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LLM in Climate Change Law and Policy dissertation - Melissa Low


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Dissertation on law

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Bagels: Real Number and Perfect Square Essay. Combine the on law numbers that are in front of the companion outdoor reflection spring like radicals and write that number in on law, front of the like radical part. When multiplying radicals, you must multiply the numbers outside (O) the thesis radicals AND then multiply the numbers inside (I) the radicals. Should a radical appear in the denominator of a fraction, it will need to be removed if you are trying to simplify the expression. by that same radical to create a rational number (a perfect square radical) in the denominator. This process is called rationalizing the denominator.

HERE IS THE RULE for multiplying radicals: It is the symmetrical version of the dissertation rule for simplifying radicals. It is valid for a and b greater than or equal to sample 0. When dividing radical expressions, use the quotient rule. For all real values, a and b, b ? 0. Dissertation On Law? If n is companion essay northwoods outdoor spring summer even, and dissertation, a ? 0, b 0, then equation. If n is odd, and b ? 0, then equation. That's a mathematical symbols way of on beowulf epic hero, saying that when the index is even there can be no negative number in dissertation, the radicand, but when the index is odd, there can be. Radical expressions are written in simplest terms when. 1. Find the largest perfect square which will divide evenly into the number under your radical sign. This means that when you divide, you get no remainders, no decimals, no fraction. 2. Write the number. Related Documents: Bagels: Real Number and Perfect Square Essay. On Curriculum Mapping? match the myths they have been led to dissertation on law believe.

The cherished illusions of the so-called normal, traditional marriage are just that - illusions. Stephanie Coontz looks at the historical record and shows us that at outdoor reflection no time in history did the family live up to a perfect model. She also teaches us to question the statistics and dissertation, look at companion essay outdoor reflection summer a variety of underlying reasons for historic and contemporary social issues. Please watch this video lecture by dissertation on law Stephanie Coontz on the topic of this book. family. Words 719 - Pages 3. Perfect Mate. I could easily come up with a very long list of qualities that I would like my “ideal” mate to have but I’ve already found exactly what I want. Regardless of how young and reckless I may seem I know deep in my heart that he’s perfect for me whether or not we end up spending the rest of our lives together. I didn’t look for pitzer, a guy with things that I like about him, he just came to me. I grew to like and eventually love him.

He became a part of me. Every chance I get to be with. Words 489 - Pages 2. Real Number and Indicated Operations Essay. expression involving rational exponents. 6) - 64 125 -2/3 6) A) - 16 25 B) not a real number C) 25 16 D) 16 25 1 Perform the indicated operations. On Law? Write the answer using only positive exponents.

Assume all variables represent positive real numbers. 7) b-5/6 n-7/4 2 n1/3 b1/7 -3 7) A) b44/21 n9/2 B) n9/2 b44/21 C) b26/21 n5/2 D) n5/2 b26/21 Factor, using the given factor. Assume all variables represent positive real numbers. 8) 6s1/7 - 2s-3/7; s-3/7 8) A) s1/7(6s4/7. Words 489 - Pages 2. Essay about how to with depression and anxiety, Algebra: Real Number and Equations. the Quadratic Formula. Dissertation On Law? • Transform a quadratic function. Of Term Paper Sample? • Write an equation of a quadratic function in general form, vertex form, and factored form. • Multiply and factor polynomials. • Complete the square. • Use the discriminant to determine the number and type of roots. • Classify numbers as counting numbers, whole numbers, integers, rational numbers and on law, irrational numbers. • Convert a repeating decimal to a fraction. • Identify and use properties of essay epic, real numbers. • Convert between radical. Words 1145 - Pages 5. ?Tiananmen Square Presentation Notes: Following the death of Hu Yaobang, a funeral was held in The Great Hall of the People on April 22nd, 1989. During the dissertation memorial ceremony, students think it’s a great time to present their petition, as for Yaobang was known for pushing democratic reforms himself.

Three students were allowed to present the petition in front of The Great Hall of the People where they kneeled down and demanded to pitzer essay meet with Premier Li Peng. Li Peng refuses to meet them and. Words 555 - Pages 3. ?Picture Perfect An adolescent teen looks in the mirror and analyzes her body. Although other people see her as a beautiful young woman, she sees a completely different picture. She thinks she is too fat, too short, that she has a weird chin, and her cheeks are not high enough. Is it normal for a pre-teen to think these things? She wants to alter her appearance to look more like the super models she sees in magazines; however, she will never look like those women on on law, her own.

She considers. Words 1900 - Pages 8. Essay on on curriculum mapping, Infinity: Real Number and Infinity in Art. have an end, but infinity does not. [6] WHAT IS INFINITY? Infinity is simply defined as the idea of something that has no end. This is a hard concept for us to wrap our heads around, so we use other synonyms like “endless” or “boundless”. Due to this number being infinite, people seem to think that infinity is constantly growing; this is not the dissertation on law case. Infinity does not go on format paper, and on dissertation on law, because it is already fully formed. This number does not do anything, it just is. [6] IS INFINITY EVEN A REAL. Words 817 - Pages 4. Format Paper? My City: Confederation Square, Peterborough Assignment #1 Jonathan Quail 0417881 October 18, 2011 Professor R. Picton 9pm Seminar Confederation Square Bordering McDonnel, Murry and George N, is the park known as Confederation Square. This park is located across for on law, Peterborough City Hall and essay, is a space for remembering the soldiers who have died in armed conflict beginning with the first World War.

Besides the emotional importance of the dissertation square it also has importance for urban. Words 862 - Pages 4. How To Help With And Anxiety? Real Number and Super Little Artist Essay. On Law? managering there behaviour which left me more convident the second time around. 15/09/14 Initial Assessment numersery indepentant work year 1. Today I took 4 children out of class at thesis mapping a time where we worked in dissertation, the base (a quiet area) The children had to complete a 100 square box. They practice there numbers every day with the techer and seem to understand the practice of how to count in order and to 100. We looked over the 100 square table and saw if there were any patens. The children.

Words 796 - Pages 4. Grey’s Anatomy “The Perfect Storm” Grey#x27;s Anatomy is a medical television show set at the fictional Grey Sloan Memorial Hospital in Seattle. The episodes cover the stories of several residents and interns at the hospital as they try to balance their personal lives with the burdens of their medical training. The chief character is companion essay northwoods outdoor reflection summer Meredith Grey, who is married to a neurosurgeon, Dr. On Law? Derek Sheppard, at essay northwoods outdoor reflection spring summer the hospital.

The series follows Meredith Grey’s life as the daughter of world. Words 581 - Pages 3. * Test names and other trademarks are the property of the respective trademark holders. None of the trademark holders are affiliated with this website. On Law? All content of format, site and tests copyright 2017 Study Mode, LLC.

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La critique de Lessing avant la lettre. 2 Qu’est-ce qui confere au Laocoon la capacite d’inspirer tant d’interpretations diverses ? Quelle est la source de cette multitude de lectures ? Lessing3 en a deja saisi une des raisons : la statue offre a la vue du spectateur le « moment pregnant » du mythe du pretre troyen, le « fruchtbarer Augenblick », c’est-a-dire l’instant de fecondation de la Einbildungskraft qui, dans son libre jeu, donne vie a son produit propre. Dissertation? Mais sans doute un tel foisonnement d’interpretations represente-t-il un reel danger. Companion Essay Outdoor Reflection Spring Summer? La difference entre tant de points de vue divers induit une dimension arbitraire dans la lecture de la statue. Dissertation? Lessing etait le premier a reclamer un controle methodologique de l’imagination interpretative. Reflection? Son opposition a l’interpretation « humanisante » de Winckelmann est fondee sur le refus de ce qu’on peut appeler « l’interpretation directe » de la statue. Dissertation? En effet, Winckelmann considere cette derniere comme si elle etait une personne de chair et d’os situee en face de lui. Essay? Contre cette lecture, Lessing maintient fermement l’idee que la sculpture est un produit de l’art reclamant un autre type d’interpretation que ne le ferait un homme reel. On Law? Il faut d’abord considerer le groupe dans le cadre de l’art plastique, un art defini par des regles specifiques qui regissent toutes les sculptures. Hero? Avant toute interpretation doit intervenir, en art, une reflexion sur les regles qu’imposent les medias artistiques a l’imagination des spectateurs.

3 L’idee brillante de Lessing est que l’interpretation d’une ?uvre d’art — ainsi que sa production — doit etre precedee d’une critique des conditions qui limitent l’expression artistique dans un medium specifique. On Law? Il s’agit, en somme, de proceder a une analyse des conditions de l’imagination artistique. Pitzer? Comme l’a bien remarque Jules Vuillemin4, Lessing esquisse une critique avant la lettre, tout a fait dans le sens que donnera Kant a cette entreprise philosophique. On Law? Et, comme le fera Kant plus tard, Lessing concoit que les impressions des sens ne sont pas subsumees, chez le spectateur de la statue, sous des concepts, mais travaillees par la Einbildungskraft : dans son imagination, le spectateur entend un cri qui ne correspond pas a la vision de la bouche entrouverte qu’offre la sculpture. 4 Toute expression artistique est soumise aux regles ou lois qui determinent, dans un medium artistique specifique, l’interaction entre les impressions et le travail de la Einbildungskraft. How To Help Depression? C’est la raison pour laquelle un personnage represente en art doit etre interprete de facon differente d’une personne reelle. Dissertation? Dans le contexte d’une reflexion esthetique moderne, il est possible de preciser l’argument de Lessing : il existe une difference fondamentale entre l’attribution d’emotions a une personne reelle et l’attribution d’emotions a un personnage represente dans l’art plastique. Pitzer Supplemental? En tant que representation, l’art plastique ne possede pas d’emotions, mais il est capable de les exemplifier. Dissertation? Comment est possible l’exemplification d’une emotion que la statue ne possede pas, mais montre au spectateur ? Pour l’artiste aussi, la connaissance de ces conditions est d’un interet primordial, parce qu’elle oriente son choix des matieres et des moyens artistiques.

Quelle action d’un mythe est a montrer, quels details sont a omettre, par quels signes peut-il stimuler l’imagination des spectateurs ? 5 Inka Mulder-Bach, Im Zeichen Pygmalions. Companion Essay Northwoods Summer? Das Modell der Statue und die Entdeckung der » Darstellun (. On Law? ) 5 Mais Lessing ne fait qu’esquisser son projet novateur ; son elaboration est abandonnee bien avant la fin. Essay On Beowulf Epic? Il analyse les limites de la peinture et de la poesie en integrant le theatre (comme seul art corporel), mais l’art plastique n’est considere qu’une seule fois, juste en ouverture de l’essai sur le Laocoon dans le but d’attaquer l’esthetique de Winckelmann. Dissertation? Il est neglige par la suite. Of Term Paper Sample? On n’y trouve pas de discussion sur la possibilite d’attribuer des emotions a la statue. Dissertation? On peut constater l’existence de toute une tradition « pygmalionienne » dans la litterature du xviii e siecle (en Allemagne, par exemple, chez Winckelmann, Herder, Klopstock), tradition qui considere « le corps de la statue comme modele d’une reflexion anthropologique, esthetique et poetique » et transforme « la statue en un agent corporel-vivant »5. How To Depression? Lessing reste le seul auteur a avoir reconnu le probleme epistemologique que pose l’effort de donner vie a une statue de pierre. Attribution directe et attribution indirecte d’emotions. 6 Ludwig Wittgenstein, Philosophische Untersuchungen (trad. Dissertation? franc. How To Help Depression? : Investigations philosophiques), (. Dissertation On Law? ) 7 Maurice Merleau-Ponty, Merleau-Ponty a la Sorbonne. Paper Sample? Resume de cours 1949-1952, Dijon, 1988, p. Dissertation? 558.

6 Revenons a l’objection de Lessing contre Winckelmann. Depression And Anxiety? C’est ici le point de depart decisif de l’elaboration d’une critique de la Einbildungskraft et du medium artistique. Dissertation On Law? Au lieu d’effacer la distance qui separe l’interaction avec une sculpture d’un cote, de l’interaction avec un veritable etre humain de l’autre, il faut remarquer que nous ne comprenons pas sans etapes intermediaires ce que ressent le personnage represente en pierre. How To Help And Anxiety? Dans l’interaction avec des hommes vivants, nous percevons, comme dit Ludwig Wittgenstein6, des « criteres » qui indiquent leurs emotions. Dissertation? Une personne souffrante nous montre sa douleur par son comportement, et nous saisissons cette emotion a l’aide de criteres que nous comprenons immediatement. Classes Essay? Meme si les criteres wittgensteiniens ressemblent a des signes, ils sont concus autrement ; leur interpretation n’est pas un procede semiotique. Dissertation? Si nous voyons, par exemple, une personne accidentee a terre, hurlante, une jambe coupee par une scie mecanique, nous lui attribuons directement, rien que par la vue, des douleurs atroces. Sample? Il est impossible pour un spectateur de cette scene de ne pas comprendre ces sentiments.

Ce que Wittgenstein propose dans sa discussion de l’expression des emotions est un modele qui est a la fois non introspectif et non behavioriste. Dissertation? En face d’une personne souffrante, nous remarquons des criteres (qui sont « exterieurs » par definition) indiquant cet etat psychique : l’existence d’un ensemble de criteres nous fait attribuer a la personne l’etat de souffrance ; et, qui plus est, ces criteres sont lies de quelque maniere a « l’etat interieur ». Essay On Beowulf? Wittgenstein semble penser qu’ils font partie de cet etat. On Law? Si, a l’inverse, le comportement de la personne n’indique rien, cette absence de criteres nous met dans l’impossibilite de lui attribuer des emotions. Pitzer? On pourrait dire, avec Merleau-Ponty (dans les annees 1950) — philosophe dont la conception de l’expressivite semble etre tres proche des Investigations philosophiques — , que l’expression des douleurs est le moyen d’etre la douleur7. 8 Maurice Merleau-Ponty, Le Visible et l’invisible, ed. On Law? Claude Lefort, Paris, Gallimard, 1964, p. Essay Epic Hero? 19 (. Dissertation? ) 9 Loc. Essay? cit., p. On Law? 189. Format Of Term? 10 Loc. Dissertation? cit., p. Epic? 185.

11 Loc. On Law? cit. 7 Wittgenstein a developpe une critique (dans le sens de Kant) de l’attribution de sentiments aux autres, non pas une theorie de l’expression d’emotions. War Between Essay? Pour developper le projet de Lessing, on dissertation on law peut utiliser le potentiel creatif des paragraphes sur le langage des emotions dans les Investigations philosophiques en les combinant avec les reflexions de Merleau-Ponty sur les conditions de la sensibilite du monde. Companion Outdoor Spring Summer? Selon la conception de Merleau-Ponty, mon corps est lie avec le corps de l’autre comme si ces deux corps formaient un systeme commun, comme s’ils etaient lies par « la chair ». Dissertation On Law? La notion de « chair » indique liaison, echange, communication, visibilite et sensibilite mutuelle. Format Paper? La chair « est l’enroulement du visible sur le corps voyant, du tangible sur le corps touchant »8 : nous voyons l’autre et sommes regardes par lui ; nous sentons l’autre et nous nous sentons sentis. Dissertation On Law? Cette reversibilite « definit la chair (. On Beowulf Hero? ) capable de nouer entre les corps des relations (. Dissertation On Law? ) »9. Classes? Il existe entre mon corps et celui de l’autre une transitivite ou, comme Merleau-Ponty le dit egalement, une « inter corporeite »10. On Law? « Mon corps comme chose visible est contenu dans le grand spectacle. Thesis On Curriculum Mapping? (. Dissertation On Law? ) Il y a insertion reciproque et entrelacs de l’un dans l’autre »11.

Mon corps se trouve avec l’autre corps enveloppe par le meme tissu. 8 Les criteres qui, selon Wittgenstein, me sont montres par le comportement de l’autre sont enveloppes dans une « chair » qui se trouve liee a notre sensibilite. Companion Northwoods Reflection Spring Summer? Ce mouvement d’enrouler et d’etre enroule presuppose une relation de reversibilite entre le sujet et l’objet de la sensibilite. On Law? L’objet senti repond immediatement au sujet sentant, par une action directe dans la « chair » commune, le milieu qui donne vie a leurs emotions mutuelles. War Between? C’est donc l’existence d’une « chair » enveloppant le sujet et l’objet qui rend possible l’attribution d’emotions a une personne — personne qui nous fait voir les criteres de ces sentiments. 9 Est-il possible que des representations artistiques de personnages soient liees avec nous par une espece de « chair » ? Est-ce qu’il existe une relation d’« intercorporeite » entre une ?uvre d’art et le spectateur ? Cela est possible uniquement si notre « chair » ou le « tissu » s’etend jusqu’a l’objet et l’enveloppe de notre sensibilite.

Dans cette relation, l’?uvre perd son autonomie d’objet et est integree dans le tissu sensible qui lie le sujet avec le monde, mais agit en retour sur le contemplateur. 12 Jacques Lacan, Les quatre concepts de la psychanalyse. On Law? Le seminaire. Essay? Livre XI, ed. On Law? par Jacques-Ala (. Essay Reflection Spring Summer? ) 13 Loc. On Law? cit. 10 Dans le domaine de la peinture, on mapping trouve cette relation entre le spectateur et le tableau qu’il contemple. Dissertation On Law? Son origine est precisement le manque qui caracterise la peinture : un tableau ne contient pas l’objet represente sous sa forme materielle. On Beowulf? Ce que nous voyons, ce sont juste des taches de couleurs — nous produisons par l’activite de notre imagination un semblant de « chair » qui rend la chose representee visible et sensible. Dissertation? « (. Pitzer Essay? ) Dans le tableau, toujours se manifeste quelque chose du regard », ecrit Jacques Lacan, qui, tout en critiquant Merleau-Ponty, eclaire, dans le contexte de sa theorie psychanalytique du desir, le rapport de reversibilite entre spectateur et tableau12. On Law? C’est le regard du spectateur qui etablit la relation reciproque avec le tableau et construit une espece d’ecran imaginaire entre lui-meme et l’image.

Sur cet ecran, il projette ce qu’il desire voir. Depression And Anxiety? Son desir est suscite par le peintre, qui donc prepare en quelque sorte la creation de la « chair » : « Le peintre, a celui qui doit etre devant son tableau, donne quelque chose qui, dans toute une partie au moins de la peinture, pourrait se resumer ainsi — Tu veux regarder ? Eh bien, vois donc ca ! Il donne quelque chose en pature a l’?il, mais il invite celui auquel le tableau est presente a deposer la son regard. Dissertation? »13. How To Help With Depression And Anxiety? C’est par l’action de mon regard que mon imagination cree un semblant de « chair », une espece de peau imaginaire qui me met en contact sensible avec les personnages vus sur le tableau. 11 L’?uvre plastique, par contre — tri-dimensionnelle et aux corps reels —, ne permet pas cette operation. Dissertation? Celle-ci est rendue impossible par la presence corporelle des symboles figuratifs. Mapping? La sculpture et moi, nous ne sommes pas enveloppes par une peau commune ; ma « chair » ne sent pas la statue de la meme facon qu’elle sent un personnage peint.

L’art plastique, en regle generale, ne montre pas un semblant de peau humaine. Dissertation On Law? Autant la peinture fait appel a l’imagination du spectateur pour etablir une relation avec le personnage represente, autant l’art plastique est surdetermine et fait intervenir l’imagination a un autre stade de la contemplation. Pitzer Essay? La aussi il y a desir, mais pas desir de produire une image, puisque la statue me donne son image (ce que le tableau ne fait pas). Dissertation? Il y a desir d’intervenir, de creer un contact physique, de toucher la sculpture (comme le decrit Herder, dans La Plastique). 14 Simon Richter (cf. Of Term Paper? n. Dissertation? 2, p. Of Term Sample? 237) a bien raison de donner a ces narrations le titre « Aesthetics of dissertation on law (. On Curriculum Mapping? ) 12 Quand on dissertation considere les descriptions de la statue du Laocoon dans la litterature allemande du xviii e siecle (chez Winckelmann, Goethe, Herder, Moritz et meme Lessing), on supplemental remarque qu’elles procedent toutes par narration. Dissertation? Les poetes racontent des recits sur le Laocoon comme s’ils etaient impliques dans une action commune avec leur heros. How To Help With And Anxiety? En effet, dans le domaine de l’art plastique, l’attribution de sentiments a un personnage represente fonctionne sur le mode de la narration. Dissertation On Law? Le contemplateur forme un recit qui est stimule, voire provoque par des signes montres par la representation plastique. Of Term Paper Sample? Les auteurs allemands racontent surtout des recits theatraux ; ils inventent, en ajoutant les dimensions du temps et de la causalite, des contextes dramatiques. Dissertation On Law? Ils placent la souffrance et la qualite esthetique du Laocoon au centre de leurs narrations ; ce sont des recits de l’esthetique de la douleur14.

Dans leurs narrations, ils parlent presque exclusivement des traits de la figure de Laocoon ; quand ils mentionnent des details corporels, c’est uniquement dans le but de souligner la description du visage. 13 Dans la presente analyse, j’en suis arrive au point ou la cause de la multitude des interpretations du Laocoon est devenue claire, ainsi que celle de leurs divergences : la statue, en tant qu’?uvre d’art plastique, ne permet pas l’attribution directe d’emotions. Help Depression And Anxiety? Les grands auteurs allemands du xviii e siecle placent la douleur du pretre au centre de leurs descriptions, et ils se sentent en droit de le faire parce qu’ils ont tous invente une narration du sort de Laocoon. Dissertation On Law? Or Lessing avait deja demontre que ce procede est arbitraire parce qu’il neglige les conditions du travail de la Einbildungskraft. Essay? Ce qu’il faut faire, si l’on suit la ligne de sa critique, c’est etablir une description de la statue sans y ajouter, au moins dans la premiere phase de l’analyse, d’elements narratifs. Dissertation On Law? Dans le paragraphe suivant, je tenterai une telle entreprise — une description de la statue qui n’attribue pas d’emotions au Laocoon represente. Help? Le seul recit qu’il est permis de citer est le cadre narratif, le mythe du pretre troyen. Dissertation? Le concept de « moment pregnant » peut encore une fois rendre de precieux services. 15 C’est Bernard Andreae qui a formule cette reflexion lors de la discussion durant le colloque « Lao (. With Depression And Anxiety? ) 14 Le groupe du Laocoon donne une image intense de mouvements divers : il montre trois personnages dans differentes positions corporelles qui representent les stades « pregnants » de trois types d’action. Dissertation On Law? On peut le « lire » dans les deux sens (gauche-droite, droite-gauche) et du centre vers les deux cotes, mais le spectacle se presente uniquement au spectateur qui se tient en face du groupe15. War Between Classes Essay? Le fils de gauche est deja plus ou moins mort, celui de droite essaie de s’echapper ; Laocoon, entre les deux, est encore en vie, mais, comme nous le verrons, sa representation vehicule un double message ; elle est empreinte d’ambiguite.

16 Il est comparable a celui de la statue en bronze d’Attale II (Bernard Andreae, Laokoon und die Kun (. On Law? ) 15 Dans l’axe central et vertical, on companion outdoor summer voit deux centres d’action, deux bouches ouvertes : la bouche de Laocoon et la gueule du serpent, la bouche du pretre annonciateur du malheur a venir et la morsure mortelle qui punit. Dissertation On Law? Par cette composition est exprimee une tension entre le domaine humain et le domaine animal. War Between Classes Essay? Elle trouve un equivalent dans un autre element marquant de la sculpture du pere, dans l’arc qui se dessine le long du torse de Laocoon. On Law? Quand on classes essay le continue vers le haut, on dissertation on law aboutit a la bouche ; vers le bas on with arrive, en passant par le nombril, au sexe. Dissertation? La bouche est ouverte comme chez un mourant, mais le sexe delivre le message contraire — c’est le sexe d’un homme bien en vie, pas du tout celui d’un mourant, qui est represente ordinairement comme organe flasque et inanime16. Supplemental Essay? Le groupe est donc compose par un mort, un agent mythique fameux et un futur enfui (le deuxieme fils). 16 Laocoon est debout dans une posture a la fois dynamique et solide, exprimant la robustesse physique, tendu comme un arc et en meme temps fige sur place (il ne saute pas), dans une pose d’identite et de fidelite a lui-meme. Dissertation? Le mouvement des serpents montre une maniere d’agir opposee. War Between Classes? C’est un glissement tout en courbes, un mouvement enroulant, jaillissant : le contraire de la ligne droite, une metaphore de la non-identite.

Parmi les oppositions entre elements sculpturaux, la tension entre le corps et la tete de Laocoon est la plus marquee. On Law? La determination et le dynamisme du corps sont contrebalances par l’indetermination et la perte de vie exprimee par le visage. How To Help Depression? On peut observer tout un faisceau de differences systematiques : — le corps parait jeune ; la tete est celle d’un homme vieux. — les muscles regorgent de tension et de force ; la tete indique la perte de fonctions vitales. — le corps possede une constitution d’athlete ; la tete correspond a la vocation sacerdotale de Laocoon. — le corps est un symbole de vie ; la tete exprime la mort. — le corps presente des traits triomphants ; la tete presente la marque de l’homme puni.

17 Bernard Andreae, Laokoon und die Grundung Roms, Mainz, Philipp von Zabem, 1988, p. Dissertation On Law? 168. Of Term Sample? 18 Loc. Dissertation On Law? cit., p. Thesis On Curriculum Mapping? 168 sq. 17 Face a ces contradictions apparentes, le contemplateur se trouve precipite dans un etat d’indecision et de doute face aux interpretations simples. On Law? On ne saisit pas l’unite de la statue si on classes essay la lit comme exprimant une serie d’oppositions dans le sens du structuralisme. Dissertation? Il s’agit plutot d’une rencontre de styles differents. War Between Essay? Bernard Andreae a bien remarque que dans la composition des personnages du groupe entier — le pere et les deux fils — se distinguent d’un point de vue stylistique « trois types totalement differents » qui creent « une parente avec trois manieres de representation differentes » et qui, malgre leurs origines disparates, s’unissent « dans un tout inseparable »17. Dissertation On Law? Le createur du groupe « etait impregne des grandes ?uvres d’art et des compositions de groupes qui ornaient les centres hellenistiques »18.

18 Quand on war between considere la seule sculpture de Laocoon, on on law trouve deux codes de representation, deux logiques et deux mythologies differentes. Companion Northwoods Outdoor? A premiere vue, ces deux codes ne semblent pas aller ensemble. Dissertation? Ils semblent meme se contredire. Format Of Term Paper? Mais ici aussi l’artiste organise une rencontre de styles d’origines differentes. Dissertation On Law? Confrontation d’abord, mais union harmonieuse ensuite, dans une composition qui fait oublier que ses modeles proviennent de contextes divers. Companion Northwoods Outdoor Reflection Spring? Dans le regard du contemplateur se produit, malgre la tension des deux parties disparates de la statue, un effet unifiant.

Ce contemplateur est donc en droit de se demander par quel moyen le tout, au lieu de tomber en pieces, tient ensemble. 19 Cf. On Law? Nelson Goodman, Languages of reflection spring summer Art, Indianapolis, Hackett, 1968. 19 L’unite se construit d’abord par les muscles, muscles de Laocoon et muscles des serpents. On Law? Le groupe donne en effet l’impression d’une image musculaire. Essay? Les muscles de Laocoon sont saillants, ils font l’effet d’une planche anatomique ; pour reprendre le langage des specialistes du culte des muscles, les culturistes, ils sont « definis ». Dissertation? Les corps des serpents forment un seul muscle, maintes fois courbe, « non defini ». Essay On Beowulf Hero? Contrairement a cette foule de signes univoques, l’image qu’offre la tete se presente comme sous-determinee (fig. Dissertation On Law? 1, p. Format Paper? 56).

Contre la conviction des grands interpretes du Laocoon au xviii e siecle, on dissertation on law doit constater que cette tete ne traduit pas de sentiment determine. Pitzer? Au contraire, l’absence de signes distinctifs semble indiquer la perte de determination. On Law? Les auteurs allemands fondent leurs descriptions des douleurs atroces de Laocoon sur des narrations qui inspirent des sentiments de compassion et de pitie en faveur du pretre souffrant. Classes Essay? L’effet pygmalionien qu’ils evoquent par leurs recits cree une relation spontanee et emotionnelle avec le personnage de marbre. Dissertation On Law? Mais il importe au contraire d’attirer l’attention sur le fait que le Laocoon n’exprime pas d’etat psychique et que l’attribution de la douleur provient de strategies narratives choisies par les interpretes. Essay Northwoods Outdoor Summer? Si l’on se contente d’une description sans effets psychologisants, on dissertation ne constate pas que la tete traduise des emotions. Thesis? Avec Nelson Goodman19, on on law peut dire effectivement que la statue exemplifie un certain sentiment.

Mais l’ exemplification se refere a des caracteristiques de la representation et non au personnage represente. How To Help With? Au lieu d’exprimer des douleurs, elle montre l’etat non distinctif, la perte de contours de la figure, et denote un sentiment qui correspond a une telle decomposition. On Law? Je caracteriserai cette emotion dans la quatrieme partie de cet article. 20 Dans ce contexte, il est interessant de se rappeler la these de Winckelmann selon laquelle la « ho (. Format Of Term Paper Sample? ) 20 Les oppositions qui marquent la composition du groupe du Laocoon forment un champ de forces. On Law? A l’interieur de ce champ se developpe un jeu de forces antagonistes qui resiste a toute interpretation univoque. Hero? Les deux manieres differentes de composer d’un cote le corps et de l’autre le visage ne peuvent etre effacees par aucune interpretation : le corps se trouve dans une posture dynamique de pouvoir, le visage indique que le controle et la determination sont sur le point de s’evanouir.

Mais il y a encore quelques restes de vie, une derniere resistance, soutenue par les qualites athletiques du corps. On Law? C’est le corps agonal qui est la derniere ressource dans l’homme agonisant. On Beowulf Hero? La tension entre la force et la perte de determination indique l’etat du mourant heroique, comme chez le geant Alkyoneus dans la frise de Pergame (fig. Dissertation? 1) : l’etat ou tous les traits personnels commencent a fuir le visage, fuite qui commence par la bouche et qui va emporter successivement les forces de tous les membres du corps. Northwoods Reflection Spring? Le « moment pregnant » engendre la mort du heros20. 21 Meme Lessing ne tire pas les consequences necessaires qu’il a pourtant preparees dans sa refutatio (. Dissertation? ) 21 Dans les interpretations des auteurs du xviii e siecle se produit un effet qu’on peut decrire ainsi : le visage non determine, siege de l’ame, recoit ses caracteristiques du corps surdetermine21. Thesis Mapping? Un visage vide stimule le desir du contemplateur d’inventer un recit qui remplisse la scene de sens et qui la rende ainsi comprehensible. Fig. Dissertation? 1 — Groupe d’Athena et d’Alkyoneus, frise orientale de l’autel de Pergame, Berlin, Pergamonmuseum. 22 L’invention de recits autour du Laocoon ne releve pas du domaine strictement allemand. Format Sample? Un excellen (. Dissertation On Law? ) 22 Il n’est pas surprenant que les poetes allemands se soient sentis appeles a faire preuve de leur talent poietique22.

Mais ils melent les caracteristiques du visage et du corps au lieu de les separer soigneusement. Paper Sample? Ce qu’ils manquent de saisir, c’est le jeu entre le vide de la figure et la plenitude du corps, qui est en meme temps un jeu entre les forces a la fois presentes et absentes du personnage — jeu que l’on retrouve dans l’identite de l’homme Laocoon qui, tout en restant le meme, devient un autre, un mort. Dissertation On Law? La statue le montre encore parmi nous, appartenant a notre monde des vivants, le visage partant deja vers un ailleurs. Supplemental? Elle est la representation d’un etre humain qui s’efface en restant parmi nous, ou qui perd la vie en nous laissant le souvenir de sa presence. 23 Au cours de cette analyse, j’ai donc mis au jour trois raisons susceptibles d’expliquer les problemes d’interpretation suscites par le groupe.

1 / L’attribution d’emotions a l’art plastique n’est pas directe, mais se fait par l’intermediaire de narrations. Dissertation? 2 / Les narrations classiques ne sont pas attentives aux codes de representation qui se rencontrent dans la statue de Laocoon. Thesis Mapping? 3 / Celle-ci est caracterisee par l’union de deux strategies totalement differentes. On Law? Ce qu’il nous reste donc a faire, c’est de trouver l’origine de ces deux strategies et de proposer une interpretation de leur unification. 23 Bernard Andreae, Laokoon und die Kunst von Pergamon.

Die Hybris der Giganten, loc. Pitzer Supplemental? cit. Dissertation On Law? ;cf. War Between Essay? en pa (. On Law? ) 24 Je me refere au mythe populaire de Laocoon qui trouva la mort lorsqu’il mit en garde les Troyens c (. War Between Essay? ) 25 B. Dissertation? Andreae montre en particulier la proximite stylistique entre l’Antisthene de Phyromachos et le (. Companion Reflection Spring Summer? ) 24 Bernard Andreae indique la concordance typologique de la tete de Laocoon avec les tetes des geants de la frise de Pergame, en particulier avec celle d’Alkyoneus23. On Law? Dans sa comparaison des deux ?uvres d’art, il considere uniquement les tetes du Laocoon et de ses modeles possibles. Essay Hero? Mais si on on law attire l’attention sur les postures des figures, le corps de Laocoon me parait tout a fait different de celui du geant. Mapping? La meme difference se retrouve entre les themes des deux ?uvres. Dissertation? Le mythe du Laocoon repose sur renonciation d’un savoir, d’une connaissance interdite du temps futur, communiquee contre la volonte des dieux — une « hybris »24.

Laocoon se revolte contre les dieux par son action : dire la verite sur le sort de sa cite. Mapping? Ce parti pris inconditionnel en faveur de la revelation de la verite contre la soumission aux ordres des dieux presente une parente avec des philosophes antiques. Dissertation? Comme l’a montre Andreae, les philosophes les plus celebres de l’Antiquite — Socrate, Platon, Antisthene, Epicure, Zenon — se trouvent presents dans la composition de la tete de Laocoon par le fait que leurs portraits figuraient parmi les modeles de la statue de Laocoon25. 26 Une douleur intense causerait une contraction de ce groupe musculaire. 25 Revenons au corps de Laocoon.

C’est un corps qui se redresse, dynamique, plein de force, mais calme, aux muscles definis, dominateur et domine par sa propre volonte — un corps qui ne se courbe pas ou qui ne sursaute pas sous l’effet d’une morsure. Help And Anxiety? La lecture selon laquelle il s’ecroule sous la douleur est dementie par tous les details anatomiques. Dissertation On Law? Les muscles abdominaux sont rentres26 par l’action des muscles dorsaux qui redressent son torse en hauteur. Fig. Thesis On Curriculum Mapping? 2 — Le groupe du Laocoon — Vue de dos. 27 Cf. Dissertation On Law? Bernard Andreae, Laokoon und die Grundung Roms, loc. Essay Epic Hero? cit., p. Dissertation? 211.

26 L’ultime confirmation qu’il s’agit de la representation d’un beau corps et non de celle d’un corps souffrant est donnee par la vue arriere du groupe27 (fig. How To Depression? 2). On Law? Le corps de Laocoon est montre comme une source de force, capable de proteger par les muscles, les ligaments, la chair ferme et les os durs, son savoir et son role sacrificiel. Pitzer Essay? Sa surface garde son integrite, elle ne laisse voir aucun signe de blessure, de sang ou de fracture. Dissertation? Laocoon triomphe de son sort. Pitzer Supplemental? Sa position rappelle plutot une posture de triomphe, qui permet au sculpteur de presenter une musculature bien developpee.

28 Jean-Pierre Vernant, L’individu, la mort, l’amour. On Law? Soi-meme et l’autre en Grece ancienne, Paris, G (. Essay? ) 29 Loc. On Law? cit., p. Sample? 60, d’apres Nicole Loraux, Hebe et Andreia : deux versions de la mort du combattant (. On Law? ) 30 Loc. Epic? cit., p. Dissertation On Law? 59. With? 31 Loc. On Law? cit., p. Companion Outdoor Reflection? 60, J.-P. On Law? Vernant d’apres N. How To Help With And Anxiety? Loraux. On Law? 32 Loc. Essay On Beowulf Epic Hero? cit. Dissertation On Law? 33 Loc. War Between Classes? cit., p. Dissertation? 84. 27 Les deux codes de representation du corps et de la tete ne sont pas realistes, mais mythologiques : la tete rappelle les portraits des philosophes, le corps celui d’un guerrier triomphant. Pitzer Supplemental? On peut reduire l’opposition entre les codes representatifs en s’inspirant de la mythologie de la belle mort, telle que Jean-Pierre Vernant l’a decrite : selon la conception grecque de la mort, un etre humain, quand il meurt, « perd la face en meme temps que la vie »28. Dissertation On Law? Quand il s’agit de la mort d’un heros, « le trepas s’accomplit sous le signe de hebe » , comme ecrit Vernant29 en citant Nicole Loraux. Essay? Le mot hebe signale en grec « cette periode de la vie ou l’on se sent en etat de se surpasser, ou le succes, la reussite, le kudos, semblent attaches a vos pas, associes a vos entreprises, plus prosaiquement, ou l’on est en pleine possession de ses forces.

Force physique d’abord (. On Law? ). Format Of Term? Posseder l’ hebe, c’est reunir en sa personne toutes les qualites qui font le guerrier accompli »30. On Law? Meme si le guerrier n’est plus jeune et loin de posseder la force qui le caracterisait au temps de sa gloire physique, il conquiert l’ hebe « au moment precis ou il la perd (. War Between Essay? ) »31. Dissertation On Law? Hebe est le mot de « la jeunesse perdue et pleuree, mais par la meme exaltee »32. Help With Depression And Anxiety? Cela n’est vrai que pour l’elite des heros. Dissertation On Law? C’est dans la mort que le heros obtient « l’eclat de l’extreme existence, le rayonnement de la vie — une vie qui, pour s’accomplir et se sublimer, doit d’abord se perdre, qui pour s’affirmer a jamais doit disparaitre du monde visible et se transmuer en gloire dans la rememoration poetique »33. 28 La tete de Laocoon est celle d’un homme mourant ; le corps, par contre, presente tous les signes qui caracterisent (selon Vernant) la representation de la « belle mort » dans la tradition grecque, les signes de l’heroisme, de la gloire et de la continuation de la vie dans le mythe. Essay? Laocoon est un homme sacrifie et (dans la version populaire du mythe au moins) un heros de la verite, un revolte contre les dieux et un fidele a son peuple. Dissertation On Law? Mais il n’est pas un Zarathoustra, car les dieux ne sont pas morts, comme le montre bien, au contraire, sa punition. On Curriculum Mapping? Saisi a travers la perspective des dieux, Laocoon est un pretre infidele. Dissertation On Law? Dans la vision des hommes, il a ete sacrifie pour leur avenir, la fondation de Rome par Enee, cette nouvelle Troie qui conservera le sacrifice de Laocoon comme un de ses mythes fondateurs. Pitzer Supplemental Essay? Tandis que son corps montre sa revolte contre les dieux sous un jour glorieux, son visage montre la punition de facon pathetique : la mort d’un insoumis, d’un challenger, d’un parent des geants immortalises dans la frise de Pergame.

29 Comparons cette gloire avec celle d’un autre condamne a mort celebre, Socrate. Dissertation? La peine capitale est executee dans les deux cas. Essay Hero? Socrate s’administre le poison lui-meme, de son propre gre. Dissertation? Il se couche a terre et attend que la mort prenne lentement, a partir des pieds, possession de son corps. Paper? La vie disparait graduellement ; au moment ultime, l’ame s’echappe de la bouche de son corps immobilise. Dissertation On Law? C’est le corps qui se perd, mais l’ame invisible reste intacte et monte dans les hauteurs pour circuler autour des idees eternelles du vrai, du bon et du beau. Supplemental Essay? La peine de Laocoon est executee par les suppots de la vengeance des dieux, des etres courbes, poisseux, appartenant a la categorie des basses creatures, qui s’enroulent autour de son corps et ceux de ses fils, les membres masculins de sa famille. Dissertation? Il supporte moralement et physiquement sa peine — mourant, il glorifie son nom par son corps. Essay? Ce qu’il a fait, il devait le faire pour sa cite, contre les dieux, une obligation sociale de citoyennete par fidelite envers les hommes, contre son obligation sacerdotale. Dissertation On Law? Son drame assurera l’avenir de la cite de Troie par la fondation de Rome.

Lui, il n’aurait pas sacrifie ses fils, comme Agamemnon l’a fait avec Iphigenie. Format? Sa mort se deroule selon un processus oppose a l’agonie de Socrate. Dissertation On Law? Elle commence a partir de la figure ; c’est ici que les dieux lui arrachent l’ame en la transformant en chaos informe, en detruisant la conscience. Essay? Ses yeux ont perdu le regard ; ils ne repondent plus a ceux qui le regardent. Dissertation? Mais l’artiste a capte le moment precis de basculement entre identite et perte de l’identite, moment ou Laocoon n’est plus une personne distincte, mais garde, par sa resistance, son humanite. Classes? C’est cette ultime lutte pour son appartenance au genre humain qui lui confere sa dignite. 30 Laocoon accepte la sentence et la punition. Dissertation? Ce qu’il doit donner, c’est sa vie.

Et il l’offre de facon triomphante. Essay Northwoods Reflection Spring? Son corps est, au moment de mourir, en guerre avec les dieux. On Law? Comme le constate Vernant, « la mort heroique » est « la condition de la survie en gloire dans la memoire des hommes »34. Essay On Beowulf Epic Hero? La belle mort de Laocoon n’est pas celle du guerrier, l’arme a la main, mais celle de l’homme sacrifie. Dissertation? Celui qui le regarde dans son etat de mourant peut entendre, dans son imagination, qu’il parle entre la vie et la mort a la memoire des vivants. Mapping? La memoire collective va retenir sa parole d’homme qui accepte la mort et qui sacrifie sa vie a sa cite. Dissertation? C’est une parole non dite, une prophetie livree par sa bouche entrouverte, donnee a la memoire des vivants. Essay Northwoods Outdoor Spring Summer? Telle qu’elle est representee, la tete de Laocoon est au-dela de toute expression definie ; elle est donc placee sous le signe de considerations qui depassent l’esthetique. On Law? L’ouverture de la bouche a un autre sens que celui d’eviter l’impression de laideur. Outdoor Reflection Summer? Elle laisse echapper l’ame et le pneuma, l’element aerien qui transporte le recit de son propre personnage, le mythe de sa personne.

C’est au contemplateur de la statue de le capter et de le garder dans sa memoire. 1 J’opere une distinction entre deux formes grammaticales : quand je me refere a la statue et au Laocoon represente, je parlerai « du Laocoon » avec l’article defini. On Law? Dans le cas ou je fais reference au personnage, j’utilise « Laocoon » comme nom propre. 2 L’analyse de Simon Richter Laocoon’s Body and on beowulf hero, the Aesthetics of on law Pain se clot sur ces mots : « The readings of how to Winckelmann, Lessing, Herder, Moritz, and dissertation, Goethe have produced multiple images of the essay epic Laocoon. Dissertation? The castrato, the companion essay outdoor reflection spring crucified Christ, the dissertation animal in of term sample, Haller’s clinic, the dissertation on law victim of format rape or torture : these are the on law radically unclassical counterparts of the help with and anxiety Laocoon, riveted together through pain » (Simon Richter, Laocoon’s Body and dissertation, the Aesthetics of thesis on curriculum Pain.

Winckelmann, Lessing, Herder, Moritz, Goethe, Detroit, Wayne State University Press 1992, p. Dissertation On Law? 190). 3 Cf. Companion Essay Spring Summer? Gotthold Ephraim Lessing, Werke 1766-1769, ed. On Law? par Wilfried Barner, Frankfurt a. Essay? M., Bibliothek deutscher Klassiker, 1990. 4 Jules Vuillemin, « Bemerkungen uber Lessings Laokoon », in dissertation on law, Gunter Gebauer (ed.), Das Laokoon-Projekt. On Beowulf Epic Hero? Plane einer semiotischen Asthetik, Stuttgart, Metzler, 1984, p. Dissertation On Law? 167-182. 5 Inka Mulder-Bach, Im Zeichen Pygmalions. Pitzer? Das Modell der Statue und die Entdeckung der » Darstellung » im 18. Dissertation On Law? Jahrhundert, Munchen, Fink, 1998, p. Epic Hero? 15. 6 Ludwig Wittgenstein, Philosophische Untersuchungen (trad. On Law? franc. Mapping? : Investigations philosophiques), in dissertation on law, Schriften, Frankfurt a. Thesis? M., Suhrkamp, 1960. 7 Maurice Merleau-Ponty, Merleau-Ponty a la Sorbonne. Dissertation? Resume de cours 1949-1952, Dijon, 1988, p. Of Term Paper Sample? 558.

8 Maurice Merleau-Ponty, Le Visible et l’invisible, ed. Dissertation? Claude Lefort, Paris, Gallimard, 1964, p. Help With Depression And Anxiety? 191. 12 Jacques Lacan, Les quatre concepts de la psychanalyse. Dissertation On Law? Le seminaire. Of Term Paper Sample? Livre XI, ed. On Law? par Jacques-Alain Miller, Paris, Le Seuil, 1973, p. Reflection Spring? 116. 14 Simon Richter (cf. On Law? n. Essay Epic Hero? 2, p. Dissertation? 237) a bien raison de donner a ces narrations le titre « Aesthetics of of term sample pain ». Dissertation On Law? Un autre question est cependant de savoir si ce titre rend justice a la statue du Laocoon. 15 C’est Bernard Andreae qui a formule cette reflexion lors de la discussion durant le colloque « Laocoon. Of Term Paper Sample? Histoire et reception » a Paris (Ecole normale superieure, EPHE et Institut historique allemand), les 29-30 avril 2002. 16 Il est comparable a celui de la statue en bronze d’Attale II (Bernard Andreae, Laokoon und die Kunst von Pergamon.

Die Hybris der Giganten, Frankfurt, Fischer, 1991, p. Dissertation? 57). Mapping? Le fait qu’aucun observateur du xviii e siecle, pas meme Winckelmann, n’ait ete attentif a un signe aussi important dans les statues d’hommes nus ne peut pas s’expliquer par une attitude pudique, mais doit etre mis au compte d’un aveuglement partiel du a une interpretation preconcue. 17 Bernard Andreae, Laokoon und die Grundung Roms, Mainz, Philipp von Zabem, 1988, p. Dissertation On Law? 168. 19 Cf. Help Depression? Nelson Goodman, Languages of on law Art, Indianapolis, Hackett, 1968. 20 Dans ce contexte, il est interessant de se rappeler la these de Winckelmann selon laquelle la « hohe Schonheit » est la qualite de la « Unbezeichnung » (S. Companion Essay Northwoods Outdoor Reflection Spring Summer? Richter, loc. On Law? cit., p. Epic Hero? 56), qui a donc une certaine proximite avec la mort. 21 Meme Lessing ne tire pas les consequences necessaires qu’il a pourtant preparees dans sa refutation de l’interpretation moralisante de Winckelmann ; comme les autres auteurs, il suit la strategie d’interpretation psychologisante. 22 L’invention de recits autour du Laocoon ne releve pas du domaine strictement allemand.

Un excellent exemple de l’interpretabilite de la statue par des recits psychologisants et personnalises se trouve chez Kierkegaard : « Was ist ein Dichter ? Ein unglucklicher Mensch, der tiefe Qualen in on law, seinem Herzen birgt, dessen Lippen aber so geformt sind, da?, indem der Seufzer und der Schrei uber sie ausstromen, sie klingen wie eine schone Musik. Classes? (. Dissertation? ) Und die Menschen scharen sich um den Dichter und sagen zu ihm : Singe bald wieder ; das hei?t : mochten doch neue Leiden deine Seele martern, und mochten doch die Lippen so geformt bleiben wie bisher ; denn der Schrei wurde uns blo? angstigen, die Musik aber, die ist lieblich. Essay? Und die Rezensenten treten hinzu, die sagen : Ganz recht, so soll es sein nach den Regeln der Asthetik » (Soren Kierkegaard, 246 Entweder-Oder, Munchen, Deutscher Taschenbuch Verlag, 5 1998, p. Dissertation? 27). 23 Bernard Andreae, Laokoon und die Kunst von Pergamon. War Between Classes? Die Hybris der Giganten, loc. Dissertation On Law? cit. Pitzer Supplemental? ;cf. Dissertation On Law? en particulier les chapitres « Vorbilder », p. Of Term Paper Sample? 16-21, et « Phyromachos und das Philosophenbildnis », p. Dissertation? 36-41. 24 Je me refere au mythe populaire de Laocoon qui trouva la mort lorsqu’il mit en garde les Troyens contre le cheval que les Grecs avaient laisse devant leur cite. Of Term Sample? Il existe bien d’autres elaborations du mythe, mais le pretre apparait toujours comme la victime des dieux. Dissertation? Si on how to depression adopte une autre version du mythe, on dissertation deplace les accents de mon interpretation ; on essay summer ne parlerait peut-etre pas de hybris. Dissertation? Mais dans toutes les variantes du mythe, la mort de Laocoon possede un cote heroique.

Ce qui importe pour mon interpretation, c’est qu’il presente l’union d’un homme mourant et d’un heros. 25 B. War Between Classes Essay? Andreae montre en particulier la proximite stylistique entre l’Antisthene de Phyromachos et le Laocoon, loc. On Law? cit., p. Companion Northwoods Outdoor Spring? 52-54. 26 Une douleur intense causerait une contraction de ce groupe musculaire. 27 Cf. Dissertation? Bernard Andreae, Laokoon und die Grundung Roms, loc. War Between Classes? cit., p. Dissertation On Law? 211. 28 Jean-Pierre Vernant, L’individu, la mort, l’amour. On Beowulf? Soi-meme et l’autre en Grece ancienne, Paris, Gallimard, 1989, p. On Law? 33. 29 Loc. Essay? cit., p. On Law? 60, d’apres Nicole Loraux, Hebe et Andreia : deux versions de la mort du combattant athenien, in essay epic, Ancient Society, VI (1975), p. On Law? 1-31. 31 Loc. Epic Hero? cit., p. Dissertation On Law? 60, J.-P. Essay On Beowulf Epic Hero? Vernant d’apres N. On Law? Loraux.

Gunter Gebauer , « Le corps du Laocoon », Revue germanique internationale , 19 | 2003, 237-250. Gunter Gebauer , « Le corps du Laocoon », Revue germanique internationale [En ligne], 19 | 2003, mis en ligne le 22 septembre 2011, consulte le 02 octobre 2017. How To Depression? URL : http://rgi.revues.org/955 ; DOI : 10.4000/rgi.955. Professeur a la Freie Universitat de Berlin. Tous droits reserves. Reinhart Koselleck 24 | 2016. La phenomenologie de l’esprit 23 | 2016. La pedagogie allemande dans l’espace francophone 22 | 2015. La part etrangere des musees 20 | 2014. Geographies entre France et Allemagne.

La romanistique allemande 18 | 2013. Schelling. Dissertation On Law? Le temps du systeme, un systeme des temps 17 | 2013. L’hermeneutique litteraire et son histoire. Pitzer Supplemental Essay? Peter Szondi 16 | 2012. Archeologies mediterraneennes 15 | 2012. Ernst Cassirer 14 | 2011. La philologie allemande, figures de pensee 13 | 2011. Phenomenologie allemande, phenomenologie francaise 12 | 2010.

La fabrique internationale de la science 11 | 2010. Villes baltiques 10 | 2009. L’Anthropologie allemande entre philosophie et sciences 9 | 2009. Haskala et Aufklarung 8 | 2008. Theologies politiques du Vormarz 7 | 2008. Itineraires orientalistes 6 | 2007.

Neokantisme et sciences morales 5 | 2007. Shakespeare vu d'Allemagne et de France des Lumieres au romantisme 4 | 2006. Esthetiques de l’Aufklarung 3 | 2006. L'Allemagne des linguistes russes 1-2 | 2005. Philhellenismes et transferts culturels dans l'Europe du XIXe siecle. Friedrich Schiller.

La modernite d’un classique 21 | 2004. L’horizon anthropologique des transferts culturels 20 | 2003. Herder et les Lumieres 19 | 2003. Le laocoon : histoire et reception 18 | 2002. Trieb : tendance, instinct, pulsion 17 | 2002. References juives et identites scientifiques en Allemagne 16 | 2001.

Entre classicisme et romantisme, autour de 1800 15 | 2001. Hegel : droit, histoire, societe 14 | 2000. Sigmund Freud 13 | 2000. Ecrire l’histoire de l’art 12 | 1999. Goethe cosmopolite 11 | 1999.

Nietzsche moraliste 10 | 1998. Histoire culturelle 9 | 1998. Heinrich Heine. On Law? Poesie et histoire 8 | 1997. Theorie de la litterature 7 | 1997. Le paysage en France et en Allemagne autour de 1800 6 | 1996. Kant : philosophie de l’histoire 5 | 1996.

Germanite, judaite, alterite 4 | 1995. Le miroir allemand 3 | 1995. La crise des Lumieres 2 | 1994. Histoire et theories de l’art 1 | 1994. Europe Centrale Mitteleuropa. ISSN electronique 1775-3988.

Informations Titre : Revue germanique internationale En bref : Revue consacree a la litterature, la philosophie, la sociologie, l’histoire culturelle, l’histoire de l’art des pays de langue allemande.

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Marketing strategies for market entry – MBA Essay – Padraig Carroll. Marketing strategies for market entry. National College of Ireland. Master of dissertation on law, Business Administration (MBA) Student: Padraig Carroll. Student id: x12114855. Date: April 2013.

Class: Strategic Marketing Management. Lecturer: Dr. Aidan Daly. The objective of this paper is to research the various components that make up Market entry Strategy. This paper analyses the various, and classes, significant choices the entrepreneur, intrapreneur, or manager must address in advance of on law, market entry. This paper seeks to examine the issues faced when defining, creating, and implementing successful strategies to facilitate entry to new, existing, or foreign markets. This paper seeks to pitzer supplemental, define marketing entry strategy and dissertation on law, addresses the marketing mix. This paper will examine marketing entry strategies for the I.T. industry (or industries affected by thesis technical innovation), services marketing, product marketing, and foreign market entry. Dissertation On Law! Further to this, strategies such as values marketing, and how to and anxiety, exit strategy as a part of entry strategy, will also be addressed.

Limitations include: time available for research, literature availability, essay length (4000 words), and the general lack of documented academic research into on law market entry strategy. Research methods conducted in the preparation of this paper include the format of term paper, analysis of secondary sources such as literature relevant to dissertation on law, the topic, web articles, and internet media such as video interviews, academic journals, e-journals, whitepapers. Further sources include study of notes from lecture presentations in marketing, economics, enterprise management, and e-business implementation modules of the 2012 part time NCI MBA. Many would be entrepreneur’s dream of owning their own businesses, yet few realize their aspirations. Babb (2009) lists several questions any budding entrepreneur must pose and answer to understand the feasibility of a concept: Has the northwoods reflection spring summer, business idea been done before? Is there a high cost associated with market entry (are there barriers to entry)? Does the entrepreneur know the product/service offering well? Is the entrepreneur passionate about the on law, business? Is the product or service affordable, and will consumer buy it? Does the entrepreneur have the finances to begin?

Does the entrepreneur have a support system? Will the entrepreneur invest the essay outdoor spring, necessary time to grow the dissertation, business? Are the war between classes, businesses goals documented, and measurable? Has success been defined and is the on law, entrepreneur in a position to recognize it? Babb (2009, p93), and Boyett Boyett (2001, p1) ask the question: “should you do it”? When proving a concept and planning to market a business idea, entrepreneurs, intrapreneurs, and managers create market entry strategies to format of term, ensure the concept is given the best possible chance of success. These strategies are intended to offset the inherent risk and vulnerabilities associated with market entry (Urban, Johnson Brudnick 1979). Fear of risks and vulnerabilities is something the entrepreneur must live with, and failure is something the entrepreneur must learn from. Many entrepreneurs may accept failure, or perhaps even repeated failure as a normal part of the on law, path to success.

This ability to tolerate failure is a key characteristic that allows passion for the pursuit to drive the concept through mental and actual barriers to success (Boyett Boyett 2001). Urban et al (1979) state that a carefully crafted entry strategy will reduce the risk of such failure, whereas Boyett Boyet (2001) state that passion for the pursuit is the more important quality. Such contrasting opinions on what the war between essay, more important factors are to determine successful market entry raise the level of importance in understanding the numerous factors that make up an overall market entry strategy. Ironically, there is an dissertation on law, argument that passion itself can, in fact, nullify the need for a market entry strategy in the case of I.T. businesses where the essay epic, founders’ hobby becomes a business through what appear to be an accident or unplanned chains of events (Livingston 2007). However such businesses based on on law the entrepreneurs passion, hobby and pitzer supplemental, the resulting tacit knowledge will eventually reach a tipping point where ideas become epidemics (Gladwell 2000) and a choice must be made to monetize scale the business or fold. Analysis must be conducted on how either can be carried out (Livingston 2007).

Dev, Brown and Zhou (2007) argue that tacit knowledge is in on law, itself a highly important factor when considering market entry, and thesis on curriculum mapping, further, in essential part in assessing foreign market entry strategy. Strategy definition and the marketing mix. Kotler (2003) states that strategy is the underlying strength behind any organisation’s value proposition. A firm can be said to have a strategy when it has targets specific customers or needs with a unique service or benefit offering. To separate from competition and on law, offer value that cannot be compared, a firm must create and market a distinct proposition. To do so, firms must not focus on the competition, nor must a firm benchmark it’s products or services, staff or customer service. Engaging in format sample, a strategy that is unique will ensure the offering is different and therefore a firm will hold a higher ranking in dissertation on law, the customer’s perception.

Kotler (2003) discusses Kumar’s 3 V’s: Value target, Value proposition and Value network where companies deliver a distinctive value proposition to a clearly defined target market via a distinctive supply network. On Beowulf Epic Hero! This mix enables competitive advantage where a firm’s strategy is not easily replicated. McCarthy (1975) and Kotler (2009) discuss the marketing mix and how the 4 P’s: Product, Price, Place, and Promotion, all affect the creation of marketing strategy, and therefore market entry strategy. This model for dissertation marketing is the foundation of northwoods reflection spring summer, all strategy for taking a product or service to market. It is essential that a firm must analyse and on law, understand the significance of each. Since the northwoods outdoor, formulation of the marketing mix, variations such as the 4 c’s, the on law, 7 p’s, however the 4ps form the basis of all evolutions.

Product: What value does the firm offer, or what problem does it solve? Place: How is the product or service delivered to the consumer? Price: How much does the product or service cost? What is the strategy to target a specific customer base? Promotion: How is the firm’s message communicated? Is the promotional strategy aligned with the target markets values? Londre (2009) takes this a step further and evolves the essay epic, model to on law, encompass 9 p’s which includes passion and how to with and anxiety, partners. Partnerships can facilitate market entry for latecomers who need strategic partnerships in place to dissertation on law, access competencies, however the tradeoffs include loss of control, and lower profit (Claude-Gaudillat Quelin, 2006).

Passion, however is essential for any market entry strategy. Belief is at the core of this strategy, articulation and execution will enable concepts to be proven (Kawasaki, 2004; Sinek, 2009). Understanding the 5 forces (Porter, 1979, 2008; Young, 2005) that affect competition is an war between, essential part to dissertation on law, building an entry strategy. Porter (2008) discusses how existing competition, suppliers bargaining power, buyer purchasing power, threats from new entrants, and substitute goods or services can affect any market entrant. It is stated (Porter 2008) that often times managers will define strategy too narrowly, and this can lead to a focus on existing competition. This can prove to be a costly mistake. Kotler (2008) states that marketing strategy should create, communicate, and deliver the value to a target market at with depression, a profit. Such strategy leads to the development of other areas of business such as Product, Brand, Innovation, and Communications strategy.

A manager’s responsibility lies with piecing each component together, aligning it to on law, the target markets customer values and ensuring the implementation of the strategy is successful. The strategist should be aware of, and understand competition, but should not focus on or benchmark against it (Kotler 2003). A successful market entry strategy will incorporate all of the variables into how to help with depression its market entry strategy, make implementation and dissertation, constant review a part of the organisation’s corporate DNA. I.T. industry market entry strategy. Jessica Livingston conducted a series of interviews with several successful I.T. entrepreneurs when researching her book: Founders at Work: Stories of essay northwoods outdoor reflection spring, Startups’ Early Days (2007). Livingston discovered several similar traits in many of the interviewed entrepreneurs, namely passion, lack of focus on money, ambition to solve problems, a lack of understanding of how the entrepreneur go to the point of success, and numerous failures prior to success. Notably James Hong (2007) recounted how the venture Hot or Not became a business through a series of events seemingly out of Hong’s control.

Originally, Hong Jim Young launched their website Hot or Not for fun. It was a hobby, and dissertation on law, was essentially a joke. Companion Essay Outdoor Summer! Behind this hobby was a passion for software engineering. Hong was a skilled engineer with technology abilities that overflowed from he day job into dissertation Hong’s personal life. Format Sample! Hong’s hobby became very popular through viral communication. Dissertation! One instance where Hong flippantly discusses purposely telling an hero, employee of dissertation on law, TELLME about the war between classes, site he had created. Hong muses about watching the hit rate from TELLME traffic to HOT or NOT, displays a market savvy that Hong was unaware of at the time. Hot or Not organically reached a tipping point (Gladwell, 2000) where traffic to the site became so large, that it required scaling. Hong decided to on law, invest and monetize the site. Mapping! The alternative was to close the site down and avoid the risk. It is dissertation, rumored that Hot or Not was sold in 2012 for.

$20 million. Livingston (2007) discusses how passion in technology can easily generate the with and anxiety, next big idea. Hong being an example of how such passion can lead beyond the boundaries of imagination. Ultimately Founders (2007) discusses how people can add value, or solve a problem. Livingstone’s (2007) interview with Mike Lazaridis of RIM highlights how a relentless pursuit of value can lead to the creation of new technology. On Law! The pursuit of value creation can also revisit older technologies and apply them to on curriculum, new issues. Retrospective usage of new technology can also be applied to old problems. The entrepreneur on dissertation a quest to create and add value will over time identify (through accident, design, or persistence) these opportunities. Help With Depression And Anxiety! Livingstone (2007) documents how Lazardis states that a particular combination of vision and dissertation, faith that the entrepreneur’s concept will be proven, has a value proposition, and how to, can be accomplished in an affordable way will drive technology innovation and therefore value creation. Gladwell (2008) discusses how entrepreneurs such as Hong and Lazardis do not end up where they are by dissertation accident. How To Help With And Anxiety! It takes many years of dedication to their craft to hone the skills necessary to take advantage of the on law, unique opportunities that present.

Market entry in these cases can be accidental at a glance, however once the tipping point is reached the entrepreneur must plan in sample, next steps, particularly when deciding how to monetize the business. Technology innovation as a strategy for market entry is being utilized by many organisations. Kotler De Bes (2003) discuss how lateral thinking can fuel innovation. It is suggested that lateral thinking can be implemented as a strategy to allow organisations to enter new markets. The use of value innovation labs allows creative employees to engage innovation, and this will fuel the emergence of creativity.

As such innovation will occur, new products will emerge, and the firm will be in a position to enter new markets. Urban, Johnson Brudnick (1979) argue that approximately 60 – 80 % of firms who enter new markets through IT innovation do so in on law, fact through an understanding of essay on beowulf epic, a given market’s needs and demands. As such Urban et al argue there is a need for an entry strategy to focus technology innovation at filling those needs. Young (2005) states this market sensing and understanding is essential as a part of an entry strategy to ensure a firm has insight to the needs it is satisfying. Understanding the true value placed by a customer in a product or service is essential for understanding future direction. Young (2005) issues a warning to managers who do not step back to analyse the critical role that strategy plays. I.T. firms or technology driven organisations must also prepare strategy for how to deal with forced market entry. In the case of on law, new entrants (Schumpter 1934) with new competitive advantages, or creative destruction, disruption, technological changes and innovation by other firms, a firm’s competitive advantage can be destroyed (Barney 1999). Technology disruption can fundamentally change the very market a firm operates in. Creative destruction can destroy a market, as well as create new markets.

In the event of forced market entry firms must make strategic decisions. Claude-Gaudillat Quelin (2006) identify 3 main decisions a firm must make when accessing competencies that allow the firm to become competitive in the new market context: What competencies to access, how to access them, and when to access them. Talent acquisition becomes a strategic necessity in the event of disruption and firms must act swiftly to regain a competitive edge. A firm can secure the necessary competencies in 3 ways, according to Claude-Gaudillat Quelin (2006), 1) Market transactions, 2) Firm acquisition for controlling competencies, and 3) Strategic alliances. Given that time is often a critical factor internal development of competencies is not a possibility. As there is a high cost involved in acquisitions, and there is with and anxiety, a risk involved with alliances, firms will often opt for a market transaction based strategy to access the on law, necessary competencies to enable it to compete in the new market.

Given the damage that can caused to a firm standing in its chose market, Innovation strategy is important for a firm to become adaptable, and to allow it to enter new markets ahead of competitors, or to adapt swiftly to disrupting technologies, and paper sample, or firms. Kotler, Kartajaya, Setiawan (2010) discuss how open innovation has been implemented by highly innovative organisations to access the most diverse, geographically dispersed and independent innovators. Kotler et al discuss P G’s use of open innovation through PG’s connect and develop program. As an organisation PG naturally has needs. Allowing external sources to submit innovative ideas facilitates external connection and collaboration. To date there have been in excess of 2,000 global partnerships created that have delivered “game-changer products” to on law, customers (pg.com, 2013), facilitating PG’s entry to a variety of new markets. Marketing entry strategy for the service industry. Lovelock Wright (2002) state that the main differences between product and classes, services include:

Customers do not secure ownership of on law, services Services are intangible Customers are often involved in creating the service Service encounters involve people Services are difficult to evaluate Time is a critical factor There are different distribution channels. These differences present a range of challenges to managers addressing barriers to on beowulf, entry. It is essential to consider entry strategy that will allow a firm to dissertation, align it closer with the target consumer base in of term paper, a way that distinguishes it from dissertation any competition. As services are intangible the value proposition must appear to give tangible benefits. An organisation’s brand will be at the center of on curriculum mapping, this strategy building a perception in the customer’s mind.

Kotler, Berger Bickhoff (2008) state that organisations who engage a successful brand strategy can create tangible assets such as emotional associations with the brand. Dissertation! This affects brand perception, and allows a firm selling intangible services to display perceived physical attributes. Kotler et al (2010) discuss how the and anxiety, need for emotional attachment has changed the dynamics of dissertation on law, marketing in companion essay northwoods outdoor spring summer, the modern era. We have entered an dissertation on law, age of collaboration, participation, where customers seek to align with sellers. This engagement is format paper sample, more spiritual and facilitates a values driven marketing strategy. Firms today, according to Kotler et al (2010) must align their service offering to the needs, beliefs and values of their target market.

Market entry strategy will include a mission statement, vision, communication and engagement strategy that conveys such messages to dissertation on law, the consumer in a way that generates an emotional response. Depression! Market entry strategy for dissertation on law the services industry must involve the on curriculum, telling of stories, engaging consumers through a carefully crafted mission that is articulate and dissertation on law, credible. As a part of this new values driven dynamic, Kotler et al (2010) advise in the engagement of help and anxiety, marketing strategy that includes 10 credos: 1) Love the customer, 2) Be sensitive to change, 3) Guard your name, 4) Target customers who benefits most from you, 5) Always offer a good package at a fair price, 6) Always make yourself available, 7) Get keep and grow your customers, 8) Whatever your business it is a service business, 9) Always refine processes, 10) Gather information but use wisdom in making decisions. On Law! A values driven market entry strategy encompasses the desires, needs, and essay northwoods reflection summer, spirituality of the consumer. Grundey (2008) discusses experiential marketing strategy, and how firms must market the experience. When creating a venture, entrepreneurs must plan for dissertation each individual customer contact point, and strategically create an experience for the customer. It is pitzer, essential for customers to walk away from each meeting having experienced excellent.

Berry Seltman (2008) discuss how a firm can create a marketing strategy that will add value to a customer at every given contact point. The experience itself appears tangible due to the ability of each staff member to articulate the organisations values, vision and mission. Kawasaki (2004) states that a firm entering a market must do so to make the world a better place. On Law! “Make meaning” is the pitzer, phrase Kawasaki (2004) uses to discuss market entry strategy for a firm that wants to add value to a consumer base, the world, or to solve significant problems. Sinek (2009) states that entrepreneurs must create a strategy that starts with “Why”. The concept being that this is in fact the reverse of traditional marketing engagement. Dissertation On Law! When a firm starts with why, it immediately delivers a message to essay epic hero, the consumer stating why the dissertation, firm exists. Outdoor Reflection Spring Summer! When the firm exists to create and deliver value to the consumer, this message becomes hugely significant. Godin (2008) discusses the notion that a firm should align itself to employees, or customers who wish to become a part of a tribe. Kotler et al’s age of collaboration would suggest this is a smart strategy where a natural leader who adds value to the tribe can shine, standout from the crowd and truly lead.

This age of value, values and spirituality presents a need for bespoke market entry strategies that facilitate a closer relationship between the firm and the consumer. Marketing entry strategy for product development firms. Budding entrepreneurs often face the decision when planning to dissertation on law, set up a business, whether to offer a product or service (Babb 2009), however Kotler, Kartajaya, Setiawan (2010) state that regardless of mapping, your business it is a services business, in line with the need for emotional attachment by dissertation on law modern consumers. It can be beneficial to bundle both products and of term sample, services together. In fact understanding which is which, and what consumers really value is essential Entry strategy needs to dissertation on law, understand the true needs of the customer. Babb (2009) discusses how a customer might purchase a product, however what the customer values is not necessarily the product but the service associated with the speed or ease of delivery of the product. Firms creating and selling product can innovate and pitzer essay, create new markets. Through the use of innovation strategy and lateral thinking new uses for existing products can be created. Kotler De Bes (2003) discusses how companies can combine 2 products to enter a new market. An example of this is the combination of cereal with yoghurt, to dissertation, create a new product. However, firms entering markets where there are incumbents do not enjoy the privilege of product uniqueness.

In fact, product differentiation is one of the companion outdoor reflection spring summer, biggest barriers to entry for entrepreneurs who wish to market their products. Existing firms have existing customer bases, with associated loyalty (Porter 1980). As such a market entry strategy will combine a product differentiation, pricing, and funding strategy. Dissertation! The ability of a manger to articulate the company vision, benefits of the companion summer, product, and unique selling points become essential for successful market entry. Dissertation! Given the paper sample, large barriers to entry, and possible economies of scale incumbents have, startup capital strategy will also be very important. Academics agree that in order to facilitate successful market entry and subsequent growth, venture capitalists can be important contributors to market entry. Personal savings of the dissertation, entrepreneur are also an supplemental essay, important factor. Dissertation On Law! The more money an entrepreneur has to supplemental, invest, the less reliant the entrepreneur will be on venture capitalists. Firms who utilize RD to build products see an additional capital expense further exacerbating the need for startup investment. Clarysse, Roure Champ (2007) analyse risk versus reward for Venture Capitalists and dissertation on law, state that the entrepreneur’s education, experience, financial investment all contribute to the Venture Capitalist’s decision to supplemental essay, invest.

All aforementioned factors can enhance the attractiveness of a venture. However, conversely the dissertation, more money an entrepreneur can invest, the classes essay, less reliant they can be on the investor. It is dissertation, essential to craft a financial strategy when considering market entry, and this is an essential part of business planning. Funding strategy is essential for market entry. Kotler, Kartajaya, Setiawan’s (2010) declaration of the age of collaboration and participation highlight how customers can become investors, as well as partners. The Business Class (CNBC 2010) highlighted the case of epic hero, BrewDog, an innovative beer company secured investors using their ‘Equity for Punks’ investor attraction model, whereby they offered customers the dissertation, chance to buy stock in the company. BrewDog chose to publically offer their company stocks through a crowd funding platform, that enacted a strategy to secure investment from those who enjoy the war between classes essay, product, The result is an on law, investor group who believe in thesis, the product and brand and dissertation on law, engage for the long term.

Such investment allowed BrewDog to secure a new location for their brewery. BrewDog’s product is highly mobile. Porter (1980) discusses mobility of product as being a key competitive advantage for on curriculum a firm’s invasion of foreign markets. The FMCG industry, and within this, the dissertation, beer brewing industry provides an excellent example of how firms can enter new foreign markets. Babb (2009) states that following on from successful market entry in one market a firm can then engage in the process of identifying potential revenue in new markets. Sorgenfrey Munch (2009) analyse Carlsberg’s foreign market entry strategy.

Carlsberg initially seek out sample, local brands, acquire the parent companies, or acquire part ownership of the organisations to enter the market., Typically Carlsberg seek out and on law, choose organisations with strong brand loyalty as this is essential in the beer industry, particularly when the essay northwoods, target market has no knowledge of your brand offering. Dissertation On Law! After a period of time, when building of the brand has completed Carlsberg with completely acquire or acquire a controlling interest in the target company and fully rollout their beer offering.. Thesis Mapping! This strategy is capital heavy, yet lowers risk within the target market through brand association. Sorgenfrey et al (2009) state that there are in the region of 20 different foreign market entry modes to choose from. Through a process of elimination, Sorgenfrey et al (2009) conclude there are 3 superior strategies: – Green field production combined with acquired distribution. – Green field production combined with franchised distribution. As with all strategy, tradeoffs must be considered. Dissertation On Law! Evans (2002) highlights the risk of delegation through franchising, whereas there is a risk in large capital investment through wholly owned ventures. Further risk is associated with cultural differences between the firm entering and that of the target market. Firms must weigh up the tradeoffs associated with each factor and decide on epic the best route to market. For firms that export to foreign markets, service requirements of the on law, product suite can influence foreign direct investment strategy (Chung Enderwick (2001).

As such given cultural differences, it may be essential to pen a plant in the target market. This case is also applicable to services business, software exporters, and internet businesses with global presence when offering customer services or technical support to the target market (Patterson and Cicic, 1995). Exit strategy as a subsection of mapping, market entry strategy. Many entrepreneurs find themselves creating a business as a lifestyle choice (Livingston 2007). On Law! However many entrepreneurs will create a business in on beowulf hero, mind with a clear exit strategy following achievement of certain milestones. As such it is important to analyse sections of entry strategy such as venture capitalist funding strategies, to ensure the exit strategy is in line with the investor’s strategy (Babb, 2009). Dissertation! This is due to classes, both an dissertation, angel investor, or venture capitalists desire for how to and anxiety short term gains to dissertation, be realized (Kotler et al, 2010), or the wishes of war between, a long term investor to remain with the on law, business for a significantly longer period of time (CNBC 2010). There is a case to be argued that exit strategy can be an essential part of entry strategy for the entrepreneur, or investor’s new business interests (Clarysse, Roure Champ, 2007). Market entry strategy consists of numerous sub strategies.

Very often entrepreneurs find themselves in a business they have created without ever having planned to (Livingston 2007). However crafting a market entry strategy based on format paper in depth marketing analysis and business planning will reduce risk and enhance the probability of success (Boyett Boyett 2001). While there is dissertation on law, limited academic material available on market entry strategy, investigating services, product, and IT industry market entry strategies coupled with foreign market entry strategy gives an excellent initial framework for investigation into the creation of such a strategy. Given the ever changing technical and cultural landscape, it is essential to know your customer (Babb, 2009). The marketing mix has evolved, and entrepreneurs must evangelise human centric values (Kawasaki, 2004; and Godin, 2008). However the pitzer supplemental essay, entrepreneur’s selfish ambition (Farnham, 2009) can lead to an exit strategy being in dissertation, place in advance of market entry.

As such entrepreneurs must align exit strategy to be an integral part of of term paper sample, their market entry strategy.