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Italian Immigration - Essay
Nature Vs Nurture Essay Essays and Research Papers. The controversy of nature vs . Immigration Essay! nurture has been disputed for years. Nature vs . Short On Sports! . nurture refers to the question of which factors are most significant in immigration determining development; those related to introduce of essay, heredity or environment. It has been reported that some scientists think that “ nature ” is referred as the importance in heredity as the major determinate also known as “ nature ” the theory of human behavior. The nurture theory scientists believe that people think and immigration, behave in certain ways because they are. Human behavior , Human nature , Nature versus nurture 804 Words | 3 Pages.
?Maggie Kent 3/27/14 Child Development p.3 Nature vs . Peptides! Nurture Nature vs . . Nurture There is italian immigration essay a constant battle between researchers from of essay, different fields saying almost all traits come from immigration essay, genetic makeup and that traits are based off of the environment a person is creative inspiration living in. When it comes down to the argument of nature versus nurture , there is no clear answer. Based on the research, I believe the environment plays a larger role in italian immigration essay determining a person’s traits than genes do. The way an individual is. Eugenics , Human nature , Intelligence quotient 975 Words | 3 Pages. Agression Nurture Vs Nature Essay. ?Science in society essay ‘Is aggression down to nature or nurture ’ discuss both sides of this argument.
There is . Family Christmas! strong evidence to suggest that aggression is an italian immigration essay, emotion which many people experience on a daily basis. This leads to great debate concerning whether aggression is stimulated by family traditions essays, nature or nurture . Italian Essay! Aggression is defined by the oxford dictionary as ‘the act of initiating hostilities or invasion’. Aggression can also be defined as behavior directed towards another living being with the. Aggression , Gene , Genetic determinism 880 Words | 1 Pages. Precious traxler September 26, 2011 Human development essay In my essay I’m going to talk about the differences between . nature vs . nurture and how it makes us who we are. well I think that it’s both nature and thesis index, nurture who makes us who we are because it’s are parents who make us and the environment that we live in when were younger. One reason is immigration essay that nature is 1. Something that nourishes; sustenance. 2. Write Assignment! The act of bringing up. 3. Biology The sum of environmental influences and conditions. Biological determinism , Eugenics , Genetic determinism 841 Words | 3 Pages. ? NATURE VS . NURTURE Is the man the product or what we learn or a predisposition based on our gene pools? Are we . limited by our heredity or are we susceptible to our surroundings and upbringing?
Nature vs . Nurture ? Innate vs . Learned? Even Plato dwelled on this subject, one of immigration his most prominent writings, “Meno” focused on this very subject. Imagine new parents. Peptides Thesis! They are huddling around their newborn. Their thoughts swirl around the possibilities of what and how their actions will impact. Alcohol abuse , Alcoholism , Genetic determinism 1156 Words | 4 Pages.
Nature vs . Nurture It is essay a matter of inspiration concern whether human behaviors and characteristics are determined by . nature or nurture . If a person’s behavior is essay inherited directly from the genes of his/her parents or other biological factors, then it is the creative writing, nature that determines his character. But if the environment that a person grew up in, affects his behavior, then it is the immigration essay, nurture that determines his/her character. Short Essay! It became a great matter of italian immigration essay controversy among scientists, psychologists and sociologists. Biological determinism , Black people , Evolutionary psychology 1316 Words | 4 Pages. HSP3M Essay : Nature vs . Nurture The Essay (This essay is worth . approximately 8% of your final mark) Explore the write assignment, following topic in a well-structured expository essay . Is it nature or nurture that has the greatest influence on italian immigration, shaping humankind’s intellect, personality, and emotions? Your essay must have a well-defined and debatable thesis. Short Essay On Sports For Kids! Your position on the topic must be consistent and clear. An argumentative essay does not merely assert an opinion; it presents an argument, and that. Human nature , Intelligence quotient , Nature versus nurture 418 Words | 3 Pages. Grow Outside the Box The nature verses nurture debate is a debate arguing which aspect affects a person’s qualities more . successfully.
Personality is one of the most unique and complicated trait to determine whether nature or nurture influences it more significantly. According to italian, previous research, nature has a dominant impact on the way human’s personality is portrayed and revealed, although it varies with every situation. Family Christmas Essays! Everyone in the entire world has an inimitable personality and a different. Human nature , Intelligence quotient , Nature versus nurture 947 Words | 3 Pages. studies have influenced the nature versus nurture debate. Immigration Essay! Due date: 2nd May 2013 Name: Veronica Pedersen Student ID: . S2858555 Tutor: Mr Riyad Rahimullah Words: 1370 When determining and discussing the question “how adoption and twin studies have influenced the nature versus nurture debate” it is thesis index important to identify the italian, key terms. Family! The nature versus nurture debate is an immigration, ongoing debate focusing on how much our environment ( nurture ) and our genes ( nature ) affect us as human beings. Behavioural genetics , Eugenics , Human behavior 1713 Words | 6 Pages. ?The concept ‘ nature vs . nurture ’ refers to the debate surrounding the christmas, influence of immigration essay genetic factors and thesis index, the . environment in determining personality. It still remains contentious as to whether our personality is primarily determined by inherent genetics (biological approach) or by environmental conditioning (behaviourist approach).
Shelley effectively embodies this life-long debate through the characterisation of Victor Frankenstein and the Frankenstein creature. Essay! She highlights the significance of. Behaviorism , Frankenstein , Human nature 849 Words | 3 Pages. Nature vs . Nurture M. B. Liberty University Psychology 101 Nature vs . . Nurture There has been extensive debate between scholars in the field of psychology surrounding the traditions essays, Nature vs . Nurture issue. Both nature and nurture determine who we are and italian, neither is family essays solely independent of the other. “As the area of a rectangle is determined by its length and essay, its width, so do biology and introduce, experience together create us.”(Myers, 2008, p. 8) Carl Gustav Jung, and leading thinker and creator of analytical. Biological determinism , Eugenics , Evolutionary psychology 1042 Words | 4 Pages. FINAL PAPER: NATURE VS . NURTURE Bradley Duckworth 3/9/12 My thoughts on Nature vs . . Immigration! Nurture are very different from the and games, secular world because the secular world doesn’t understand how a relationship with Jesus Christ can completely change a person.
I believe my wife is a perfect person for immigration essay the discussion of nature vs . nurture . I must begin with some history my wife. Essay On Sports For Kids! Erin never knew her biological father. She met her biological father for the first time just last year at the age of essay 33. As we get. Charles Darwin , DNA , Eugenics 905 Words | 3 Pages. Virtual Child Paper: Nature vs . Nurture I have always held the belief . that Nature v Nurture is not a zero-sum game.
To steal a line from T.S. Elliot’s The Hollow Men, I believe humans are born into this world a “shape without form.” That shape, of course, is our nature ; the sum of family traditions our genetic make-up and natural tendencies based on some combination of predisposition and innate sense of self. Italian! The form, then, necessarily reflects our experiences and introduce, the. Developmental psychology , Human nature , Nature versus nurture 901 Words | 3 Pages. Paper- Nature vs . Nurture Argument This paper is going to covers Nature verses . Nurture argument. It will include the immigration, history and the essential characteristics. As well I will give you my view on essay on sports for kids, the debate.
Nature verses Nurture is an italian immigration, old ongoing disagreement over the comparative influences that genetic factors and involvement make to the growth of psychological characters and behaviors. Today’s science understands the characteristics and behaviors growing from creative inspiration, dealings of Nature and Nurture. Eugenics , Evolutionary psychology , Human behavior 998 Words | 3 Pages. Running head: NATURE VS . NURTURE . The argument of nature vs . nurture has remained an unsettled debated that dates back th? to the 19? century. To this day, new studies are being conducted in hopes of discovering whether nature or nurture has a greater impact on the development of human beings. Researchers use various methods while investigating the italian essay, answer, including surveys and creative, case studies. One such case study involved the “Genie Case”? a provoking story of italian essay a little girl, which proved. Behavioural genetics , Eugenics , Human nature 2909 Words | 12 Pages. 2014 Nature vs . Nurture “We have moved from introspection, speculation, and observation to experiment, . neurophysiology, and imaging.
From the classical Greek era onward, the dualism between mind and body has existed as the christmas, constant dilemma.” (Merikangas, 2004). A predicament of whether nature or nurture plays a larger role in child development has been an ongoing debate within psychology referred to immigration, as Nature vs . Nurture . Nature is what is inherited with conception, your genetics, and nurture is referred. Human nature , Innatism , Nature versus nurture 1824 Words | 5 Pages. Big Debate vs . Big Duet: Nature vs . On Sports And Games For Kids! Nurture Halil B. Genc Quincy College Abstract . Nature vs . Nurture ? The debate has obsessed the minds of psychologists and philosophers for many years. However, for immigration essay the object-orienteer, it has never been a problem: an object inherits all of its properties. In this work we ask if an object should not be subject to environmental effects. Antimicrobial Peptides! We answer this question in the affirmative by demonstrating many cases in which the character of an object must be affected. Biological determinism , Eugenics , Genetic determinism 1758 Words | 5 Pages. One of the most debated topics in Psychology is the agreement of the influence of character, by essay, how a person is raised or by their genetics. . “ Nature vs . Write! Nurture ”, this issues addresses what impact, if any, parenting has on youth, as well as if DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) or genes, influences our actions or behaviors.
The nature vs . nurture debate is one of the biggest debated issues in the child development theory. Which is more bearing on a child’s development, environment or genetics? This debate. DNA , Gene , Genetics 769 Words | 3 Pages. The Controversy of Nature vs.
Nurture. Michelle Esteban December 22, 2011 Arlene Rider Introduction to Psychology Nature vs . Nurture . Controversy The Nature vs . Nurture controversy was begun by British researcher Sir Francis Galton, who invented the term “ Nature vs . Nurture ” (Wood, Wood, amp; Boyd, 2005). He began the immigration, debate about whether intelligence happens because of our environment, or because of the genes we are given at birth (Wood, et al., 2005). There is much debate in the scientific community about which is assignment background more. Biological determinism , Eugenics , Evolutionary psychology 825 Words | 3 Pages. The nature versus nurture debate is one of the oldest issues in sociology (Davidson, 1991, n.p.). The debate centers on italian immigration essay, the . Assignment! relative contributions of genetics and environmental factors to human behavior (Davidson, 1991, n.p.). Today, the majority of experts believe that behavior and development are influenced by both nature and nurture (Macionis, 2009, p. 73). The biggest question now is which one affects human development more: nature or nurture ? According to Macionis (2009, p. 72), in the past. Evolutionary psychology , Human behavior , Human nature 1117 Words | 3 Pages.
Nature vs . Nurture Issues The crux of the nature side of the debate is that genetics or other . natural influences are mostly, if not all, responsible for the characteristics pertaining to the personality, behavior and intelligence of an individual. Conversely, the nurture debate largely argues that the italian immigration essay, main contribution to how a person develops is antimicrobial peptides thesis made by the influence of the italian immigration, people and events that interact with that person throughout their life. While many contemporary psychologists and other. Biological determinism , Human nature , Intelligence quotient 547 Words | 3 Pages. As Nature Made Him: Nature vs.
Nurture. ?Jacey S. Washington Brierly AP English Lang Comp 1 October 2013 Nature vs . Nurture : Where Do We Draw the . Line? The argument over creative, nature vs . nurture has continued to torture society by presenting cases in which we simply don’t know which rules to apply. One of these cases is sex change. Sex change is a very big step to take in a person’s life and immigration essay, it involves the careful consideration of many factors; but it is creative inspiration pictures not a simple answer to a complex problem such as hermaphroditism or even blotched. Biology of gender , David Reimer , Gender 1145 Words | 4 Pages. Nature vs . Immigration Essay! Nurture As far as how an individual personality is biologically determined, no one really knows just in . On Sports And Games For Kids! what manner it is accumulated. Essay! In an article conducted by John Hockett, he describes the for kids, differences as such; “ Nature is a trait which does not change with age, while nurture is an influence, uncorrelated with nature and making for immigration essay individual differences which change with the length over time or number of years through which it acts”.
In other words, nature is permanent and nurture . Biology , DNA , Gene 835 Words | 3 Pages. ?In this piece of work I will describe what nature and nurture are and I will discuss the nature vs . . nurture debate in background relation to the individual development. Immigration! What is thesis index nature vs . nurture ? There are plenty of italian immigration essay factors that motivate our growth and development throughout our life such as: Nature is the theory that our personality, intelligence and our sexual adjustment is inherited by our families DNA. Nature is the environment around us that is argued to change the way we are brought up and behave. Eugenics , Human nature , Nature versus nurture 1286 Words | 4 Pages. Eduardo Estrella English 115 11/27/2012 Nature vs Nurture There has always been a large controversy over . whether inherited genes or the environment influences and affects our personality, development, behavior, intelligence and ability. This controversy is of essay most often recognized as the nature verses nurture conflict. Does how you are raised affect your views as an adult more than what your genetic codes dictate? If your family has always been carpenters, are you destined to italian immigration essay, be a carpenter. Classical conditioning , Human nature , Innatism 1470 Words | 4 Pages.
Allison Harris Nature vs . Nuture University of introduce of essay New Hampshire For more than 50 years sane voices . have searched for an answer to the everlasting debate of nature vs nurture . The debate causes quite a controversy, whether inherited genes or the environment influences and effects personality. Is our development born ( nature ) or made through our experiences ( nurture )? Some believe that is strictly our genes; others believe it is the environment; while others believe that. Human nature , Innatism , Nature versus nurture 1329 Words | 4 Pages. Nature versus Nurture : Homosexuality Statistics show that about italian, 9 million Americans identify as gay. Are homosexual individuals . Write Assignment Background! born or made? Nature versus nurture helps identify and analyze both sides. Nature refers to people’s genes.
Nurture is learned behavior. Homosexuality is one of the italian, most controversial, debated, and misunderstood topics. Family Essays! The American Psychological Association (APA) categorized homosexuality as a mental disorder but it was removed from the list of diagnoses and disorders. Bisexuality , Coming out , Homosexuality 901 Words | 3 Pages. Keith Mierzejewski Methods of Critical Thinking Research Paper December 11, 2010 Nature vs . Nurture One of italian immigration . the most enduring debates in the field of psychology is the controversial idea of nature vs . Creative Pictures! nurture . Throughout the italian, endless history of the writing, debate, no clear conclusion has been met, only hypotheses have been formed. At the center of the debate, human behaviors, ideas, and feelings are being determined, whether they are learned or inherited. Determining physical traits, such as eye color. Genetics , Human behavior , Human nature 1981 Words | 6 Pages. Konteh Perspectives on Human Nature Prof.
Kurt Frey Nature vs Nurture For the past five . weeks we have studied three different but influential people in italian immigration our perspective on thesis index, human nature class. They are Freud, Plato and Tzu. The main discussion between all of them is nature versus nurture . I will discuss the difference between nature and nurture and italian immigration, then I'll apply to each of thesis index these philosophers and how they react to italian immigration essay, it. When looked up in the dictionary the term nature means the universe and its. Evolutionary psychology , Human nature , Nature versus nurture 1294 Words | 4 Pages. and discipline ( Nature )? Or, are these attributes learned and/or taught through conditioning and short essay, training ( Nurture )? The . nature versus nurture debate is about the relative importance of an essay, individual's innate qualities ( nature , i.e. nativism, or philosophical empiricism, innatism) versus personal experiences ( nurture ) in determining individual differences in physical and introduce of essay, behavioral traits.
The philosophy that humans acquire all or most of their behavioral traits from immigration, nurture is known as tabula. Biological determinism , Genetic determinism , Human behavior 975 Words | 3 Pages. the debate of family traditions whether nature or nurture plays the role in the child's development. Italian! Does a child develop from genetic factors or . Family Christmas Essays! does the mind begin as a tabula rasa and form based upon essay, environmental factors? Since both of thesis these are theories, neither of them can be proven, but comparing and contrasting them can give one the means to decide if human development is based upon nature or nurture . Nature refers to an individual's innate qualities or nativism. Italian Immigration Essay! For example, nature is in your genes. The. Eugenics , Human behavior , Human nature 1126 Words | 3 Pages.
? Nature vs . Nurture Homosexuality, Addictions and Intelligence There have always been disputes on whether the . Family Traditions Essays! decision to essay, be homosexual or heterosexual was based on biological or environmental factors. These disputes are known as the Nature vs . Nurture argument. The two sides argue over how gender is chosen within a person. Based on reproductive organs, sex is writing inspiration pictures easily determined at birth: male or female. Gender, however; is the sexual identity an individual takes on. It is possible for sex and. Gender , Genetics , Homosexuality 815 Words | 3 Pages. to explore whether or not the addictive behavior of alcoholism is genetically based. To understand, we must first have a definition of what alcoholism is and . the difference between the concepts of italian immigration essay nature and nurture . Once these are understood, we'll look at the role that both nature (genetic) and nurture (environment/ upbringing) have been said to thesis index, play in alcoholism. Immigration! The definition of assignment alcoholism can be described as a chronic illness, which is marked by uncontrolled consumption of alcoholic beverages.
Alcoholism , Behavioural genetics , Human nature 1189 Words | 4 Pages. Nature Vs . Nurture When we first started learning about the age old question of nature . Immigration Essay! vs . nurture , I agreed with the concept of nature . I hated the idea of thesis index nurture , that no one is truly unique. I was against that. Italian! I liked to thesis index, think that everyone is individual. But then as I thought more about italian immigration, it, I started to not like the idea of Nature . That we dont have a choice in who we are, that it has all been decided for introduce of essay us. I was thinking about italian immigration, a lot of things that could affect how someone is. Human nature , Intelligence quotient , Nature versus nurture 1925 Words | 5 Pages.
Fundamentalism and Nature vs. Nurture. Based on what I have learned in peptides PSYC. 101, principals of psychology, the italian, theory I have taken an interest in is functionalism and nature . vs . nurture theory. These theories have given me ways to function better and to know the different between nature and write assignment, nurture . Functionalism is the doctrine that makes something a thought, desire, pain (or any other type of mental state) depends not on its internal constitution, but solely on its function, or the role it plays, in the cognitive system of which. Eugenics , Human nature , Natural environment 909 Words | 3 Pages. Topic: Nurture strongly influences early human development. Discuss. We are born with nature and italian essay, nurture . As a . result, we are defined by nature and nurture . Throughout the centuries, there are a lot of short on sports and games for kids questions and arguments about whether nature or nurture plays a more important role in early human development. Nature , which is heredity, means the process by which characteristics are given from a parent to their child through the genes (Cambridge Advanced Learner’s dictionary, 2003).
It has. Human nature , Infant , Innatism 656 Words | 3 Pages. psychological debate of “ nature vs . nurture ”. Italian Essay! This paper will address the nature vs . Short Essay On Sports And Games! . Italian! nurture debate, how adoptions plays a role in the debate, give a history of adoption, and tell the story of a personal friend who was adopted and overcame the tragedy of his nature and short essay on sports, was able to essay, triumph through his solid nurturing. The nature vs . nurture debate is one of the longest in the field of psychology. On Sports For Kids! It is italian essay concerned with the importance of individual’s inborn qualities, their nature , versus their personal. Adoption , Babe Ruth , Charles Loring Brace 1028 Words | 3 Pages. Taylor4, S. Waters-Metenier1, E. Bramon1, A. Regojo1, R. M. Murray1 and F. Rijsdijk5 Nature vs . nurture is . a topic that has been debated for centuries.
Pro- nature goes with the theory that genetics and biological inheritance determine behavior, while pro- nurture perspective follows the theory that the environment in which one is raised in and experiences determine behavior. Antimicrobial Thesis! Nature and nurture together shape development. Although the two differ, they do work hand in italian hand in the sense that. Biological determinism , Genetics , Human behavior 808 Words | 3 Pages. about the worldwide debate on nature vs . nurture . There are scientists who argue that people develop . characteristics mainly based on their genetic makeup, and then their are people who say that environment and social interactions has more to do with a person’s traits than do genes. People often question why people are the way they are. Nature and Nurture often have a big impact on a person, and can help in explaining why they are a certain way. Pictures! The nature vs . nurture debate encompasses a variety.
Eugenics , Human nature , Intelligence quotient 1323 Words | 4 Pages. Nature and Nurture Argument Have you ever wondered where you got your different talents from? Where did you get your talent for . singing or your skill for playing certain sports? Were these things taught to you by your parents or was it predetermined by your genes? It is immigration essay understood clearly that eye color and are physical characteristics and are hereditary. But where do we get our individual personality, our intelligence, our behavior? For some it’s not clearly understood. The nature versus nurture. Biological determinism , Genetic determinism , Human nature 951 Words | 3 Pages. Psych 111 030 Paper #1 Elliot Schaja Dr. Grayson 2/14/2011 Nature vs . Traditions! Nurture A . personal characteristic that fits well into italian immigration essay, the nature vs . nurture debate is my Arithmetic ability.
While this attribute can be defined as my actual math ability, measured by my high school and college grade-point-average in Math courses as well as my SAT scores on the Math section, I am also referring to the advantages assimilated with “being good at math.” This includes being able. Human nature , Intelligence quotient , Nature versus nurture 1018 Words | 3 Pages. Debate in Psychology: Nature vs . Nurture Below is a timeline that will be used for the class debate on thesis index, the issue . of Psychology’s Nature vs . Nurture . Italian! Carefully follow directions to prepare, debate and discuss this highly controversial issue in thesis index the psychological world today. Be sure to understand that you must debate on essay, the side of the debate that was assigned to you, even if it does not reflect your personal feelings. Note the criteria based on group and personal participation. Timeline: 20. APA style , Bibliography , Citation 987 Words | 4 Pages. for them.
The age-old question regarding nature and nurture can be argued either way and has by short on sports and games, countless learned and immigration, brilliant . people. Examples are aplenty supporting both sides. But what does this mean form me? I am an 18 year old young man trying to background, shape myself into an ideal person, I have tendencies, habits, talents, these come from both sides of this paradox we have before us, nature or nurture , what is it? For me I think it is a little of both, nurture can explain a lot of immigration essay what is introduce Joseph Cox. Human nature , Intelligence quotient , Nature versus nurture 920 Words | 3 Pages. ?The Nature Nurture debate within psychology discusses the extent in which heredity (genetic) and the environment separately . affect and influence the individual. Some psychologists argue that nature (heredity) is the most significant and influential on an individual. “Heredity is the passing on of physical or mental characteristics genetically from one generation to italian immigration, another.” Nature argues that people are born with set characteristics that develop; changing over time and that the thesis, affect that the. Human nature , Nature versus nurture 884 Words | 3 Pages. Nurture strongly influences early human development Early human development is a very important process for immigration an individual’s future. For . centuries, philosophers and christmas, psychologists have been debating whether heredity or environment is more important in italian immigration essay determining the background, path of human development.
People believe that human development is immigration essay influenced by inheritance but it can be more concise that nurture plays an essential role. Nurturing at assignment background, an early stage is essay important because it helps an individual to. Charles Darwin , Genetics , Human behavior 864 Words | 3 Pages. ? Nature : refers to an individual's qualities, Example: Nature is your . genes. The physical and personality traits determined by your genes stay the same irrespective of where you were born and raised. Factor: Nature factors that trigger an family traditions essays, individual to commit crime are influences by biological and family factors. Nurture : refers to personal experiences Example. Italian Immigration! Someone could be born with genes to give them a normal height, but be malnourished.
Human nature , Intelligence quotient , Nature versus nurture 1059 Words | 4 Pages. Nature vs Nurture in Frankenstein. Nature vs . Nurture in background Frankenstein In the immigration, novel Frankenstein by Mary Shelley, the relationship of . external appearance and short essay, internal feelings are directly related. The creature is created and he is innocent, though he is immigration essay severely deformed. His nature is to thesis, be good and kind, but society only views his external appearance which is deformed.
Human nature is to judge by immigration, external appearance. He is automatically detested and labeled as a monster because of his external appearance. Essay For Kids! He finally. Frankenstein , Human nature , Mary Shelley 884 Words | 3 Pages. The role of essay nature vs . nurture is relatively important, because the debate seeks to understand how a person . Peptides Thesis! develops factors such as personality, behaviors and intelligence. Essay! There are many child development theories that have been proposed by short on sports, researchers and theorist which outline the developmental stages that infants, babies, children and adolescents go through and identify the essay, typical ages at which these milestones occur. Managing children’s aggressive behavior has been a concern for introduce parents and.
Crime , Evolutionary psychology , Genetics 1394 Words | 5 Pages. Nature vs . Nurture is italian immigration a topic that has been long debated by write assignment, psychologist and everyday individuals alike. Twin . studies have been used by scientists to provide enlightenment on italian, environmental and hereditary influences on behavioral development. While certain elements in a child’s upbringing and environment are bound to influence the way he or she will grow up to socialize, interact, and internalize this world we live in, researchers are interested in the relative importance of genetic predispositions. Behavioural genetics , Human nature , Nature versus nurture 1283 Words | 4 Pages. ? The Problem of Nature and Nurture in Psychology How we see the influences of genetics and environment . on creative inspiration, behavior Abstract This paper defines the nature versus nurture problem in psychology, and immigration, explains why this problem is important in the science of psychology. It then gives the authors opinion of environment and nature as being the more influential, and why the author believes this. Peptides Thesis! The paper gives.
Eugenics , Genetics , Human behavior 1188 Words | 7 Pages. violence? This question brings to mind the italian immigration essay, age old psychological theory, Nature vs . Nurture . Thesis Index! Are people born . predisposed for italian violence? Is there something genetically different about serial killers and murderers? Can their behavior be explained by a difference in their very make-up? Or are they made violent by seeing violence, having un-supportive and demanding parents, being mentally, sexually, and physically abused? Nature vs . nurture is one of the most sought after answers in the field of psychology.
Antisocial personality disorder , Human behavior , Human nature 1010 Words | 3 Pages. This essay is going to discuss the role of intelligence in human beings examining both internal and essay on sports and games for kids, external factors. Intelligence and whether . Essay! it is thesis index innate or develops as one evolves, is one of humanity’s greatest debates. In everyday life one has to make decisions, solve problems and make sense of the world and what is happening in it. From an external point of view the immigration essay, intelligence of a human being develops through a constructive, cognitive process.
Since the 1950s, cognitive developmental. Cognition , Cognitive psychology , Cognitive science 1971 Words | 6 Pages. Typography and Nature vs . Nurture Jonathan M. Family! Grush Truman State University Date Submitted: November 19, 2010 . Italian! Author Note Jonathan M. Grush, Exercise Science, Truman State University Please address all correspondence to: Jonathan Grush, 511 S. Elson Apt. 1, Kirksville, MO 63501, (314) 640-1760, firstname.lastname@example.org America has a fascination with serial killers. Everything about them is interesting to us. There are so many questions that we have. It is incomprehensible to most people. Human nature , John Allen Muhammad , Mass murder 1880 Words | 5 Pages.
Nature vs Nurture Nature vs . Nurture The etiology of short essay for kids . homosexuality has been debated throughout the years by italian immigration essay, many different organizations. Creative Writing Inspiration Pictures! “Sexual orientation refers to a dispositional sexual attraction towards persons of italian immigration essay the opposite sex or same sex” (Rahman, 2005, p. 1057). Many homosexuals are elated to find that genetics is at least partly a source of sexual orientation. Background! On the other hand many do not want the specific genes to be found for immigration fear that they will be used to eliminate homosexuality. DNA , Gender , Genetics 1435 Words | 4 Pages. Giannerys Heredias Giannerys Heredias The psychological debate of nature vs . nurture is one that has been . considered and contradicted for many years. This debate is introduce so controversial because although it is immigration fact that genetic makeup does play a major role in developing a person, the nurture and environment in peptides thesis which a person is brought up in is also an important factor.
The psychological debate of italian essay nature vs . nurture is one that has been considered and contradicted for many years. This debate is. Human nature , Murder , Nature versus nurture 1642 Words | 4 Pages. Nature vs . Nurture Whether your child is an overweight, four-eyed book nerd, or a slender, chick-magnet of a jock, . the question always arises Why does your youngster behave that certain way Is it his biological or genetic makeup, or his environment that determines his persona, such as how he is raised, by whom, and where that shapes him as a person This controversial topic of Nature vs . Thesis Index! Nurture has been pugnaciously debated for over a century, yet unfortunately, there is still no universally accepted. Donald O. Hebb , Gay , Gene 2048 Words | 3 Pages. Nature vs Nurture “While each child is born with his or her own distinct genetic potential for physical, . social, emotional and cognitive development, the possibilities for reaching that potential remain tied to early life experiences and italian immigration essay, the parent-child relationship within the family” (Weissbourd, 1996). When a baby is born, that child already posses something in common with every other person in the world, a genetic gene pool.
Just like anything else in life, when something is given to a. Charles Darwin , Eugenics , Human nature 1087 Words | 3 Pages. Nature vs . Nurture The Nature versus Nurture debate concerns the relative importance . of an on sports and games for kids, individual's innate qualities versus personal experiences in determining or causing differences in physical and behavioral traits. Italian! (Ridley, Matt. Thesis Index! What Makes You Who You Are. Time Magazine. 25 May 2003). Almost everyone in any related field has an opinion as to which is truly more important, nature or nurture . The director of a group called the Minnesota Study of italian essay Twins Reared Apart, Thomas Bouchard. Biological determinism , Human nature , Nature versus nurture 2045 Words | 6 Pages. Nature vs . Nurture Throughout the history of human existence, there have always been questions that have plagued . Antimicrobial Peptides! man for centuries. Some of these questions are what is the meaning of life and which came first, the essay, chicken or the creative, egg.
Within the past 400 years a new question has surfaced which takes our minds to much further levels. The question asked is whether nature or nurture has more of an impact on italian essay, the growing development of people. Essay And Games! It is italian immigration essay a fact that a combination of nature and nurture. Homosexuality , Human nature , Intelligence quotient 2136 Words | 6 Pages. Kinney October 11, 2014 Brooks Nature vs . Nurture Some philosophers such as Plato and Descartes suggested that . certain things are born into us, or that they simply occur naturally regardless of environmental influences. While John Locke believed everyone to start with a blank slate that allows you to become the person you are nurtured into antimicrobial, being. Italian! This begs the question do we follow certain paths in thesis index life because we want to or because we were taught to. My nature shows that I enjoy being social.
Doctor of immigration essay Osteopathic Medicine , High school , Human nature 905 Words | 3 Pages.
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Roles Responsiblities of Teaching – PGCE. As a teacher there are wide range of roles and responsibilities that we must fulfil in order to italian ensure we are successful. There are many different audiences which we have to family traditions adhere to, not just students, but parents/carers, social workers, case managers, schools, examination boards and our managers. Wilson (2009, Pg 6) describes a vast list of roles and italian immigration responsibilities of a teacher. In this list she highlights a variety of areas from duties surrounding planning schemes of work and lessons, assessing, verifying and reviewing students learning, marking work and of essay entering students for qualifications and examinations, having a duty of care, creating a safe environment for all and many more. I feel that within these roles and italian responsibilities I have some strengths and some areas for improvement. Throughout this report I will discuss many of the roles and antimicrobial peptides responsibilities which I feel are important in my role as a teacher, and evaluate them in terms of my strengths and my personal areas for improvement. Need essay sample on Roles Responsiblities of immigration essay, Teaching – PGCE ? We will write a custom essay sample specifically for you for only $12.90/page. I will also discuss in this report some of the most challenging aspects of my role, and evaluate how I could develop further in these areas. Wilson (2009, Pg 4) states that as teachers “We are charged with ensuring our learners gain their qualifications in a manner which is favourable to their own learning needs and those of the awarding bodies”.
Through this she highlights our main aim as teachers to ensure that all students achieve their qualifications. However, she also describes how it is imperative that all students learning needs are met. These learning needs could include a variety of different aspects varying from Learning Difficulties and Disabilities, Emotional Behavioural Difficulties, Social Issues, family circumstances and many more. Through having a good understanding of our students learning needs we can ultimately provide an inclusive and conducive learning environment (Wilson, 2009 Tadeo, 2010). 7 One of the ways in which it is possible to write ensure all this information, and more, is gained and accessible to all staff is through the italian immigration, Initial.
Assessment process. I believe Initial Assessments to be one of the most important and crucial times in education. I feel that the importance of understanding the individual and engaging them from the family traditions essays, outset is vital. Petty (2009, Pg 532) highlights this in explaining that Initial Assessments are important as “teachers need to know a good deal about their students if they are to place them on the right programme, and also to teach them well”. Initial Assessments are often used to determine the italian, level which the introduce of essay, learner should be placed upon, and can provide vital information about italian immigration individual’s learning needs and ensure the family christmas traditions, learner is supported throughout their learning experience (Excellence Gateway, n. Italian Immigration Essay. d. Tadeo, 2010).
Wilson (2009, Pg 134) describes the huge range of information we need to gain from Initial Assessments: “…personality, character and antimicrobial behaviour… attainment and italian essay potential and skills gaps, aspirations, support needed and level of ability”. This highlights the of essay, huge variety of methods needed to employ to ensure we know all of this information about our learners. During the early stages of Initial Assessments my responsibility as a teacher mainly lies in ensuring I am familiar with the information provided about immigration essay each student prior to them attending college, for example from the interview process and through information gained from outside agencies, such as Statements of Educational Needs. Working with students with Emotional Behavioural Difficulties makes this an even more imperative task, and means that we really must ensure that as much information about introduce of essay each student is gained as possible to italian immigration ensure they can provided with a positive, supportive and successful college experience. Within Initial Assessments it is vital to gain information pertaining to background the individuals background, for example previous educational establishments, any qualifications already gained and any social, emotional, learning or behavioural difficulties exhibited. Once the student has come into college I am able to essay take a much more active role in write background, the Initial Assessment process. My responsibilities mostly pertain to 8 introducing myself to essay the students, getting to thesis index know them, and italian assessing their current competencies. I vital part in my role within Initial Assessments is ensuring all students complete tests which measure the level of thesis index, their iteracy and immigration essay numeracy using Target Skills Gold. This enables me to ensure students are entered at assignment, the correct level of qualification (Petty, 2009).
Tadeo (2010) highlights the reliability of such objective tests in the initial assessment process. This responsibility also continues on throughout the year, as I must ensure that all students who arrive throughout the year complete these assessments. Italian Immigration Essay. I believe the most vital area of Initial Assessments is getting to know your students, and I also believe this is thesis index one of my main strengths as a teacher. It is imperative that we understand why they are with us, what they are interested in, any social and immigration emotional issues they may be willing to share, their family situation and much more information. For this reason, within the first few days I ask all students to create an family christmas ‘About me’ poster in which I ask them to put photos and italian immigration essay images of things they enjoy and creative writing are interested in, photos of their friends, family and pets, and any other information about themselves. This also provides the opportunity to assess students’ capabilities with Computers, and often literacy.
I feel that through this it is highlighted to each student that I am interested in them as an individual, and immigration enable me to adapt teaching methods to suit not only their learning needs but also their interests. This notion and christmas traditions method of getting to know your students is supported by Craven (n. d. Italian Essay. , para. 4) in write assignment background, which she states “good things for immigration students to assignment share are information about immigration their families, hobbies and interests, and any other fun facts… [in] building your classroom community”. Working within the Fourteen Plus provision, which is a provision for students who have been excluded from mainstream education for short and games for kids a variety of reasons. These students can exhibit particularly challenging behaviour, and italian are often extremely difficult to engage. I feel that building a good rapport with any student, but especially students with Emotional Behavioural Difficulties, help in creating a supportive and welcoming environment. I am always keen to 9 learn about the students’ interests and hobbies, and am quickly learning the positive impact of tailoring lessons and tasks to their interests, and linking the work to make it applicable to their lives (Cowley, 2003 and Craven, n. And Games For Kids. d. ). The behavioural problems can prompt the most challenging aspects of my role. Often students are very challenging to engage. Petty (2009) highlights the importance making learning enjoyable and fun in order to motivate and engage students. He highlights the importance in relating tasks to the individuals in motivating students, stating “…students, like most people, find something more interesting if it relates directly to their own lives or own enthusiasms” (Petty, 2009, Pg 51-52). I feel that I am developing this skill of making tasks both applicable and exciting currently and am hopeful that with this skill behaviour and attitude will continue to improve.
Another role I must play in the Initial Assessment process is to ensure all students are placed in immigration, the correct group, at the correct level of qualification. This is partly assessed from the students’ target skills gold results, determining their current level. On Sports And Games For Kids. However, there are many other factors to italian immigration consider. These include the peptides thesis, students commitment and attitude towards their study, any learning needs which may mean students are more suited to smaller groups with more support from Learning Assistants. This is mostly carried out as a group discussion between the Course leader, another lecturer and myself. I feel that perhaps this is an essay area in which I am lacking confidence. Although I have been working within this provision for over three years I still lack confidence when discussing matters with my colleagues. And Games. I feel that if I was to improve my confidence I could make a more positive contribution to such decisions.
One of my main strengths is in understanding individuals learning needs. I am always keen to ensure that all students are supported in immigration essay, all aspects of their learning. This may not only include supporting their learning difficulties and barriers to learning, but also in providing pastoral support and advice. I am understanding of students social, emotional and personal issues and family christmas traditions essays able to 10 support them where need be, and knowledgeable of policies and essay procedures in referring students to relevant areas, such as Counselling, Connexions, Anger management etc. Another key role and responsibility of a teacher is creating a positive teaching environment, managing the classroom and challenging and managing challenging behaviour. I feel that this is another of my strengths as I have been working with students with challenging behaviour for over three years in a variety of capacities. I feel that this has given me a wide range of thesis index, behaviour management skills and techniques. I have also taken part in a course on italian essay, Working with Aggression and Violence Effectively which has given me a variety of de-escalating techniques and greater confidence in dealing with aggressive students, which is antimicrobial peptides thesis common issue when working with such challenging students. Creating a safe environment for all to feel confident and secure in (Petty, 2009 and Wilson, 2009).
Petty (2009) highlights how “mutual respect [based on]…his or her teaching skills, personal qualities, knowledge and professionalism” is key in ensuring a good relationship between the teacher and student. Whilst meeting with my colleague he suggested that this is one of my main strengths. Immigration Essay. I am good at showing each student respect, getting to know them, their likes and dislikes, their passions and enthusiasms. Cowley (2003) highlights how happily engaging students in conversations makes the student feel as though the lecturer is interested in them and actually likes them, making the classroom a warm and welcoming environment. Being a good role model to christmas traditions my students is italian one of the most important aspects of being a teacher. Cowley (2003, Pg 163) supports this view in stating “Children… need good role models to look up to and learn from. Their teacher or teachers can have a huge, positive influence on them, particularly if they respect and like them”. There are many aspects to on sports and games for kids being a good role model as a teacher such as always being organised, prepared and on time to lessons. These are all attributes I hope and italian immigration expect from my students, and by 11 showing them myself I am creating a positive role model for them. Another way of being a good role model is to always be polite and courteous to my students. Cowley (2003) expresses the importance of being polite, even when confronted with the difficult situations and rudest students, highlighting that the other students present are learning from writing, you.
I always aim to be a good role model to my students, being punctual, organised, prepared, polite and proactive in engaging all students in their learning. I feel that this helps students in respecting me. Italian Essay. Another aspect of being a good role model to students is ensuring my knowledge of the curriculum and subject is good. I have a clear understanding of the GCSE curriculum and family scheme of work, and am confident in all areas of teaching this. However, as the Functional Skills qualification is a new qualification to us I am still getting used to the structure of the assessment.
I need to italian immigration ensure I am more familiar with this in order to develop and traditions essays be successful as a teacher. Within this I must also ensure that all my lessons are planned well and I am fully prepared. My preparation is good, and I am always organised for my learners. However, timing is an area which I need to develop. Due to nature of the students it can be unpredictable how much work they will achieve at any one time. I find this is making it difficult for me to assess how much time each individual task will take. I know my students well and am understanding of their barriers to learning, but feel that if I was able to plan the time more precisely during lessons I would be a more successful teacher for essay my learners.
One of the biggest challenges I have in pictures, my current role is verifying the students learning. I feel that working with students who are very challenging to engage anyway make this task even more challenging. It is italian immigration essay often the case that students want to get on with their work and essay on sports and games go, they do not want to sit and tell me what they have learnt, or listen to italian immigration me explain to them what they have done well, or what they need to improve. I realise that this is probably my most important area for improvement and development. Christmas. I feel that I need to employ more exciting and active methods of italian immigration essay, teaching in engaging students 12 further, ensuring they understand and giving them and myself the confidence to write background ensure all learning is verified.
I feel that if I try to address all the areas of development mentioned above I will be a more successful teacher, and essay ensure all students achieve and have a successful college experience.
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An Essay on the Types of People I Dislike Most. No two men are alike. People differ widely in their nature. Some people are of sweet nature. They are loved by all. Everyone wants to win their friendship. On the other hand, there are people who are ill-tempered.
They easily offend others. “Birds of a feather flock together”, is an oft quoted saying. It simple means that only people of the same nature can be friendly with each other. Italian? Some people dislike others due to short on sports, their ugly appearance-black color, bad features, fat body etc. but on my part, I can say that I never disliked anyone on an account of his ugly appearance. I only dislike those nature is not good and who have a defective character. Thus, I dislike ill-tempered people. Image Source: bdb3b8.medialib.glogster.com/thumbnails/fee7ff2f0dbb2ca37a228b0e07904dbc07947b6efff8ecf9f5537508891c6ba8/i-dislike-you-source.jpg. Fashion is another of my pet aversions. Now-a-days people are becoming more and more fashion-minded. They may not eat well, but they like to immigration essay, put on costly dresses. Students come to the classes with combs in their pockets. They comb their hair while the professor is lecturing.
Similarly, some English educated girls do not appear to her Indians at all. They madly copy the western culture. They waste hours together in dressing their hair and painting their faces with cream, powder, lip-stick, cheek-stick and what not. Such people, who go beyond their means to satisfy their craze for fashion, are not liked by me. Moreover, in their lust for fashion, our young men often show a womanish character and creative inspiration, they take pride in it. Such people are dislike by me. I am not against English literature, or the essay English language itself. Writing Inspiration? But at the same time I abhor those who talk in English even in their homes.
I have seen people who talk in English even to those who know little of it. They want to impose and show their superiority over others by doing so. I consider this habit, mean and objectionable. Even after fifty years of freedom such people have not developed love and pride for their own language. They have slavish mentality. Immigration? Hence they are the objects of family traditions, my dislike. Of the various evils of which we have become victims, smoking is italian, one.
Wherever you go smokes will be there with cigarettes in their mouth. They make the atmosphere of the of essay already congested and crowded buses, trains and cinema halls suffocating. They may not smoke outside of the italian immigration essay cinema halls but they cannot help smoking as soon as they occupy their seats there in. Thesis? they care neither for italian immigration essay the law which prohibits them from smoking at such places nor the displeasure of their neighbors. Some are so obstinate that they do not stop smoking, Even if they are requested to do so by introduce of essay some non-smoker. I do not simple dislike such people, I heat them. There are people who make promises but do not keep them. They borrow money, promises to immigration, return in the next week, but do not so even the next year. Students borrow books from their friends for peptides a day, but do not return them ever after a month. I do not like this habit. Indeed, such people consider this habit of making false promises a fine art.
They do not think about the loss which they cause to italian immigration, others. I always try to write background, keep such people at an arm’s length. The problem of indiscipline is not confined to the class rooms or to the school and colleges alone. Even mature and responsible people behave in immigration essay, an indiscipline way go to the office, or the railway station, or the cinema hall and you will find men of write background, position behaving in immigration, an in disciplined way. They think it an insult to stand in the queue. They pushed others and thesis index, try to get their work done at earliest. I dislike such in disciplined persons. I am very particular about good manners. So those who are ill-mannered are not liked by italian me. There are persons who never thanks others however kind a deed others may do for them.
Similarly, if you go to them, they will never offer a seat although there may by so many vacant. Introduce? They do not address their juniors and italian immigration essay, sub-ordinates properly. They do not show even ordinary courtesy to others. Such discourteous and ill-mannered people are never tolerated by introduce me. Many people act like spies.
Those who have served in any office must have had a bitter experience of italian immigration, such people. They are known as black-sheep. Such people appear to be very friendly, but they try to thesis index, harm you in very possible way behind your back. If you happen to utter some words against your friend, or your superior, they work like telegraphic wires. I always avoid the company of such people. This habit of back biting is strongly disliked by me. Italian Immigration? Some people think themselves to be very clever and shrewd. They seem to think that three-fourths wisdom of the world lies in their head and that the remaining one fourth is distributed among the rest of the world. The main characteristic of such people is their habit of boasting. They are never tired of thesis index, praising themselves. Besides this, they never find any good in others.
They always find fault with the ways of living and thinking of other people. I feet that no sensible man would like to keep company with them. I have a particular dislike for such people. But today, the italian world is changing swiftly. Only those persons are successful, who can adjust themselves to thesis index, every company?
Those who have strong likes and dislikes find it very difficult to march ahead smoothly. Immigration Essay? So in spite of thesis index, my strong dislike, I try to adjust myself even to people I dislike. But however much one may try to hide one’s aversions, sometimes they become quite apparent. PublishYourArticles.net is immigration essay, home of thousands of articles published by users like YOU. Here you can publish your research papers, essays, letters, stories, poetries, biographies and allied information with a single vision to liberate knowledge. Before publishing your Articles on of essay, this site, please read the following pages:
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color pulse essayer This is a division, of application Ser. No. Italian Immigration Essay. 05/559,295, filed Mar. 17, 1975, now U.S. Pat. No. Of Essay. 6,078,606.
A multi-color, multi-pulse laser operating at a number of wavelengths is provided with a like number of cavities to produce a like number of output pulses from a single pumping pulse. The spacing between the pulses is italian, easily controlled by controlling the timing of Q-switches, each in a different cavity, so that information is imparted by creative writing inspiration, the pulse spacing. In a two color embodiment, a beam splitting device is positioned along the longitudinal axis of the laser medium to produce two beams which are directed into different cavity resonators, each tuned to a different wavelength. Reflecting surfaces positioned at italian immigration essay, the end of peptides thesis each cavity redirect each beam back to the beam splitting device where the beams are spatially recombined and italian immigration essay subsequently two pulses, one of one color and the other of the second color, are sequentially coupled out of the laser system. The colors may be sufficiently close in wavelength such that detection does not discriminate against the two colors, and a double pulse output is obtained at the detector. In this manner, the laser system produces two output pulses from a single laser medium and a single pumping pulse.
The pulse width of each of the and games, pulses may also be controlled by pulse stretching means in one or more of the optical paths. FIELD OF THE INVENTION. This invention relates to laser systems, and italian more particularly to a laser system for providing a multiple light-pulse output in which interpulse spacing and/or pulse width are independently controlled for laser target designation. BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION. In military operations involving the designating and peptides destroying of a target, laser systems are used to illuminate a target. This light is reradiated in all directions by the target and is used by italian, a missile for family traditions homing in on the target.
In one type of system, targets are designated by illuminating the target with a train of laser pulses from a particular laser, with the pulses having a predetermined interpulse spacing. A typical method of countermeasuring this laser target illumination is by italian, detecting the pulses at the target, determining their pulse repetition frequency (PRF) or pulse interval modulation (PIM) and producing like laser pulses which are aimed at a reflective object removed from the assignment, target. In an effort to prevent the countermeasuring of the illuminating laser, the subject invention involves a new type laser which is modulated to immigration essay produce pulse pairs or doublets which cannot be easily detected and reproduced by the target. In order to be effective the interpulse spacing between the pulses of the short on sports, doublet must be small and the spacing must be very accurate since it is extremely difficult to detect the immigration essay, fact that the laser radiation is pulsed when pulse spacings are very small. Moreover, even if the double laser pulses are detected, it is family essays, extremely difficult to generate like laser pulses because it is difficult to immigration essay duplicate exactly the small interpulse spacings. Therefore the combatants who have apparatus for christmas essays producing double pulse laser beams with extremely short accurately controlled interpulse spacings will have a virtually uncountermeasurable system.
This tactical situation thus requires a laser capable of varying interpulse spacing down to zero with extreme accuracy of interpulse spacing. Moreover, this tactical situation requires that pulse spacing be easily varied so that the illuminating laser can quickly change its output waveform to avoid detection. Easy variability of pulse spacings has not been easily accomplished in the past. Moreover, the reduction of pulse spacing down to zero is not possible with double pumping of the laser rod. In the prior art, techniques for obtaining multiple output pulses can be divided into two classes; (1) systems in which the separation between pulses is directly proportional to the time required to restore the population inversion in italian, the lasing medium and (2) those system which are independent of the restoration time of the creative pictures, lasing medium. Systems which are dependent on the population inversion include multiple pump, repetitive Q-switching and mode control systems. An example of the multiple pump system is italian immigration essay, illustrated in U.S.
Pat. No. 3,783,403. In this system double pulses are produced from a single laser by generating two successive optical pumping pulses. However, pulse spacing cannot be decreased to zero in this system. An example of a laser system which is independent of the restoration time is described in an article by M. J. Landry, entitled “Variably Spaced Giant Pulses for Multiple Laser Cavities In a Single Lasing Medium”, Applied Physics Letter, Vol. 18, pages 494-496. In this method, a prism is on sports, used to effectively split the laser rod longitudinally into two rods.
This requires a rod of relatively large cross section. The prism divides the immigration essay, beams and then each of the essay and games for kids, separated beams is independently controlled through individual Q-switches. However, in the Landry system only one wavelength or color is utilized and the stress birefringent effect to be described hereinafter is not used. The subject laser in one embodiment is one which lases in two or more wavelengths. The colors result from radiative transitions which can occur in two different ways: (1) from a single high energy level to immigration multiple different lower energy levels or (2) from multiple different upper energy levels to a single low energy level. It is also possible to get different colors from multiple different upper energy levels to multiple different lower energy levels. The situation will be discussed later in connection with Er:YLF lasers.
In the subject invention the inspiration, two colors are split out into different cavities, each containing a Q-switch. The Q-switches are activated sequentially with a predetermined delay such that light of one color is coupled back through the laser rod to produce a first pulse, while the immigration essay, activation of the short on sports, second Q-switch couples light of the italian, other color back through the laser rod to introduce of essay produce a second pulse. Pulse spacing is essay, controlled by the delay in activation of the second Q-switch. For transitions of the second type (and the third type) the first pulse does not completely depopulate the rod because there are electrons at the second energy level available for the second pulse. This sytem is useable with ruby rods and some Nd:YLF rods. When, however, there are two transitions both starting from the same excited level, stress birefringence induced by the pumping of the rod may play a major part in permitting the production of writing inspiration pictures two pulses. When two transitions start from the same excited level, it is possible that the production of the first pulse will completely depopulate the laser rod making two pulse production impossible. In some instances this can be prevented by very rapid Q-switching. However, stress birefringence provides simpler, more effective way of preventing complete depopulation during the production of the italian immigration, first pulse. Stress birefringence occurs because some of the introduce, energy pumped into the laser rod is italian immigration, converted to heat which changes the thesis index, characteristics of the rod such that two beams are produced each having a different polarization.
In a two color laser stress birefringence results in the two colors being emitted with different polarizations. Immigration. When the beams are separated into two differently polarized beams by write assignment background, a polarizing beam splitter then one polarized beam only partially depopulates the rod for the first pulse, thereby leaving enough of a population inversion for the formation of the second pulse. The Q-switching of the second cavity then can couple the remaining energy out of the rod to produce the essay, second pulse. It is a finding of the present invention that stress birefringence when the laser is pumped produces beams having orthogonal polarizations. The beams are separated according to polarization and each are Q-switched at different times to produce multiple pulses. The multiple pulses are thus produced from a single population inversion which is the on sports for kids, result of italian immigration essay one pumping pulse. Each polarity beam selectively depopulates the laser host material so that only a portion of the essays, rod population is depopulated with each polarization to immigration essay enable the production of two pulses when the Q-switching turn on is not rapid enough. The major problem with most known double pulse laser systems is the inability to introduce of essay accurately decrease interpulse spacing to italian immigration zero. While, as explained later, very small pulse spacings may not be necessary in such fields as double exposure holography, the ability to achieve very small pulse spacings is on sports for kids, extremely important in the fields of communications for italian increased bandwidth and in military target designation, where laser beams having extremely small pulse spacings are required. With respect to introduce applications of multiple pulse lasers, as stated in the above mentioned patent the double pulse out put may be used in double exposure holography in which two holograms are formed in rapid succession to detect any small disturbance occuring in the time between the two pulses. Italian Essay. Double exposure holography is family traditions essays, described in U.S.
Pat. No. 3,715,164 in which small disturbances of the subject are detected as the difference between the two holograms formed. In the case of double exposure holography the two pulses are responsible for forming two successive holograms, with the pulse spacing providing the time internal between the italian immigration, two exposures. While spacing between the pulses may not be critical in this application, it is important that the spacing be conveniently controlled. The spacing between the thesis index, two pulses is, however, critical when the spacing is to convey information or intelligence.
Intelligence can be conveyed by italian, the laser beam in the form of the coding of pulses in creative inspiration pictures, a pulse train produced when the laser is turned on and off in a predetermined manner. In one embodiment the spacing between pulses provides the code, such that transmitted information can be read out of the beam by detecting pulse spacing of received laser pulses. For instance, an immigration aircraft can convey its altitude to a ground station over a laser-powered optical link, with the antimicrobial peptides, pulse spacing indicating altitude or any other desired parameter. Moreover, in laser optical communications, when pulse spacing is used as the modulation parameter, it is important that pulse spacing be easily controlled and varied down to zero for the packing of more information into italian a given time interval. Additionally, if the laser is used to illuminate an object, the object can be identified as the one illuminated by a given laser through the detection of the pulse spacing of the light reflected by the object.
For example, a laser producing pulses of a known spacing may be aimed at a particular object which reflects the incoming radiation in all directions. If radiation from an object has this known pulse spacing then it is known that this object is the one at which the introduce of essay, laser is aimed. Thus any reflective object may be singled out by illuminating it with laser pulses of a known spacing. In addition to pulse spacing it is oftentimes desirable that the laser illuminate an object for a considerable period of time. If one of the multiple pulses is elongated then, in addition to pulse spacing, a multiple pulse laser can be used for illumination as well as the transfer of information. These two aspects, e.g. minimum pulse spacing and pulse elongation, are important when in a military environment a target is to immigration be both illuminated by a laser and identified by antimicrobial thesis, pulse spacing. In this case laser radiation projected at the target is reflected by the target and is then detected.
A missile, bomb or other projectile can then be directed to the illuminated and identified target. Thus in italian immigration, holography, optical communications and for certain military applications it is important to background be able to immigration essay produce double laser pulses and to control pulse spacing and pulse width. SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION. The subject system provides these features by utilizing a laser which lases in at least two wavelengths. Thesis Index. For purposes of discussion, only a two colored laser will be described, it being understood that the italian, number of pulses produced depends on essay, the number of italian wavelengths at which the laser material lases. The output pulse from the laser is separated into two differently colored collimated beams directed into two different cavities. Each of the two cavities is provided with a separate Q-switch. The actuation of the Q-switches is separated by a time interval or delay correlated to the information to be transmitted, such that pulses from one cavity are reflected back through the beam splitter and out the laser prior to pulses from the other cavity. The time interval between the pulses is determined by the delay between actuation of the Q-switches and this can be very accurately controlled by control of the Q-switches and can be made infinitely small.
Moreover, multiple pulses are generated for a single optical pumping pulse. Pulse stretching is accomplished by the interposition of a non-linear absorbing element in the cavity which produces the family traditions, pulse to immigration be elongated. It will be appreciated that if the two colors are sufficiently close, detection of the two pulses is relatively simple, since if the detector has a response characteristic broad enough to introduce of essay detect both wavelengths then a double pulse will appear at the output of the immigration essay, detector. Thus the detector “sees” both pulses even though they are of different colors or wavelengths. Further with respect to the system described, coding of the multiple pulses can be accomplished not only by pulse spacing, but also by pulse width modulation. The pulse width of a laser pulse can be varied in accordance with intelligence to short be transmitted on italian essay, the laser beam by providing the above mentioned non-linear element and by varying the input energy to the laser medium in accordance with the intelligence to be transmitted.
The laser beam coding is therefore not only a function of pulse spacing and writing color but also can be a function of immigration pulse width. Thus the beam from the subject multi-color, multi-pulse laser system has at least three parameters which may be varied to convey a code or intelligence, e.g. color, pulse spacing and pulse width. This makes this laser system uniquely suitable for increased communication bandwidth applications as well as for introduce of essay all applications requiring great flexibility in the coding used. As to the advantages of the subject laser system in addition to pulse spacing and pulse width control there is an added advantage with respect to essay the power requirements for family essays the laser. While, as mentioned above, there exist multiple-pulse laser systems which either use multiple pumping or rapid Q-switching to essay produce multiple output pulses, the two color system described requires less input power for the same output power because waste energy in write, the form of fluorescence is recaptured. Italian. All multi-color lasers have multiple radiative decay paths corresponding to assignment background the different wavelengths. In the prior art it is common to tune the laser for one transition, with the result that radiation from other possible transitions meanwhile undergoes fluorescence, e.g. non-coherent light, and this energy is lost. By producing multiple cavities, one for each transition, the energy which would normally result in fluorescence is recaptured. Thus when the subject system is used for producing multiple pulses, all of the laser input energy is utilized.
Moreover, in the case where a polarizing element is used to permit double pulse formation there is an added advantage. If as in immigration essay, the above mentioned Landry laser system a prism type beam splitting element is used, polarized light induced by birefringence is lost, because it is diverted off-axis by of essay, the polarizing optics. However, in the subject system, the light which normally would be diverted off-axis is instead diverted to a second cavity and is thus not lost, but is rather amplified in the cavity and directed out along the output axis of the laser. Thus less power is necessary when the two color two pulse system described herein is italian immigration, used. It will be appreciated that in creative, general if the pulses are overlapping, this invention can be considered one involving the generation of immigration essay a multi-color coherent light beam. Moreover, if the write assignment, laser is to operate in the CW mode, the essay, subject invention provides a multi-color CW laser. It is therefore an thesis index object of immigration essay this invention to provide an improved double pulse laser system in which pulse spacing is easily controlled. It is another object of short essay on sports this invention to provide a multi-color laser, whether pulsed or not. It is a further object of immigration essay this invention to provide a multiple pulse laser, with the number of cavities and write pulses depending on the number of colored beam components generated as a result of italian immigration essay a single optical pumping pulse. It is still further object of this invention to provide an introduce of essay improved method of producing multiple monochromatic light pulses in which each pulse is of a different color and in which the spacing of each pulse from an italian immigration adjacent pulse is readily controlled.
It is yet another object of this invention to traditions essays provide an italian essay improved laser system in which different colored light components from a laser medium are channeled into different cavities and in which each cavity is introduce, provided with a Q-switching device whose switching function is in timed relationship with the essay, Q-switching devices in other cavities thereby to produce a multiple pulse output from the laser. It is still a further object of write assignment this invention to provide a method of, and italian immigration essay apparatus for, producing multiple monochromic pulses in which one of the pulses is elongated for illuminating an object. It is yet another object of this invention to provide improved color separation for monochromatic light generated from different radiative decay transitions within a laser medium. It is still further object of this invention to provide a laser system in creative writing pictures, which intelligence is communicated by varying the immigration essay, width of the laser pulse in accordance with the intelligence to be communicated. It is thesis index, yet another object of italian essay this invention to provide a laser system and modulation which permits information to be read out as a function of thesis index color, pulse spacing or pulse width or any combination of same. It is a still further object of this invention to provide an improved laser target designator. These and other objects of this invention will be better understood in connection with the following description in view of the appended drawings in which: BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS. FIG. 1 is a block diagram illustrating one embodiment of the multi-pulse multi-color laser system; FIGS.
2 a and 2 b are energy level diagrams illustrating possible radiative decay paths for two color lasers; FIG. 3 is immigration, a block diagram of the subject laser system in which birefringently induced polarization is utilized in multiple pulse generations; FIG. 4 is a block diagram illustrating a laser system in which a non-linear element is interposed between the laser medium and a Q-switch in the laser cavity, illustrating the change in pulse width with a change in energy delivered to the laser medium; FIG. 5 is short, a graph illustrating the relationship between input power and pulse width for the system illustrated in FIG.
4; FIG. 6 is italian essay, a block diagram illustrating a multiple pulse laser system in which both pulse spacing and pulse width are controlled, also indicating the utilization of a polarizing element for more complete color separation in the system; and. FIGS. 7 and 8 illustrate an in-line embodiment of the short essay, subject invention. DESCRIPTION OF PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS. Referring now to FIG. 1, one embodiment of the subject laser system is illustrated in which laser transitions occur from italian immigration different energy levels to a single lower energy level as illustrated in FIG. 2 a . This system utilizes a laser medium 10 energized by a flash lamp 12 driven by a laser excitation driver 14 . Two partially overlapping and orthogonally oriented laser cavities are defined by short and games for kids, optical paths 15 , 16 and 17 . One cavity is defined as the optical path between mirrors 20 and 24 of FIG.
1, while a second cavity is defined by the optical path between mirrors 20 and 26 . These cavities partially overlap along the optical path between mirror 20 and a beam splitting device 22 . Each cavity is tuned to a different wavelength (color) of the radiation from the laser medium such that one cavity is tuned to a wavelength ? 1 , and the other tuned to a wavelength ? 2 . Optical path 15 defines the italian immigration essay, major optical axis of the system along which laser radiation is projected. At one end of optical axis 15 mirror 20 is partially reflective at wavelengths ? 1 and ? 2 . Beam splitting device 22 is situated at an angle of christmas 45° and is coated to transmit and reflect light at the ? 1 and italian immigration ? 2 wavelengths respectively. With respect to the present invention a laser cavity is one which is bounded by reflective means at short for kids, each end, with the reflective means oriented to establish an optical path between them, the spacing between the reflective means being set so as to italian immigration essay establish standing waves of introduce of essay electromagnetic energy at one particular wavelength in the cavity. The regions of the electromagnetic spectrum usually associated with laser radiation include the visible, the infrared and the ultraviolet regions. However, coherent radiation generated by stimulating emission from a laser rod or other medium can be achieved at microwave frequencies with a maser utilizing a lasing medium of ruby and also in the X-ray region of the spectrum with a UV laser and multiple doubling steps. While it is convenient in describing the subject laser in terms of italian essay “light” amplification, it will be understood that the term “light” as used herein includes all of the above regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. Initially the short essay on sports, beam from the laser medium carries light of both wavelengths or colors. However, due to the length of the cavities and the coating of mirrors 24 and 26 , only light of one color ends up propagating in a given cavity. Italian. Thus a beam of wavelength ? 1 propagates along optical path 16 and a beam having a wavelength ? 2 propagates along optical path 17 . Mirror 24 has a coating which permits the mirror to be reflective at wavelength ? 1 and is positioned at the end of optical path 16 and mirror 26 , reflective at wavelength ? 2 is positions at the end of optical path 17 . Interposed in optical path 16 is a Q-switch device 30 and interposed in antimicrobial thesis, optical path 17 is the second Q-switching device 30 . Italian Immigration Essay. The laser excitation driver 14 drives a trigger generator 32 which actuates Q-switch 28 . Alternatively, the driver and trigger may be the same unit.
The output from trigger generator 32 is introduce of essay, applied to a variable delay unit 34 which delays the trigger pulse from the trigger generator 32 by an amount ?. The amount, ?, by which the trigger pulse is delayed is controlled by a control unit 38 . The output of the variable delay unit 34 is applied to Q-switch 30 . The delay may be arbitrary in length, from “0” to approximately 250 milliseconds or longer depending on the population inversion and inversion and energy pumped into the laser host material. In operation, the laser excitation driver initiates a flash lamp pulse which is coupled into the laser medium causing a population inversion. Simultaneously, trigger generator 32 is actuated to provide a trigger pulse to Q-switch 28 . Medium 10 lases in at least two different colors which energy propagates towards beam splitter 22 . At this point, the immigration, beam is directed into different cavity portions. When triggered, Q-switch 28 permits the passage of the energy to mirror 24 . Short. This energy is italian essay, reflected back through Q-switch 28 through beam splitter 22 through the laser medium and out through mirror 20 to on sports and games for kids form a first spiked pulse, illustrated by pulse 40 . After a predetermined time delay, ?, the trigger pulse from trigger generator 32 is applied to Q-switch 30 which permits light of the italian immigration essay, second color to propagate down this section of the laser cavity. Light impinges upon christmas traditions mirror 26 and is reflected back through Q-switch 30 , through beam splitter 22 , through laser medium 10 and immigration out through mirror 20 for the production of the second spiked pulse illustrated by pulse 42 . These pulses may be detected by a conventional detector 43 responsive to christmas light at both ? 1 and ? 2 to produce the double pulse output shown. This system may also be used for italian immigration essay lasers having the FIG.
2 b transition characteristic where Q-switching is sufficiently rapid to prohibit complete depopulation with the generation of the first pulse. The laser system thus described is defined by two cavities with the first cavity being defined as the optical path between mirror 20 and mirror 24 and with the second optical cavity being defined by the path between mirror 20 and mirror 26 . It will be appreciated that the essay and games for kids, number of pulses which can be generated is determined by the number of colors produced by the laser and by the number of italian essay optical cavities which are provided. Thus the number of pulses which can be produced for each laser pumping pulse is dependent on the number of radiative transitions within the laser host material. Referring to FIG. 3, a laser system is illustrated in thesis, which the laser host material lases in at least two wavelengths, with transitions from a single high energy level to different lower energy levels. This laser host material thus has the italian immigration, transition characteristic illustrated in FIG. 2 b. As mentioned hereinbefore, the of essay, use of a conventional beam splitting device to direct the output from the laser material into the two laser cavities may result in the generation of only the pulse when the Q-switching is italian essay, not sufficiently rapid. The reason for antimicrobial peptides thesis this is that all energy stored in the laser host material may be coupled out of the system with the generation of the first pulse. For most laser material, the introduction of energy via a flash lamp results in the heating of the laser material which results in stress induced birefringence.
This in turn results in the production of light which is orthogonally polarized. In the case of two transitions it has been found that light of one color will be polarized in one direction as indicated by arrows 27 , while light of the other color will be polarized in an orthogonal direction as indicated by arrows 29 . Thus in the case of single-to-multiple energy level decay, the conventional beam splitting device may be replaced by a polarizing beam splitting device 31 which includes two back-to-back prisms. The prisms may preferably be made of calcite which, as is the case for immigration essay most transparent material, has an index of refraction which not only varies as a function of wavelength but also as a function of polarization direction. Where the difference in the wavelengths of the light produced by a laser rod is great, color separation can be accomplished by the difference in refractive index for the two wavelengths. Thus light having one color and polarization will be reflected away from the optical axis while light of the other color and peptides polarization will be refracted and directed along the same optical path. This, for instance, could be the case for a laser material which lases both at 0.85 microns and 1.73 microns. Immigration. Color separation is therefore based on peptides thesis, the change in italian immigration, refractive index with wavelength. However, for a laser rod which lases at 1.06 and thesis index 1.31 microns, the change in the index of refraction is very slight and in most cases prevents complete color separation by refractive techniques alone. On the immigration essay, other hand, the change in refractive index for beams which are orthogonally polarized is great which permits separation of the two colored components on account of their polarization alone. Taking as an example the system of FIG. 3, it will be appreciated that the beam which is horizontally polarized, e.g. as shown by arrows 29 , enters the beam splitter 31 at creative inspiration pictures, an angle which exceeds Brewster's angle for this polarization and immigration essay is therefore internally reflected.
This occurs because as far as a beam having horizontal polarization light is concerned, the refractive index of the of essay, material is italian essay, much higher than that which is “seen” by vertically polarized light. As a result, vertically polarized light enters beam splitter 31 and is refracted rather than being reflected. Background. Thus, the horizontally polarized beam effectively enters the prism at less than Brewster's angle and italian immigration essay is reflected while the vertically polarized beam is refracted. This is illustrated by the horizontally polarized beam of one color projected along optical path 17 , while vertical polarized light of the other color is directed down optical path 16 . Beam splitting device 31 may be provided with anti-reflective coatings 33 , 35 and 37 on the face of the prisms as denoted in FIG. 3, for the purpose of eliminating surface reflections. Assuming that the wavelength of light projected along optical path 16 is 1.06 microns and assuming that the wavelength of the light projecting down optical path 17 is 1.31 microns, then optical coatings 35 and 37 are narrow band “V” coatings at 1.31 microns and short and games for kids 1.06 microns, respectively. Optical coating 33 is immigration, a broadband anti-reflective coating which encompasses the 1.06 and 1.31 wavelengths. It will be appreciated that as before mirrors 24 and family christmas traditions 26 are provided with reflective coatings at ? 1 and ? 2 respectively. Italian Immigration. Thus, a multi-color laser system of the single-to-multiple energy level transition has been provided in which the color components are orthogonally polarized so that it is possible to generate two or more pulses from a single optical pumping pulse. The system of FIG. 3 may also be utilized for lasers having the introduce, FIG.
2 a transition characteristic for italian immigration more complete color separation, since stress birefringent polarization is not limited to lasers of the FIG. 2 b transition configuration. By way of introduce of essay example, rod materials including ruby, Nd +3 :YAG and Nd:YLF have radiative transitions as illustrated in FIG. 2 b . Additionally, so called “dye” lasers have radiative transitions of both types. The double pulse laser systems illustrated in italian immigration, FIGS. 1 and 3 are set forth by way of example only, and no limitation to any two colors or any two color lasers is intended thereby. In the following table are listed a number of laser host materials along with the transitions for the laser host materials. Short And Games For Kids. This list is not exhaustive but is merely indicative of the number of laser mediums adaptable to the subject invention. It will be appreciated that all of the italian immigration essay, elements which individually make up the system thus described are available commercially. For instance, beam splitting device 22 or 31 may be obtained from the writing pictures, Carl Lambrecht Corp. of Chicago, Ill. Italian. with any of the conventional narrow band anti-reflective “V” coatings. The trigger may be obtained as model TR-179 from EGG of Boston, Mass. the thesis index, Q-switches may take the form of immigration bleachable dyes, Kerrcells, mirrors, acousto-optic grating spoilers or electro-optical Q-switches such as lithium niobate units.
In one embodiment the Q-switch is of the KD*P (potassium dideuteron phosphate) type available as model EO 514 from Isomet Corp. of Pallisades Park, N.J. In these Q-switches an applied relative field changes the christmas essays, polarization of the device to gate the light. The quality of the Q-switch that is most important is immigration, that it go off quickly as well as go on quickly. Several of the Kappa-Scientific Corp. of Santa Barbara, Calif. Short And Games. Q-switches have the essay, appropriate switching parameters (of the KERRMAN 550 series). Moreover the variable delay unit may be obtained from Kappa Scientific Corp. as model KD1000 or KD2000. With respect to the range of pulse spacings available it will be appreciated that the pulses can be made to overlap by simultaneous triggering of Q-switches.
The length of the interpulse spacing depends on the energy coupled into the laser host material and by the decay time of the excited electrons after the optical pumping pulse has been delivered. Traditions. At the present there are statistically very few excited electrons left after 230 microseconds and this may be the immigration, practical upper limit to the pulse spacing at least for the common host materials. The pulse repetition rate for typical optically pulse pumped lasers is generally within a range of 10-100 pulses per second. Of Essay. Thus 10-100 double, triple, etc. pulses per italian immigration essay, second can be generated by the subject system. With respect to the power requirements of the subject system it will be appreciated that cavities are provided for all transitions such that little, if any, energy will be lost to fluorescence. Referring now to FIG. 4, a typical laser system is peptides, illustrated comprising a laser medium 50 , energizing means 52 , reflecting and partially reflecting mirrors 54 and 56 , a Q-switching device 58 , an associated trigger 60 , a variable power source 62 connected to the energizing means and a non-linear element 64 situated in the optical cavity along the optical axis thereof. This non-linear element is immigration essay, described in U.S. Pat. No. 3,829,791 entitled “Variable Pulse Laser” issued to Jack Schwartz on Aug.
13, 1974 and family traditions assigned to the assignee hereof. The patent is incorporated herein by reference. The element in one embodiment is CdS or CdSe and acts as an energy absorber and italian immigration essay reradiator which in effect stretches the pulses in accordance with the input energy coupled into the laser host material. The pulse width is thesis index, thus readily varied by changing the italian immigration essay, power pumped into the laser host material. The relationship of pulse width to pumping power is illustrated by the graph of FIG. 5 . It can thus be seen that pulse width modulation can be readily achieved by modulation of the power supply voltage. Antimicrobial Peptides. Moreover, as mentioned hereinbefore, by stretching the output pulse a longer period of illumination is italian immigration, achieved. Thus, when the non-linear element is incorporated into one or more of the laser cavities of the system illustrated in FIG. 1, three parameters may be utilized to convey information, e.g. color pulse spacing and pulse width.
Moreover, when the non-linear device is positioned in one cavity, one of the pulses will be elongated so as to perform both an information conveying function and an illumination function. Referring now to FIG. Introduce. 6, a laser system 70 is italian immigration, illustrated in which color difference is accomplished by polarizing beam splitter 31 with anti-reflective coatings 31 , 33 and 35 as described in connection with FIG. 3 . In this system a laser medium 75 is provided which produces radiation at two wavelengths in christmas traditions essays, accordance with the transitions of italian FIG. Writing Inspiration Pictures. 2 b . Essay. In addition to the production of laser radiation at two wavelengths, it is antimicrobial peptides, a property of the radiation produced by the host material that radiation of one color is polarized in one direction, generally indicated by arrows 76 , while radiation of the other wavelength is polarized in an orthogonal direction as illustrated by arrows 78 . The other elements of the laser system illustrated in italian, FIG. 6 are similar to those in FIGS. 3 and antimicrobial peptides 4 with like elements being assigned like reference characters.
In this embodiment, the non-linear element 64 of FIG. 3 is inserted into immigration optical path 17 to provide a stretched pulse 80 which occurs after a spiked pulse 82 produced when Q-switch 28 is activated by trigger generator 32 . The pulse width of pulse 80 is controlled by the variable driver power source 62 , since the nonlinear element 64 is positioned in the cavity tuned to the ? 1 transition of the host material. The variable power source may be made to vary the family christmas, power to italian immigration the flash lamp in accordance with any intelligence to be transmitted. In operation, upon optical pumping the laser host material lases producing an output at ? 1 and ? 2 with the ? 1 output being polarized for instance in a vertical direction, and the ? 2 output being polarized orthogonally as illustrated in a horizontal direction. These two components are separated and transmitted along optical paths 16 and introduce 17 respectively and are recombined again along optical path 15 as illustrated. Italian. The placement of a nonlinear element 64 in optical path 17 results in the aforementioned stretched pulse 80 while the radiation from optical path 16 results in the spiked pulse 82 . Thus the output from the laser system is composed of two-colored light with each color in its original polarized orientation.
In a still further embodiment an in-line multicolor, multipulse laser is illustrated in FIGS. 7 and 8. Referring to creative inspiration pictures FIG. 7, in essay, this embodiment a laser medium 100 is illuminated with a flash lamp 102 driven by a suitable driver 104 . This laser medium is located in a cavity tuned to the ? 1 transition of the antimicrobial, laser which is defined by a partially reflecting mirror 106 at wavelengths ? 1 and ? 2 and a mirror 108 which is italian immigration essay, reflective at of essay, ? 1 . A first Q-switch 110 is italian essay, located between mirror 108 and laser medium 100 and is operated by driver 104 in creative, accordance with the optical pumping of the laser medium. In one embodiment this Q-switch only gates ? 1 radiation because of the unique polarization of this wavelength due to the aforementioned birefringent effect. A Pockel's cell is essay, such a Q-switch. Thus, in write, a preferred embodiment this Q-switch is a Pockel's cell polarized in the direction of the polarization of the ? 1 output from the italian, laser medium.
It will be appreciated that this type of Q-switch has very little, if any, effect on the ? 2 radiation from the laser medium. Thus, the Q-switch 110 influences light of thesis index one polarization as indicated by arrows 112 and does not affect orthogonally polarized light as indicated by arrows 114 . In this embodiment, ? 1 is immigration, chosen to be shorter than ? 2 . The second laser cavity for the ? 2 wavelength of the laser is defined by mirror 106 and a mirror 116 reflective at the ? 2 wavelength of the laser, with a second Q-switch 118 interposed between mirror 116 and mirror 108 . A variable delay unit 120 is provided to control Q-switch 118 , with the delay being controlled by a control circuit 122 as described hereinbefore. It will be appreciated that mirror 108 , while being substantially reflective at ? 1 , is substantially transmissive at ? 2 . Assignment Background. Thus, Q-switch 110 and mirror 108 permit the in-line configuration by italian, effectively being nonresponsive to the ? 2 wavelength. In operation, driver 104 provides a pumping pulse to flashlamp 112 which causes laser medium 100 to be excited, thereby to emit radiation at both wavelengths. Responsive to the pumping of the laser medium Q-switch 110 is actuated to gate ? 1 wavelength light to peptides mirror 108 and then to block ? 1 radiation in the cavity tuned to ? 1 such that a first pulse having one polarization and one color, ? 1 , is italian immigration essay, coupled out of the system through mirror 106 . Thereafter, variable delay unit 120 actuates Q-switch 118 such that light at the ? 2 wavelength is gated to mirror 116 and then blocked. This produces a second pulse having a different polarization and color, ? 2 , which is coupled out of the system through mirror 106 . During this second Q-switching operation, Q-switch 110 and mirror 108 are effectively removed from the system and the effective cavity length is the writing inspiration, distance between mirrors 106 and italian 116 . Thus there is a common cavity portion for write assignment both wavelengths, the common cavity being the cavity defined by italian, mirrors 106 and 108 . Alternatively, Q-switch 110 may be gated on again with the gating on introduce, of Q-switch 118 such that any residual effect of Q-switch 110 on the ? 2 wavelength pulse is eliminated. Italian Immigration Essay. This permits Q-switch 110 to be any of christmas essays a variety of Q-switches. Referring now to italian FIG. 8, a polarizing element 130 may be interposed between Q-switch 118 and mirror 108 . This element is polarized in a direction to reject the ? 1 wavelength radiation while transmitting the ? 2 wavelength radiation to provide an of essay added measure of isolation between the ? 2 and ? 1 wavelengths. What has therefore been accomplished is the immigration essay, provision of a laser system which by virtue of its multicolor, multicavity configuration is able to thesis index produce multiple pulses with a high degree of control of both pulse spacing and pulse width.
The number of pulses per individual flash lamp pulse is limited only by italian immigration essay, the number of wavelengths at which the laser host material lases and the number of cavities which are provided. Thus, any combination of color, pulse spacings and pulse width modulation is possible with the system described. Short On Sports And Games. Moreover, because of the discovery that the light produced with a two color laser is polarized and orthogonally oriented, multiple pulses can be produced from italian immigration lasers having the FIG. 2 b transition configuration when rapid Q-switching is not available. Moreover, since all transitions of the laser are utilized no energy is lost to fluorescence and the energy requirements for introduce of essay the laser system are minimized. The versatility of the subject system is manifest in the type of control over the output of the laser and the unique ease with which the pulse parameters can be varied. One of the most attractive features of the subject invention is the essay, degree of control over the interpulse spacing. The control is accomplished through the accurate control of the Q-switches. Since currently available Q-switching devices now exist with extremely sharp rise and decay characteristics, the accuracy of the interpulse spacing depends on the accuracy of the control pulses which can conventionally be quite accurately controlled.
Thus, interpulse jitter can be held low. Although a specific embodiment to the invention has been described in thesis, considerable detail for illustrative purposes, many modifications will occur to those skilled in the art. It is therefore desired that the protection afforded by Letters Patent be limited only by the true scope of the appended claims.