec horreur les mauvais traitements que, dans sa villa, Honorius, avec la complicité de quelques hommes d'armes, inflige aux misérables serfs pictes, sous prétexte qu'ils ne sont même pas chrétiens. Essay! Artorius croit en la liberté individuelle de l'homme, et en la responsabilité de ses choix ainsi que l'enseignait le breton Pélage, ami de son père, excommunié et exécuté un an and procedures essay plus tôt à Rome ( 4 ). Networking! Bien qu'il haïsse les Pictes - qui massacrèrent ses mère et père lorsqu'il était enfant -, Artorius commence à prendre conscience de la brutalité de la domination romaine sur les différents peuples de la Bretagne, dont sont les Pictes. A Research Paper! Il libère les prisonniers qu'Honorius avait fait torturer et s'apprêtait à emmurer vif. Networking! Parmi eux, il trouve Guenièvre, fille du chef picte Merlin, à qui Honorius a fait écraser les doigts avec une machine (il remettra en place ses doigts luxés selon une méthode énergique !).

Lucius Artorius charge Ganis, un serviteur, de conduire vers lignes romaines Alecto et tous ceux qui veulent évacuer la villa, tandis que dans le lointain résonnent les tambours de guerre de l'armée des envahisseurs saxons - des barbares qui ne savent que massacrer et incendier. How To A Research! En compagnie de ses chevaliers sarmates et de Guenièvre, remarquable archère, Artorius fera une diversion pour couvrir leur retraite. Essay Networking! Ainsi les chevaliers sarmates entraînent-ils à leurs trousses Cynric, fils du roi Cerdic, et deux cents des siens. Persuasive! Pendant que Cerdic pille la villa de Marius Honorius et assassine l'arrogant romain qui pensait lui en imposer, Lucius Artorius, Guenièvre et les six chevaliers mercenaires affrontent leurs poursuivants sur une rivière gelée. Essay! Les arcs sarmates ayant une portée plus longue que les arcs et arbalètes saxons, les huit entreprennent de décimer l'ennemi à distance, visant les ailes dans l'espoir que, se regroupant au centre de la rivière, ils fissent céder la glace sous leur poids. Of Essay! Finalement, ce sera Dagonet qui se sacrifiera pour, de sa hache, briser la glace, engloutissant les Saxons. Pendant le voyage du retour, Merlin a une entrevue avec le Romain qui arracha sa fille à ses bourreau. Essay On Social Networking! Il lui rappelle que lui, Artorius, est plus Breton que Romain, et qu'il pourrait - s'il le désirait - prendre la tête des Pictes pour défendre son île contre les Saxons, puisque les légions romaines sont en train de rembarquer sans espoir de retour.

Lucius Artorius lui jette ses griefs à la face. Buy Book Report! Les Pictes ont massacré sa mère, qui pourtant était Bretonne. Essay! Et il a fait un serment en arrachant de ses faibles mains l'épée Excalibur fichée sur la tombe paternelle ! Arrivé au fort, Artorius retrouve l'évêque qui l'invite à une conférence à deux autour d'une immense table ronde qu'il a fait construire ( 5 ). Short Essay On Outsourcing! Il lui fait miroiter le destin de Romain, qui l'attend à Rome. On Social Networking! Mais l'entêté chevalier ne peut se résoudre au lâche abandon de sa patrie. Introduce! Les paroles de Merlin lui trottent dans la tête. Networking! Et tandis que ses camarades libérés abandonnent le fort en compagnie de Germanius, de son escorte et des derniers civils réfugiés, Arthur, brandissant son étendard personnel (un dragon de cavalerie [ 6 ]), défie à lui tout seul Cerdic et son armée qui viennent de se ranger sous les remparts d'Hadrien. Arthur et ses cinq camarades (qui, pris de remords, l'ont rejoint) affronteront seuls toute l'armée saxonne ( 7 ). Company! jusqu'à ce que Merlin, Guenièvre et les archers pictes surgissent sur les arrières des Saxons et en fassent un grand massacre avec leurs trébuchets. Essay On Social! Dans cette bataille, Tristan sera tué par le roi des Saxons, et Lancelot ( 8 ) occis d'un carreau d'arbalète par son fils Cynric. Letter! Les Saxons sont battus à plate coutures sur ce désormais fameux mont Badon. Les morts sont brûlés selon la coutume païenne.

Entouré des chevaliers qui lui restent - Galahad, Tristan et Bohort - Arthur épouse Guenièvre dans un cercle de mégalithes qui dominent la mer, tandis que les flèches enflammées des Pictes tracent dans la nue un feu d'artifice célébrant la Bretagne réconciliée. La genèse du Roi Arthur d'Antoine Fuqua date d'il y a plusieurs années, lorsque le scénariste David Franzoni s'intéressa de très près à. Networking! ce qui est considéré par certains comme la genèse du mythe : l'épopée de Lucius Artorius Castus, envoyé en Bretagne par l'Empereur Marc Aurèle au IIe s. Essay On Outsourcing! de n.E. Essay Networking! Mi-romain, mi-breton, il fut choisi pour protéger les Bretons de l'invasion saxonne. Buy Book Report! Pour ce faire, il s'accompagna de nombreux soldats parmi lesquels Lancelot, Gauvain, Galahad, Bors, Tristan et Dagonet, une troupe de guerriers sans pitié menée par un sage répondant au nom de Merlin. Essay Networking! C'est à partir de ces événements bien précis que David Franzoni tissa l'histoire de son Roi Arthur. Le film est produit par Jerry Bruckheimer, toujours à l'affût des films à sensation, déjà à l'origine de grands succès cette année comme Pirates des Caraïbes, La malédiction du Black Pearl, Bad Boys II et Veronica Guerin. Persuasive Letter! Le réalisateur Antoine Fuqua (Les larmes du soleil) a actuellement le vent en poupe. Essay! Son film Training Day s'est avéré être une belle réussite, permettant à Denzel Washington d'obtenir l'Oscar du Meilleur acteur, en 2002.

Il aura un second long métrage à l'affiche en 2004, une comédie baptisée Family Reunion. L'acteur incarnant le Roi Arthur est Clive Owen (La mémoire dans la peau, Gosford Park). Introduce! Stephen Dillane, vu dans The Hours et Spy Game, interprète Merlin. Essay! Keira Knightley joue quant à elle le rôle très convoité de la belle Guenièvre. Writing Essay! La jeune actrice, révélation féminine de Pirates des Caraïbes, La malédiction du Black Pearl, qui a d'ores et déjà signé pour le second volet, est actuellement à l'affiche de la comédie anglaise à succès Love Actually et continue sur sa belle lancée. On Social! Les fameux Chevaliers de la Table Ronde viennent compléter la galerie des personnages. Processes And Procedures! Lancelot et Galaad sont personnifiés par Ioan Gruffud et Hugh Dancy, tous deux à l'affiche de La chute du Faucon Noir produit par Bruckheimer. Essay On Social Networking! Joel Edgerton joue Gauvain, le neveu d'Arthur. Short On Outsourcing! Le jeune comédien australien donne aussi vie à Owen Lars, l'oncle de Luke Skywalker, dans Star Wars Episode II : L'attaque des clones et dans le dernier épisode de la saga. L'aspect fantastique du cycle arthurien, nourri par des siècles de tradition populaire, avec la magie de Merlin l'Enchanteur, la mystérieuse île d'Avalon et les sortilèges des fées, est délibérément écarté pour laisser place à la véracité historique.

Exit l'amour courtois, les tournois et la vision moyenâgeuse du mythe, le nouvel Arthur, chef de guerre romanisé, arrive des confins de l'Antiquité pour combattre ses ennemis dans les salles obscures. (1) Dur tout de même d'accepter pour Sarmates des noms comme Lancelot, Gauvain, Galahad ou Tristan, ou de voir obstinément appeler chevaliers sarmates des combattants qu'il aurait été plus juste de nommer cataphractaires, clibanaires ou contophores. On Social Networking! ou plus prosaïquement lanciers. Essay! - Retour texte. (2) Le film les nomme plus volontiers les Woads, les Bleus à cause de la peinture dont ils s'enduisent le corps. On Social Networking! La novelisation traduit ce mot, en français, par les Guèdes. Company! - Retour texte. (3) A la fin du film, ce lieu est désigné comme le mont Badon, conformément à la tradition qui situe sur le mont Badon une victoire d'Arthur (ou plutôt d'Ambrosius Aurelius) sur les Saxons. Essay! - Retour texte.

(4) En fait, si Pélage fut bien condamné pour hérésie, on introduce ignore où et comment il finit ses jours (probablement en Egypte, vers 422). On Social Networking! - Retour texte. (5) Bien sûr, la Table Ronde était un ingrédient obligé d'un film sur le roi Arthur. How To Paper! Mais la présence de cette table est assez insolite dans ce fort du mur d'Hadrien, dont le spectateur a du mal à mesurer l'importance. Essay On Social! Sans doute sa garnison habituelle aura été précédemment évacuée. Introduce! Le fort est manifestement trop grand pour les seuls sept mercenaires et, du reste, la nombreuse escorte de l'évêque semble y loger plus qu'à l'aise. Essay Networking! Mais dans ce cas, pourquoi Arthur/Artorius a-t-il prêté sa chambre à son illustre visiteur, comme si l'on y était à l'étroit ? - Retour texte. (7) Les phases de cette bataille noyée dans les fumigènes sont assez confuses et incohérentes, quoique très spectaculaires. Essay! - Retour texte. (8) Il fallait bien, pour que la morale reste sauve, que Lancelot mourusse.

L'impénitent séducteur étant trop sensible à la beauté de Guenièvre. Essay! - Retour texte.

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Each essay should be organized in terms of a thesis that emphasizes a conceptual argument, rather than a mere summary of the texts or a general theme. Take a position, state clearly what your position is, and then mobilize textual references to convince your reader that you are right, and that you have approached the question in a fair-minded and thoughtful manner. Essays that are not built on a thesis tend to summarize the text and to wander aimlessly from point to point. 4. Engage with the themes of the course and the texts that we are studying. Essay On Social Networking? A good paper strikes the reader as a work that could not have been written unless the introduce student author had attended the course lectures/seminars, taken part in class discussions, and engaged with the assigned reading. Aim to conduct a sustained scholarly dialogue with the questions raised in class and in your texts. You are welcome to on social, take any reasonable position in how to paper, your essay, but engagement with the assigned texts is mandatory. Think of on social networking it this way: you can choose, within reasonable limits, the position from which you will speak in your essay, but you must speak to the assigned reading. 5. Define your terms.

Political theorists should aim to define terms with great precision. Political theorists contribute to buy book report, the study of politics by shedding new light on the conceptual dimensions of key political problems. As soon as you introduce a term into your essay, you should define it very clearly. As always, carefully footnote the passages from the text that you are using to build your definitions. 6. Support empirical claims.

Where your argument does depend upon essay on social networking, factual claims, you must state them clearly in how to structure, a precise manner, and you must footnote your source. 7. Leave yourself enough time to write a full outline and multiple drafts. I understand that you will find yourselves writing last-minute papers and “cramming” for exams, but I encourage you to avoid this approach where political theory papers are concerned. The best theoretical papers take a great deal of reflection and on social critical revision. Aim to on outsourcing, finish the next-to-final draft several days before the essay on social networking due date, so that you will have enough time to put it away for a couple of days. Then re-read your draft -- because you will be looking at the paper with fresh eyes, you will be able to essay, detect weak passages and problematic transitions much easier --, make your final corrections, and hand it in. B. Interpreting the political theory text. 1. Put your analytical voice at the forefront throughout the essay . Emphasize your informed argument. The political theory essay is never just a research report that collects a number of networking quotations and short strings them together; we want to see evidence that you have done the appropriate reading and that you are thinking independently and creatively about the text. 2. Always remember that the essay is an on social networking, academic mode of discourse . Almost every student lapses into casual language usage and sloppy argumentation in their essays.

Do not use the kind of words, phrases and arguments that you would use in other contexts, such as e-mail, your personal journal, conversations with friends, journalistic articles or an address to a political rally. In political theory writing, the more you strike a thoughtful and scholarly tone, the introduce more your reader will trust your judgment. 3. On Social? On a few occasions, you will quote directly from the text. This can be particularly appropriate when you are dealing with a richly textured passage in and procedures essay, which the text advances an argument that is essay on social networking central to your paper. Introduce Of Essay? But after giving the direct quotation, you should then offer your own penetrating commentary. Do not fill out your answers with long direct quotations from the on social networking text. In short papers up to 15 pages in length, no single direct quotation should be longer than 20 to 50 words in length. Short? Between one and four direct quotations would be appropriate for this type of paper. 4. Networking? For the most part, you will be avoiding direct quotations altogether; you will be practicing the of essay art of the essay networking concise paraphrase . You should choose appropriate passages from the text and put them in your own words, taking care throughout the paper to a research paper, capture the nuances of the text, and to footnote the original source. Essay On Social Networking? (Plagiarism is strictly forbidden.) Following each paraphrase, you should once again bring your own analytical voice to the forefront by giving your own commentary. In other words, your paper should never strike the essay letter reader as a simple set of textual summaries. Make the essay networking texts work for you but pay attention to the more complicated aspects of their arguments.

Discuss not only their obvious meaning but their subtle and buy book report even contradictory dimensions as well. With every reference to a text, your argument should become more clear, convincing and sophisticated. 5. When analyzing the essay text of a given theorist, carefully reconstruct the and procedures essay argument in your own words, with full notation as required. On Social Networking? Your goal should be to make the strongest possible case for his/her argument , on his/her terms and from his/her point of structure a research paper view. By all means introduce your own opinions about the text, but only after you have provided a sophisticated reconstruction of its argument. 6. You should explore the meaning of essay on social each text very carefully . If you are opposed to an argument, you must nevertheless recognize its strengths. By the same token, you must indicate the of essay weaknesses and on social networking contradictions in the texts that you happen to favor.

Any essay that fails to do this will miss the opportunity to engage in advanced forms of interpretive work. The political theory essay differs in this respect from polemical writing, debate speeches, and closing arguments in a trial. If you agree with the text without carefully reconstructing its position, then your agreement will come too easily and you will fail to note the text's own contradictions and weaknesses. Buy Book Report? If, by contrast, you criticize the text without considering its strengths, you will be reducing the text to a straw man and on social engaging in a dismissive reading where subtle, detailed and buy book report sensitive commentary is required. 7. Use the non-expert scholar figure as your target audience. Write your paper as if you will be submitting it to a professor who studies politics, but who is not an on social, expert on the material you are dealing with. This will remind you to use any complicated terminology sparingly, to company, define all key terms thoroughly, and to avoid taking for granted the on social networking meaning of complicated debates and issues. Take care to lead the non-expert scholar through the twists and turns of your argument, and make sure that your imaginary reader will regard your work as an accessible and processes persuasive paper.

Perhaps something that seems obvious to you actually needs more explanation and detailed interrogation. By teaching the non-expert scholar figure about political theory, you will become a better political theorist yourself. As Wittgenstein says, the best way to find out if someone really understands the on social meaning of a word is to ask her or him to teach someone else about the buy book report word and networking its usage. 8. Anticipate any reasonable objections that your reader might raise, lay them out in the strongest and most empathetic manner possible, and then give your rebuttal. You may find that this process will actually lead you to reconsider your own position and spur you to write a richer and more penetrating paper. 1. Present the different parts of your argument in a logical order.

Explain to short, the reader in explicit terms why you are proceeding from one idea to the next. In a longer piece (i.e. over essay on social 10 pages) use subtitles to help the reader to follow the progression of structure paper your argument. Your reader should never have to wonder why a specific sentence was included, or why a certain paragraph came before another one. 2. Personal reflections and autobiographical information are acceptable; in fact, first person writing has become prominent in feminist and on social networking critical race theory writing. Short Essay? (See, for example, the work of Patricia J. Williams.) For our purposes, however, personal writing is only appropriate insofar as it is well integrated into your theoretical argument. On Social? You should keep in essay on outsourcing, mind that personal material is never an adequate substitute for theoretical analysis. 3. You should meticulously edit your paper and eliminate spelling, grammar, and punctuation errors. 4. You should incorporate several references to the assigned texts into essay networking, your answer and these references should be noted clearly throughout.

All noting systems are acceptable. In a typical political theory paper, you might have between 3 to writing company, 10 notes per page. 5. Attach a bibliography if you have not made reference in your footnotes to networking, every source that you consulted while conducting your research and writing the paper. I reserve the right to conduct an internet search relating to introduce, any part of your assignment to check for plagiarism. 6. I consider the notes that you take during my lectures as common property; you do not have to provide a footnote to them. By the same token, do not rely entirely on your lecture notes; you should depend, first and foremost, on your own reading. 7. We expect you to abide by the plagiarism code of the university in all work that you submit to your professors for a grade. Note too that although I often require students to circulate their seminar papers to the members of the class e-mail list, and that I often encourage political theory students to read exemplary student papers and theses that I place on reserve, you may not copy any material from a student paper without providing a full citation to that work. Double submission is also forbidden. This rule often raises a lot of questions in students' minds. If you anticipate that your paper might resemble another piece of work that you have done/are doing for another course, please make an appointment with me to discuss the overlap situation.

8. Deadlines are meant to ensure that each individual student receives fair and equal treatment. I only give extensions to essay on social networking, students who have a documented medical excuse. 9. Please deliver your paper, in hard copy format, to my mailbox on the second floor of processes and procedures essay White Hall, by on social networking 4:30 on the due date. I cannot accept e-mail attachments because they have crashed my computer too many times ! Some short examples of writing styles. (Please also consult the work that I am placing on how to reserve for this course.) A. Question: Analyze the media coverage of the LAPD trials related to essay, the beating of Rodney King. The meaning of the videotape was shaped by the defence lawyers in the courtroom. According to short essay, Crenshaw and Peller,

What many people did not comprehend was that police brutality, just like discrimination, does not speak for essay on social itself. This very struggle over buy book report meaning is precisely what the essay networking intense contestations about race in buy book report, the law are really about. Rather than providing some kind of firm ground to networking, challenge racist institutional practices, notions of formal equality, objectivity, neutrality, and the like tend to obscure the way that race is experienced by the vast majority of African Americans in writing essay, this society. Essay Networking? (Crenshaw and Peller 1993: 64) So we can see that oppressed people cannot control the ways in which the law is used against them. The student has clearly read the introduce assigned text by Crenshaw and Peller, but he or she is relying on the quotation too much. The student should put the quotation into his or her own words and then give his or her commentary. The problem is that his or her voice has been lost altogether. Essay On Social? The student has merely gone into and procedures essay, the text, found some key passages, and then pasted them together. Although the student has grasped the basic meaning of the text, the more complex aspects of Crenshaw and Peller's argument seem to be eluding him or her. This writing is at a C to B- level. Having examined the general political context for the LAPD trials in Los Angeles, California and the United States as a whole, we will now consider the ways in which the trial was conducted and represented in the media.

At this point, we must insist on the fact that racial meanings have become so politicized in American society that virtually every racial representation is the product of essay intensive contestation. The videotape of King's beating -- images that many assumed would be taken on face value as objective evidence of the the LAPD officers' guilt -- was no exception. Crenshaw and Peller point out that the legal debates on race are precisely centered on struggles about paper meaning. They demonstrate, for example, that the LAPD officers' defence used the same legal strategy that anti-affirmative action plaintiffs use in court: they attempted to restrict the category of essay legitimate evidence and to writing essay, re-define unfavourable evidence by placing it in the most favourable context possible. (1992: 64) In my opinion, the management of racial imagery plays an on social networking, integral role in the entire system of of essay institutional racism. As I stated above with reference to the black power movement and the social theory of institutionalization, institutional racism depends upon on social networking, the discrediting of African-Americans such that discrimination against blacks becomes unconsciously integrated into the normal way of doing things. That discrediting process depends in part upon and procedures essay, the selective use of facts, and the re-contextualization of facts that would otherwise constitute evidence of essay on social networking oppression.

Re-contextualize the video of King's beating, or re-contextualize the under-representation of blacks in higher education, and you can diminish the sense that racial discrimination has taken place. It is only when we take Crenshaw and Peller's warning about the constructed nature of processes and procedures every racial image seriously that we can begin to analyze the media coverage of the trials. The student's own argument is driving the essay: she is taking a position and defending it; the on social reference to the article is paraphrased accurately and properly noted; the student clearly has a thesis and is marshalling her references to writing company, support her argument; she is building a case, presenting the essay on social networking different parts of the argument in a logical order, and telling the reader very clearly why she is moving from one idea to the next. There is a slight risk that the student is moving too quickly from one idea to the next; the reader might be a bit dazzled by all the quick transitions. Hopefully, the student will return to persuasive letter, the themes discussed here at several junctures so that we can get a more clear sense of his or her argument. This section of the paper would merit a grade of networking A- or better. B. Question: Can a society marked by a substantial inequality in wealth maintain and deepen a genuinely democratic form of government ? Its pretty obvious that the system is run by on outsourcing rich white men.

We will never get campaign finance reform because the lobbyists for essay on social networking rich white men are incredibly powerful. (http://www.conspiracytheory.com) So many Americans don't even bother to vote. First, we do not have the sense that the student is writing a political theory essay and engaging with the content of a political theory course. Processes And Procedures Essay? The passage reads like something the student could have written without taking the course at all. Essay? What do political theorists mean when they describe a particular type of government as democratic? The student is essay taking for granted that we only need to discuss whether or not individuals have the right to vote and actually exercise that right. The conceptual debates on the meaning of democracy are vastly more complicated than this implicit assumption. The tone of the passage is far too casual, journalistic and clich-ridden. Phrases such as it's pretty obvious or some people say do not belong in an academic essay. On Social? Its ought to be spelled it's.

Contractions, such as don't should also not be used; write the long form (do not) instead. The term, the of essay system, is a popular clich that is far too vague. Which system are we dealing with here: the political parties, the bureaucracy, the private corporate sector, etc.? Campaign finance reform is not defined. Rich white men is not an academic phrase.

The student should be referring to specific socio-economic classes, such as the bourgeoisie, or even more precisely, specific parts of the bourgeois class, such as finance capitalists or industrialists. We cannot assume that the white race and the male gender always coincides perfectly with wealth -- what about wealthy women, poor whites, and wealthy non-whites? It is plausible that campaign finance reform is being thwarted by networking certain corporate interest groups, but exactly how are they doing this? What does the writer exactly mean by powerful? If she or he is referring to essay, the way in which political representatives' voting records on reform sometimes correspond to essay, their fund-raising activities in the private sector, then this argument should be developed in an explicit manner. The cited source, the web page, is not an acceptable academic text. Web page sources must be used very carefully. Paper? Data should be drawn primarily from articles and texts that have been published by academic publishers.

Data from the essay networking publications of structure a research paper (non-partisan) governmental agencies is on social also acceptable. The latter are often available on the web through the Cornell Library Gateway; ask a reference librarian if you need help locating them. Processes And Procedures Essay? Where your essay depends on factual claims, you should avoid using journalistic sources to support those claims. The only essay on social, type of and procedures essay journalistic source that is acceptable is what is called the newspaper of record: in the United States, the New York Times and essay on social the Washington Post are good examples. References to Time Magazine, Newsweek, CNN reports and so on are not legitimate. Finally, the essay is skipping between too many complicated ideas too quickly.

Again, it is entirely plausible that there is a connection between the lack of campaign finance reform and voting participation rates. If the agendas of the Republicans and Democrats are in fact influenced by wealthy interest groups first and foremost, then the large numbers of Americans who are not represented by those interest groups will not see the issues that matter to them discussed and dealt with by the two parties. Less wealthy Americans may therefore feel increasingly alienated from politics, and those feelings of alienation may lead them to stop voting altogether. However, a critic might say that the short presence of third party alternatives, or more responsive local and essay on social networking state party structures, or a popular social movement could nevertheless spur greater turn-out rates. The essay needs to engage with political theory texts, build each argument one at a time, give full and careful treatment to each claim, construct the argument using clearly defined academic terms, anticipate the writing company objections of essay networking a critic, support important factual claims with academic sources, and then clearly indicate how the essay is moving logically on to the persuasive letter next point. This passage is an example of writing that would receive a grade of C- or worse. The tension between the type of essay inequality that is present in any capitalist social structure on writing company the one hand, and liberal democracy on the other, is essay networking explored in essay company, a perceptive manner by Marx in his article, On the Jewish Question. Essay Networking? (footnote) Marx was addressing the fact that Jews had suffered enormous discrimination in Europe; they had been barred from holding office and from practicing most professions and structure paper crafts.

In some cases, they had even been quarantined in special residential zones. During the mid-nineteenth century, European authorities liberated the Jew in the sense that they dismantled these official exclusionary rules. Marx used the unique position of the Jewish people to illustrate his argument that no one could achieve genuine freedom and equality as long as the capitalist system remained intact. As we have seen in on social networking, our discussion of introduce of essay Locke, individual freedom and equality of opportunity are necessary components of any liberal democratic order. By all appearances, the liberated Jew enjoyed freedom and equality in this sense; he or she had the right to own property, to enter contracts, to serve in on social networking, a public office, and -- where the franchise existed -- to vote.

But Marx points out that the introduce liberated Jew has only been granted the sort of freedom and equality that are possible in market society. The liberated Jew has only achieved the same status as every other individual in a capitalist world. That individual is, in essence, divided into two halves. Essay On Social? There is the citizen half; in this mode, the how to structure paper individual considers the good of the whole and prioritizes the community. Then there is the competitor half. Essay On Social? In this second mode, the individual puts aside the buy book report generosity of spirit and fellow-feeling that he or she expresses when he or she is in the citizen mode and struggles against every other individual to gain as much capital as possible.(footnote) In the competitor mode, the individual will find himself or herself sorted very quickly into essay, a class group, based on whether or not he or she owns the means of production. Marx concludes that there can be no reconciliation of the citizen/competitor split within the individual until private property is abolished and the capitalist system is overthrown.(footnote) Rousseau advances a similar argument in his Essay on the Origin of Inequality. Once again we have the opposition between the introduce of essay two modes within the individual: the unselfish and empathetic mode, and the mean-spirited competitive mode. . The author emphasizes the conceptual problems throughout, giving only a brief summary of the historical issues touched on by Marx, so that he or she can progress quickly to the key conceptual argument. The sign-posting to on social networking, other passages in how to structure a research paper, the essay (as we have seen . ) is helpful without being too intrusive, and the topic of each paragraph is clearly introduced in the first sentence.

The author is building the argument in a comparative manner, but he or she is not simply summarizing each text. Instead, he or she is picking out the relevant conceptual arguments in Locke, Marx and essay Rousseau and giving concise paraphrasing treatment to the important passages. One aspect of the essay is being postponed here; we do not hear the voice of the author himself or herself in this paragraph. Presumably, the author is going to bring forth his or her own opinion in the following section of the paper. Provided that he or she does so, the buy book report paper would probably receive a grade of A. These guidelines apply only to the assignments in my classes.

Other professors may be looking for different elements in the assignments for their courses.

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law gravity essay Jacob D. Bekenstein. A theory of gravitation is a description of the long range forces that electrically neutral bodies exert on one another because of their matter content. Until the networking, 1910s Sir Isaac Newton's law of universal gravitation, two particles attract each other with a central force proportional to the product of persuasive letter, their masses and essay inversely proportional to the square of the how to structure a research paper, distance between them , was accepted as the essay, correct and complete theory of gravitation: The proportionality constant here is Newton's constant G = 6.67 x 10 -8 dyn cm 2 g -2 , also called the gravitational constant. This theory is highly accurate in its predictions regarding everyday phenomena.

However, high precision measurements of motions in the solar system and in binary pulsars, the structure of black holes, and the expansion of the universe can only be fully understood in terms of a relativistic theory of gravitation. Essay Letter? Best known of these is essay Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity, which reduces to Newton's theory in a certain limit. Of the scores of rivals to general relativity formulated over the last half century, many have failed various experimental tests, but the essay, verdict is not yet in on which extant relativistic gravitation theory is closest to the truth. In alternative language, newtonian gravitational theory states that the acceleration a (the rate of change of the velocity v ) imparted by gravitation on a test particle is determined by the gravitational potential , and the potential is determined by the surrounding mass distribution by networking, Poisson's partial differential equation. This formulation is entirely equivalent to Newton's law of gravitation. Because a test particle's acceleration depends only on the potential generated by matter in the surroundings, the essay letter, theory respects the weak equivalence principle: the motion of a particle is independent of essay networking, its internal structure or composition . As the subject of Galileo Galilei's apocryphal experiment at the tower of Pisa, this principle is how to a research paper supported by a series of high precision experiments culminating in essay, those directed by Baron Lorand von Eotvos in Budapest in 1922, Robert Dicke at Princeton in 1964, and Vladimir Braginsky in essay, Moscow in 1972.

Highly successful in essay on social, everyday applications, newtonian gravitation has also proved accurate in describing motions in the solar system (except for persuasive essay letter, tiny relativistic effects), the internal structure of planets, the sun and other stars, orbits in binary and multiple stellar systems, the structure of molecular clouds, and, in a rough way, the structure of galaxies and clusters of galaxies (but see below). According to newtonian theory, gravitational effects propagate from place to essay networking place instantaneously. Short On Outsourcing? With the advent of Einstein's special theory of relativity in 1905, a theory uniting the concepts of space and time into that of four dimensional flat space-time (named Minkowski space-time after the mathematician Hermann Minkowski), a problem became discernible with newtonian theory. According to special relativity, which is the current guideline to the form of all physical theory, the speed of light, c = 3 x 10 10 cm s -1 , is the essay networking, top speed allowed to physical particles or forces: There can be no instantaneous propagation. After a decade of search for new concepts to persuasive letter make gravitational theory compatible with the spirit of special relativity, Einstein came up with the theory of general relativity (1915), the prototype of essay on social networking, all modern gravitational theories. Its crucial ingredient, involving a colossal intellectual jump, is the concept of gravitation, not as a force, but as a manifestation of the curvature of space-time, an idea first mentioned in rudimentary form by buy book report, the mathematician Ceorg Bernhard Riemann in 1854. In Einstein's hands gravitation theory was thus transformed from a theory of forces into the first dynamical theory of geometry, the geometry of four dimensional curved space-time. Why talk of curvature? One of Einstein's first predictions was the essay networking, gravitational redshift: As any wave, such as light, propagates away from a gravitating mass, all frequencies in it are reduced by buy book report, an amount proportional to on social the change in gravitational potential experienced by the wave. This redshift has been measured in company, the laboratory, in essay, solar observations, and by means of high precision clocks flown in processes and procedures, airplanes.

However, imagine for essay networking, a moment that general relativity had not yet been invented, but the essay on outsourcing, redshift has already been measured. According to a simple argument owing to Alfred Schild, wave propagation under stationary circumstances can display a redshift only essay if the usual geometric relations implicit in Minkowski space-time are violated: The space-time must be curved. Introduce? The observations of the redshift thus show that space-time must be curved in the vicinity of masses, regardless of the precise form of the gravitational theory. Einstein provided 10 equations relating the metric (a tensor with 10 independent components describing the geometry of space-time) to the material energy momentum tensor (also composed of 10 components, one of which corresponds to essay on social our previous ). These Einstein field equations, in which both of the previously mentioned constants G and c figure as parameters, replace Poisson's equation. Einstein also replaced the newtonian law of motion by the statement that free test particles move along geodesics, the shortest curves in the space-time geometry. The influential gravitation theorist John Archibald Wheeler has encapsulated general relativity in the aphorism ``curvature tells matter how to move, and matter tells space-time how to curve.'' The Eotvos-Dicke-Braginsky experiments demonstrate with high precision that free test particles all travel along the same trajectories in space-time, whereas the gravitational redshift shows (with more modest precision) these universal trajectories to persuasive be identical with geodesics. Despite the great contrast between General Relativity and Newtonian theory, predictions of the essay on social networking, former approach the latter for systems in which velocities are small compared to buy book report c and gravitational potentials are weak enough that they cannot cause larger velocities.

This is why we can discuss with newtonian theory the structure of the earth and planets, stars and stellar clusters, and the gross features of motions in essay on social, the solar system without fear of error. Einstein noted two other predictions of introduce of essay, General Relativity. First, light beams passing near a gravitating body must suffer a slight deflection proportional to that body's mass. First verified by observations of stellar images during the 1919 total solar eclipse, this effect also causes deflection of quasar radio images by the sun, is the likely cause of the phenomenon of ``double quasars'' with identical redshift and of the essay on social, recently discovered giant arcs in clusters of galaxies (both probably effects of gravitational lensing), and is part and parcel of the black hole phenomenon. In a closely related effect first noted by Irwin Shapiro, radiation passing near a gravitating body is delayed in persuasive essay, its flight in on social networking, proportion to the body's mass, a time delay verified by means of radar waves deflected by company, the sun on their way from Earth to networking Mercury and back. The second effect is the precession of the periastron of short, a binary system.

According to newtonian gravitation, the orbit of each member of networking, a binary is a coplanar ellipse with orientation fixed in space. General relativity predicts a slow rotation of the ellipse's major axis in the plane of the orbit (precession of the periastron). How To? Originally verified in the motion of Mercury, the precession has of late also been detected in the orbits of binary pulsars. All three effects mentioned depend on features of General Relativity beyond the weak equivalence principle. Indeed, Einstein built into general relativity the much more encompassing ``strong equivalence principle'': the local forms of all nongravitational physical laws and the numerical values of all dimensionless physical constants arc the same in the presence of a gravitational field as in its absence . In practice this implies that within any region in a gravitational field, sufficiently small that space-time curvature may be ignored, all physical laws, when expressed in terms of the space-time metric, have the same forms as required by special relativity in terms of the metric of Minkowski space-time. Thus in a small region in the neighborhood of a black hole (the source of a strong gravitational field) we would describe electromagnetism and optics with the same Maxwell equations used in earthly laboratories where the on social, gravitational field is weak, and we would employ the laboratory values of the electrical permittivity and magnetic susceptibility of the short essay, vacuum.

The strong equivalence principle effectively forces gravitational theory to be General Relativity. Less well tested than the weak version of the principle mentioned earlier, the essay, strong version requires Newton's constant expressed in atomic units to be the same number everywhere, in strong or weak gravitational fields. Stressing that there is introduce very little experimental evidence bearing on on social this assertion, Dicke and his student Carl Brans proposed in 1961 a modification of general relativity akin to a theory considered earlier by Pascual Jordan. In the Brans-Dicke theory the reciprocal of the gravitational constant is itself a one-component field, the scalar field , that is generated by matter in accordance with an additional equation. Then as well as matter has a say in determining the metric via a modified version of Einstein's equations.

Because it involves both metric and scalar fields, the Brans-Dicke theory is dubbed scalar-tensor. Although not complying with the processes and procedures, strong equivalence principle, the theory does respect a milder version of on social networking, it, the Einstein equivalence principle, which asserts that only nongravitational laws and dimensionless constants have their special relativistic forms and values everywhere. Gravitation theorists call theories obeying the buy book report, Einstein equivalence principle metric theories. The Brans-Dicke theory also reduces to essay networking Newtonian theory for systems with small velocities and weak potentials: It has a newtonian limit. In fact, Brans-Dicke theory is distinguishable from general relativity only by essay on outsourcing, the value of its single dimensionless parameter which determines the effectiveness of matter in producing . The larger , the closer the Brans-Dicke theory predictions are to general relativity. Both theories predict the same gravitational redshift effect, although they predict slightly different light deflection and periastron precession effects; the essay on social, differences vanish in introduce of essay, the limit of infinite . Measurements of Mercury's perihelion precession, radar flight time delay, and radio wave deflection by the sun indicate that is at least several hundred. Initially a popular alternative to General Relativity, the Brans-Dicke theory lost favor as it became clear that must be very large-an artificial requirement in some views. Nevertheless, the theory has remained a paradigm for the introduction of essay on social, scalar fields into gravitational theory, and short essay on outsourcing as such has enjoyed a renaissance in connection with theories of higher dimensional space-time. However, constancy of is not conceptually required. In the generic scalar-tensor theory studied by Peter Bergmann, Robert Wagoner, and Kenneth Nordtvedt, is itself a general function of ( ). Essay On Social Networking? It remains true that in regions of buy book report, space-time where ( ) is numerically large, the theory's predictions approach those of general relativity. It is even possible for essay networking, ( ) to evolve systematically in the favored direction.

Thus in the variable mass theory (VMT, see Table 1), a scalar-tensor theory devised to test the necessity for the strong equivalence principle, the expansion of the universe forces evolution of toward a particular value at which ( ) diverges. Thus, late in the history of the universe (and today is late), localized gravitational systems are accurately described by general relativity although the assumed gravitational theory is scalar-tensor. More than two score relativistic theories of how to a research paper, gravitation have been proposed. Some have no metric; others take the metric as fixed, not dynamic. These have usually fared badly in light of experiment. Networking? Among metric theories those involving a vector field or a tensor field additional to the metric can display a preferred frame of reference or spatial anisotropy effects (phenomena that depend on direction in space). Both effects may contradict a variety of modern experiments. Table 1 gives a sample of theories of gravitation, summarizing the main ingredients of each theory and its experimental status.

All relativistic gravitational theories mentioned so far have a newtonian limit, a tacit requirement of how to a research, candidate relativistic gravitational theories until very recently. Now, if the correct gravitational theory is general relativity or any of its traditional imitations, then newtonian theory should satisfactorily describe galaxies and clusters of on social, galaxies, astrophysical systems involving small velocities and introduce of essay weak potentials. But there is on social mounting observational evidence that this can be the case only if galaxies and clusters of galaxies are postulated to contain large amounts of dark matter. Thus far this dark matter has not been detected independently of the preceding argument. Might not this missing mass puzzle signal instead the how to, break-down of the newtonian limit of essay, gravitational theory for persuasive letter, very large systems? In this connection several schemes alternative to essay on social networking Newtonian theory have been proposed.

A well developed one is the modified newtonian dynamics or MOND (see Table 1), in which the on outsourcing, relation between newtonian potential and the resulting acceleration is essay on social regarded as departing from newtonian form for gravitational fields with magnitude of below 10 -8 cm s -2 . In galaxies and clusters of galaxies (with no dark matter assumed) the gravitational fields are weaker than this, and a breakdown of newtonian predictions having nothing to do with dark matter is expected. With its one postulated relation, MOND ties together a number of empirical relations in extragalactic astronomy. A nonrelativistic gravitational theory containing the MOND relation has been set forth, and relativistic generalizations of these ideas are currently under study.