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Business Plan Assignment


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Business Plan Assignment -- BU113: Foundations of Business

Book Review: Charles Freeland (2013). Antigone, In Her Unbearable Spendor: New Essays on Jacques Lacan’s The Ethics of Psychoanalysis. Book Review: Charles Freeland (2013). Antigone, In Her Unbearable Spendor: New Essays on Jacques Lacan’s The Ethics of Psychoanalysis (Albany: State University of New York), pp. 315, p/b, ISBN 978-1-4384-4648-6. Business Plan Assignment. These essays by Charles Freeland, who teaches at Interaction in Everyday, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, on business plan assignment Antigone and the ‘ethics of psychoanalysis’ are based on custom annotations in spring Jacques Lacan’s ethics seminar of 1959-1960 at plan, St. Anne’s Hospital in Paris; this seminar was the seventh in a series of Social Interaction and twenty-seven seminars that lasted from 1953-1980 (Lacan, 1992a).

There are seven essays in this book excluding the plan assignment, introduction. The topics covered here include the psychoanalytic notions of truth, desire, death, the moral law, the and standardization of an essay, significance of Greek tragedy for Freudian metapsychology, and the problem of happiness. As will be obvious to the reader, these topics are also of interest to moral philosophers. The main difference however between the treatment of these topics in the texts of moral philosophy and psychoanalysis is in the invocation of the unconscious as an explanatory category here. The Greek and German thinkers of consequence in this context include Aristotle, Sophocles, Immanuel Kant, and plan their commentators. It would not be far-fetched to say that the depiction of Lacan as an ‘anti-philosopher’ in this book does not mean that he is not at do my homework free online, all interested in business assignment, philosophy, or that he had lost interest in philosophy (as opposed to psychoanalysis). What it really means is that Lacan wants to rethink the history of philosophy from the point of view of the unconscious (Boothby, 2001).

This is analogous to the attempt made by Claude-Levi Strauss to rethink the fundamental questions of anthropology from a structural point of view in the light of Ferdinand de Saussure’s work in general linguistics. Once the notion of linguistic structure became the most important explanatory category in the structuralism of Levi Strauss; it not only revived anthropology as a discourse, but also made it possible for the insights of structural anthropology to be exported to a number of ancillary discourses (Boyne, 1996). Likewise, it is important for the reader to not go astray on the basis of what it means to do ‘anti-philosophy,’ and consider instead how the interaction between moral philosophy and psychoanalysis not only imbues moral philosophy with a sense of writing annotations in spring lived experience and human suffering on the basis of business plan clinical insights, but also makes it possible for psychoanalysis to attain the dignity that is writing in spring, reserved for moral philosophy in the university curriculum. Moral Philosophy and Psychoanalysis. The temptation to engage with moral philosophy, needless to say, was as strong for ego psychologists as it was for Lacan. So, for instance, more or less at the same time that Lacan was doing his ethics seminar in Paris (1959-60), Heinz Hartmann (1960) had a go at the same topic in plan, America; the preoccupation with moral philosophy should not be misconstrued as an idiosyncrasy on the part of the work mla research, French. Lacan’s main assumption in the ethics seminar is business assignment, that there is something inadequate in how moral philosophers and classical scholars have treated the traditional themes of moral philosophy, Greek philosophy, and Greek tragedy. What is really missing in all these endeavors is a coherent theory of the subject.

What psychoanalysis provides scholars in these areas is a coherent theory of the subject that can account for and standardization a range of moral phenomena that have not been adequately thought through; instances of such phenomena include the death instinct, desire, and happiness. This does not mean that Lacan is arguing for an alternate theory of ontology on the basis of his readings in philosophy; it means that for Lacan the unconscious does not lend itself readily to business plan forms of ontological thinking; it is not only elusive in its manifestations, but is best described as ‘pre-ontological’ (Lacan, 1979). Lacan was fond of pointing out in his seminars that while everybody talks about or yearns for happiness, they are not emotionally prepared to attain happiness. Lacan even goes to the extent of writing custom annotations in spring saying that happiness has become more of a political category than a moral category. It would not be a stretch to say that what happened to happiness in traditional society is business plan assignment, now happening to desire within the space of modernity. Whenever a moral category begins to serve as a political category, it means that the be cosic thesis, subject is not adequately prepared to either seek happiness or act on his desire. The reasons for the subject’s unwillingness to act on his desire can itself then become the main topic in business plan, an analysis. This problem matters for psychoanalysis because patients have a propensity to demand happiness in analysis even while they refuse to act on their desire. Does it really make sense to be cosic thesis promise a patient that analysis will make him happy when that was very far from the Freudian intention?

Freud’s promise was limited by the fact that psychoanalysis can at best reduce neurotic misery to commonplace unhappiness. It is plan, therefore illegitimate to invoke happiness as a desirable or even a realizable outcome of brainstorming analysis. The Politics of Happiness. Freudian psychoanalysis was an business assignment attempt to alleviate suffering – not an attempt to induce happiness in the positive sense of the Aristotelian Good. Mla Research Paper. The popular misunderstanding of psychoanalysis is however based precisely on this misunderstanding. Another misunderstanding is the assignment, failure to relate the do my homework, life instinct adequately with the death instinct and think that psychoanalysts are, or should be mainly preoccupied with, the normative ideals of genital sexuality, or that they should work with their patients necessarily on a model of happiness that is based on the sexual function. These ideals – however important they may be – are to be situated as political ideals and must be fought for in the political realm rather than in business plan assignment, the clinical realm (Jones, 1966; Marcuse, 1970; McCready, 2001). Social Interaction Life. Happiness however is not the goal of the Freudian clinic; in Freudian psychoanalysis, the model of the plan, cure is not medical in its cast, but existential in its orientation. The main difficulty in teaching or practicing psychoanalysis in countries preoccupied with happiness is the fact that the patients will be unable to appreciate the difference between the Eros and the Good.

This distinction is important in terms of methodology because psychoanalysis doesn’t necessarily make the patient either happy or even a better person; such outcomes, needless to say, cannot be guaranteed in analysis. On the quantization and standardization essay, contrary, the most that can be said is that a well-analyzed person will have a better understanding of why he is unhappy or lacking in goodness. If this is not clearly understood from the beginning of the treatment, the existential tenor of business analysis will be lost, and the patient will not be able to come to terms with the tragic cast of online Eros that constitutes the assignment, subject’s attempts to be cosic thesis make sense of his life, and psychoanalysis becomes reducible to the ‘service of goods.’ This is plan, not only annotations in spring, a recurring motif in Lacanian ethics, but a danger that has to plan assignment be guarded against. This question is addressed by Lacan not so much in the context of case studies, but through the invocation of scenarios and thought experiments. Work Page Mla Research Paper. A patient preoccupied with the Aristotelean Good, for instance, will think of Greek tragedy from business plan assignment a functional point of view in the context of his own analysis. The tragedy will become functionally reducible for him to the clinical technique of ‘catharsis’; it will become, as Aristotle thought it should be, mainly a purgation of ‘pity and fear’ from the minds of the cited page paper, spectators rather than an encounter with the real as the ‘impossible’ of desire, death, and the human condition as such (Evans, 1997; Lacan, 2007).

Lacan, in other words, is more interested in the ‘tragic’ or the sense of tragedy, rather than with the business plan assignment, literary genre of tragedy (Aristotle, 1996). This then will be the model of psychoanalysis that will be demanded by the patient who will then either reduce or conflate the notion of Freudian ‘abreaction’ to writing in spring psychoanalysis as such (Laplanche and business Pontalis, 1973; Rycroft, 1995). In Everyday Life And. Once a patient makes this false move, he will neither understand himself in business, analysis, nor the significance of the techniques of free-association and working-through (that constitute the main-stay of the analytic method). A better part of both Lacan’s seminars and Freeland’s essays are preoccupied with these problems. But, as the title makes obvious, Freeland’s main concern is with ‘Antigone,’ the protagonist of Sophocles’ tragedy. The points that Lacan makes about Antigone’s death instinct and her encounter with ate are made in the context of a specific reading of the play; they are not invoked as convenient examples. That is why Lacan’s reading of Antigone revived the interest of literary scholars in this tragedy. Why did Lacan devote so much attention to a reading of Antigone? While it is difficult to do justice to the long commentaries that Lacan and Freeland have come with up on this topic, it will suffice in the space of Social Interaction in Everyday Life and this brief review if I can invoke at business assignment, least two or three important reasons for this preoccupation with Antigone.

What Antigone represents for writing annotations in spring Lacan is the dramatic experience of a limit and business plan what it means for the subject to go beyond the boundaries of this symbolic limit. The term that Lacan invokes from Social and Sophocles for this symbolic limit, as previously mentioned, is ate. Antigone’s compulsive, transgressive, desire to bury her brother, Polynices, when she has been forbidden to do so by the edict of the tyrant, Creon, even at the cost of her own life is business plan assignment, a specific instance of breaching the symbolic limits, of an encounter with the brainstorming, beyond of ate. Most contemporary readers or patients, who respond to this tragedy with a notion of either the Aristotelian Good, or even a simplistic notion of the good in the everyday sense of the term, will simply not be able to assignment make sense of the ethical or heroic elements that are being invoked in be cosic thesis, Antigone. They will find themselves in business, the locus of her sister Ismene who refused to participate in the burial of Polynices. This is because the be cosic thesis, notion of the Good is preoccupied with what is politically safe for the subject to do. Business Plan. The main task of the Chorus in the play is to explain what in fact is safe for the citizens to do. The Good is a way of orienting social life to prevent encounters with these limits of the custom in spring, symbolic on the part of the citizen lest his death instincts be triggered-off in a moment of excess. Business Assignment. Likewise, for Creon, the ruler who forbids Antigone from burying Polynices, her dead brother, there is symbolic equivalence between Law and Reason; and Creon does not recognize any limit in his pursuit of the Law since, in his conception, he is himself in the locus of the State, and there is no gap for him (unlike in contemporary jurisprudence) between Law and Reason. This notion is work cited page mla research, fine as long as it is merely a philosophical assumption, but when Creon really begins to act on this assumption, he too is propelled beyond the business assignment, moderate confines of the pleasure principle, and the tragedy begins to unravel for both Creon and Antigone who find themselves as the ethical equivalents of an irresistible force and an immoveable object (Sophocles, 1968). Neither was aware that they would both be caught up in brainstorming, the excess that their encounter would generate.

Like most tragic protagonists, they are not fully aware of the situations in which they find themselves; and business plan assignment Lacan’s goal, as that of Freeland’s commentary, is to help us make sense of wherein lay the tragic element in their encounter. While Antigone’s act was no doubt transgressive, it will be difficult to make sense of what she was up to without some understanding of the French preoccupation with transgression as an ‘ethical paradigm’ in the wake of Georges Bataille’s theory of quantization and standardization of an transgression. What Freeland tries to do then is to situate Lacan’s reading of Antigone within precisely this French tradition of taking transgression as a point of entry into a theory of desire; and the ethics of desire, since the main question that Lacan invokes in a thought experiment for the patient at the end of the business assignment, analysis is to answer this question on the Day of Last Judgment: ‘Have you acted in conformity with the desire that is in you?’ (Lacan, 1992b). This book will be very useful in courses in literary theory, comparative literature, and psychoanalysis. It is however not as expository as it appears to be; it presupposes that the reader is well into the Freudian field. For readers who are however willing to put in the effort, it will help to make sense of not only what Lacan was trying to do in quantization and standardization, his ethics seminar of 1960, but what Freeland hopes to make of it in his turn. Aristotle (1996). Poetics , translated by Malcolm Heath (London: Penguin Books). Boyne, Roy (1996).’Structuralism,’ The Blackwell Companion to business assignment Social Theory , edited by Bryan S. Turner (Oxford, UK #038; Cambridge, USA: Blackwell), pp. 194-220. Boothby, Richard (2001).

Freud as Philosopher: Metapsychology after Lacan (New York and be cosic thesis London: Routledge). Evans, Dylan (1997). ‘Real,’ An Introductory Dictionary of Lacanian Psychoanalysis (London and New York), p. 159-161. Hartmann, Heinz (1960). Psychoanalysis and Moral Values (New York: International Universities Press). Jones, Howard Mumford (1966). The Pursuit of Happiness (Ithaca: Cornell University Press). Lacan, Jacques (1979). Assignment. ‘Of the custom annotations, Subject of Certainty,’ The Four Fundamental Concepts of Psychoanalysis , edited by Jacques-Alain Miller, translated by Alan Sheridan (London: Penguin Books), p. 29. Lacan, Jacques (1992a). The Seminar of Jacques Lacan: The Ethics of Psychoanalysis 1959-1960, Book VII , edited by Jacques-Alain Miller, translated with notes by Dennis Porter (London and New York: Lacan, Jacques (1992b). The Seminar of Jacques Lacan: The Ethics of Psychoanalysis 1959-1960, Book VII , edited by Jacques-Alain Miller, translated with notes by Dennis Porter (London and New York: Tavistock/Routledge), p. 314.

Lacan, Jacques (2007).’The Power of the Impossibles,’ The Other Side of Psychoanalysis: The Seminar of Jacques Lacan , Book XVII, translated by Russell Grigg, edited by Jacques-Alain Miller (New York and plan assignment London: W.W. Norton #038; Company), pp. 180-193. Laplanche, Jean and Pontalis, Jean-Bertrand (1973). ‘Abreaction,’ The Language of Psychoanalysis (London: Karnac Books), translated by Donald Nicholson-Smith, p.1-2. Marcuse, Herbert (1970). Five Lectures: Psychoanalysis, Politics, and brainstorming Utopia (London: Allen Lane, the Penguin Press). McCready, Stuart (2001). The Discovery of Happiness (London: MQ Publications Ltd.). Business Plan. Rycroft, Charles (1995). ‘Abreaction,’ A Critical Dictionary of Psychoanalysis (London: Penguin Books), p. 1. Sophocles (1968). ‘Antigone,’ Greek Tragedies , Vol.1, edited by David Grene and Richard Lattimore, translated by Elizabeth Wyckoff (Chicago: The University of work Chicago Press), pp. 177-228.

Shiva Kumar Srinivasan has a PhD in English Literature and Psychoanalysis from assignment Cardiff University, Wales. His PhD thesis was titled #8216;Oedipus Redux: D.H. Annotations In Spring. Lawrence in the Freudian Field#8217; (1996). He has served as a faculty at Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur; Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi; Indian Institute of Management, Ahmedabad; Xavier Labor Relations Institute, Jamshedpur; Indian Institute of Management, Kozhikode; and International Institute of business plan Planning and Management, Chennai. Panel at 2012 Zizek Studies Conference: #8220;The Perverted Subject Does (not) Exist: Subjectivity and do my free online Zizek#8217;s Ethics#8221; | Spirit is business, a Bone on The Object of Proximity: The Ethics of Psychoanalysis in Zizek and Santner via Lacan Julio Ramos on Ask an Analyst: Dr.

Anna Shane is Queried Nighat Aijaz on A Lacanian Obituary: Remembering Aijaz ul Haque Mirror Stage Lacanian Perspective. Get smart with the Thesis WordPress Theme from DIYthemes.

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Robber Barons or Captains of business, Industry? On February 9, 1859, Henry J. Raymond, editor of the writing custom annotations in spring, New York Times , said something strange about Cornelius Vanderbilt. Business! Raymond didn’t like Vanderbilt, a steamship tycoon with such a vast fleet that he was known as the Commodore, then the writing custom annotations in spring, highest rank in the US Navy. In an business editorial titled “Your Money or Your Line,” Raymond blasted him for taking a large monthly payment from the Pacific Mail Steamship Company in return for Vanderbilt’s foregoing competition on the sea lanes to California. “Like those old German barons who, from their eyries along the Rhine, swooped down upon the commerce of the noble river and wrung tribute from every passenger that floated by,” Raymond wrote, “Mr. Cornelius Vanderbilt . . . has insisted that the Pacific Company should pay him toll, taken of all America that had business with California.” Though Raymond never used the exact phrase “robber baron,” his editorial is the first known use of the metaphor in American journalism. Brainstorming! It has become an enduring description of the industrial moguls of the nineteenth century. It conjures up visions of titanic monopolists who crushed competitors, rigged markets, and corrupted government. In their greed and power, legend has it, they held sway over a helpless democracy.

But here’s the business plan, strange part: That’s not what Raymond meant. He compared Vanderbilt to medieval robber barons because he preyed upon monopolists. Pacific Mail had total market control of the sea lanes to California, and it bought off Vanderbilt in order to preserve its monopoly. Raymond attacked the Commodore for pursuing “competition for competition’s sake; competition which crowds out legitimate enterprises.” To the quantization essay, editor of the New York Times in assignment 1859, Vanderbilt was a robber baron because he was a challenger, a spoiler—almost the opposite be cosic thesis of the current meaning of the term. So how did the definition of “robber baron” change from Raymond’s to our own? The simple answer is scale . Starting in the middle of the nineteenth century—even as Raymond wrote “Your Money or Your Line”—the first truly large enterprises began to business plan assignment, emerge. The rise of big business reshaped not only the free online, economy, but politics and culture as well. A few key individuals played a leading role in business plan assignment this process.

Condemned as robber barons or praised as captains of industry, they helped to be cosic thesis, invent the giant corporation and plan assignment became the focus of the modern debate over opportunity and equality, over and, the power of private enterprise and the role of government regulation. The life of Cornelius Vanderbilt offers a convenient guide to both the impact of plan, these titans and the controversy that surrounded them. For one thing, his career lasted through most of the nineteenth century. Born on a farm on Staten Island in 1794, during the presidency of George Washington, he lived long enough to make deals personally with John D. Rockefeller and leave Andrew Carnegie and J. P. Morgan hungering for his business. For another, he himself was at the forefront in creating the first large enterprises, which first appeared in his industry, transportation.

Vanderbilt’s early decades as a regional steamboat manager and brainstorming entrepreneur help explain Raymond’s curious use of the robber-baron metaphor (curious to our ears, that is). Thomas Gibbons hired Vanderbilt to captain a steamboat in 1817, when such vessels were barely a decade old. With relatively few banks and only infant financial markets, the economy was ruled by unspecialized general merchants. In keeping with the eighteenth-century belief in a natural social hierarchy, a few patrician, land-owning families provided leadership in all areas of public life—politics, business, and society. In fact, New York’s state constitution, which went into effect in 1777, established a three-tiered system of citizenship, with escalating property requirements for voting; only those in the top bracket of wealth could cast ballots for governor and the state senate. Gibbons challenged that system through a business and legal battle against a New York state monopoly on steamboats. In 1798, the legislature had granted the monopoly to business, Chancellor Robert R. Livingston, head of one of the most prestigious patrician families; though he had shared it with inventor Robert Fulton, he passed it down to his descendants as a hereditary right. The logic behind the monopoly reflected that eighteenth-century hierarchical outlook, what historians call the culture of deference. The orderly development of the economy, the state legislators believed, should be directed by the patrician class; New York needed steamboats, so it turned to one of Interaction in Everyday Life and, its leading families to provide them, in return for business assignment, a monopoly. Gibbons attacked the monopoly because of a personal vendetta against Aaron Ogden, a former governor of New Jersey who was licensed to Social Interaction in Everyday Life, run a steam ferry between New York and business plan assignment New Jersey. With Vanderbilt in charge of the work mla research, boat, Gibbons punished Ogden in business, even as he brought a legal challenge to the US Supreme Court. “Gibbons runs an elegant steamboat for half price . Business Assignment! . . purposely to ruin Ogden,” wrote one aristocratic observer. “Ogden has lowered his price and now Gibbons says he will go for nothing.

Did you ever hear of such malice in this enlightened age?” Though “malice” seems like an odd word for offering better service at lower prices, it speaks to the patrician mindset. Social Interaction In Everyday Life! Competition was a new thing on the American scene, and the old landed elite did not welcome it. They saw it as a destructive force, plain and simple. Gibbons won the court battle in business plan 1824 when Chief Justice John Marshall ruled that states could not erect barriers to interstate commerce, in Gibbons v. Ogden . Ogden went to debtor’s prison, and be cosic thesis Gibbons himself died in 1826. Vanderbilt soon emerged as a steamboat proprietor in his own right.

He concentrated on the main artery of trade as it shifted across the plan assignment, landscape—always with one end in New York. When the Social Interaction Life, Erie Canal opened, he competed between New York and Albany; when textile mills began to sprout in New England during the industrial revolution, he switched to assignment, Long Island Sound, on homework free online, the route to business assignment, Boston. Everywhere he went, he was feared as the most effective competitor, one who either destroyed his enemies or extracted a ransom in return for leaving a market. As one businessman wrote to a partner about Interaction in Everyday Life and, Vanderbilt, in contemplating who might prove to be an ally or a rival, “I confess if we are to be opposed I’d sooner have him with us, than against us.” Conservative members of the business plan assignment, Whig Party sometimes condemned such competition, just as the old patricians had. They desired rapid economic development, but believed that it should be guided and assisted by quantization and standardization of an essay, the government. Jacksonian Democrats, on the other hand, praised competition, upholding aggressive self-interest in the marketplace as a matter of individual liberty. This was an plan assignment era of increasing democratization, as suffrage was being granted to all men (though usually only white men), regardless of quantization and standardization essay, their wealth. The principle of individual equality—of competitive individualism—infused the assignment, Jacksonians’ view of everything. In their eyes, government involvement in the economy only served to grant special privileges to favored (usually wealthy) men, which created an be cosic thesis artificial aristocracy, the antithesis of democracy.

When Henry J. Raymond of the business, New York Times condemned Vanderbilt in 1859 for competing against “legitimate enterprises,” he wrote as an old Whig (though the Whig party had disappeared by then). He saw Pacific Mail as a virtuous example of Whig values: Though privately owned, it had been organized to fulfill a federal plan to guarantee regular communications between California and the rest of the United States and received a federal subsidy in return for carrying the mail. The irony is that the California steamship business itself helped change the be cosic thesis, American economy in ways that would make Raymond’s views seem obsolete within just a few years. When the California Gold Rush began, Vanderbilt abruptly left the regional transportation market around New York and competed in this oceangoing steamship business. Even though the plan, federal government subsidized his competitors (Pacific Mail and its partner, the US Mail Steamship Company), he built steamships to run on both the Atlantic and Pacific, which connected via a transit route across Nicaragua, farther north than the established crossing in do my Panama.

In 1851 he inaugurated the line, offering lower fares and a faster passage. He again proved himself a consummate competitor, and swiftly earned a fortune. When the Nicaragua route was closed by a war in 1856, Pacific Mail and US Mail paid him the large monthly fee discussed by Raymond to prevent him from competing by business, way of Panama. These California steamship lines gave Americans a glimpse of the future of big business. They stretched for quantization of an essay, thousands of miles, with stations in distant countries. Plan Assignment! When they fought each other, the repercussions were felt by hundreds of thousands of be cosic thesis, travelers, California residents, and businesses. The demands of these enterprises also fed other industries.

For example, Vanderbilt purchased (and expanded) a major shipyard and steam-engine works in New York. Vanderbilt and the other organizers of these steamship lines, such as George Law, William H. Aspinwall, and business Marshall O. Roberts, became household names in the 1850s. Do My Homework! And yet, with the exception of Vanderbilt, none are remembered today. For one thing, the steamship lines were soon eclipsed by the transcontinental railroads—the first being completed in business 1869. And the railroads, broadly speaking, far surpassed shipping as true examples of be cosic thesis, big business. Except in geographical extent, the California steamship lines could not match the largest railways in terms of numbers of employees, volume of business, capital requirements, or almost any other measure. Business Plan! And it was the railroads that, directly or indirectly, gave rise to the most famous captains of essay, industry (or, if you prefer, robber barons). Vanderbilt was foremost among them—and he fought or did business with many of the rest. In 1863, amid the business plan assignment, turmoil of the Civil War, Vanderbilt began to do my free, sell off his steamship interests in order to buy large amounts of railroad stock.

The younger brokers on Wall Street mocked him, refusing to believe that the old Commodore knew anything about the nation’s most dynamic industry. In fact, he had been actively involved in railroads almost since their inception in America. Plan! His steamboats had connected with New England’s early railways, and in 1847 he had seized the annotations, presidency of the Stonington Railroad, a strategic line in Rhode Island and business plan assignment Connecticut. During the 1850s, he helped to writing annotations, save the endangered Erie Railway and New York Harlem Railroad (better known as the Harlem), lending them money and helping to business assignment, restructure their debt. When he took the presidency of the Harlem in 1863, then, he drew upon deep experience with the stock exchange, corporate finance, the of an, railroad industry, and this particular line. In some respects, Vanderbilt became the business assignment, greatest railroad tycoon of his era almost by accident. Brainstorming! At the age of 69, he simply wished to show that he could turn a nearly bankrupt railroad into a thriving company.

But the fragmented nature of the railroad system—a vast net of small lines, each built to serve a local community rather than a national network—led to one conflict after another. In each case, he would pursue diplomacy with a connecting line, seeking an amicable agreement; the attempt would fail, a business conflict would ensue, and Vanderbilt would triumph, ending the war by purchasing control of the neighboring railway. After he assumed the presidency of the Harlem in 1863, he ran into trouble with the neighboring Hudson River Railroad. He took control of it in 1864, which gave him a monopoly on the railways that entered Manhattan. In January 1867, concluding a long struggle, he seized the business plan assignment, New York Central after stopping all trains over the Hudson River at Albany, an act that largely severed New York City’s connection to the rest of the country (albeit only briefly). In 1869 he gained control of the freshly consolidated Lake Shore Michigan Southern, which extended to Chicago, thanks to a cunning shortselling campaign that bankrupted his primary rival, LeGrand Lockwood. Only one major campaign failed: his attempt to corner stock in work cited mla research the Erie Railway in 1868. Assignment! Vanderbilt wanted to punish his old friend and rival Daniel Drew, who had betrayed the Commodore and his allies on the stock market. The resulting conflict came to be known as the do my homework free, Erie War. Drew, the treasurer of the Erie Railway, allied himself with new members of the board of directors, particularly Jay Gould and Jim Fisk.

As Vanderbilt bought Erie stock, Drew sold it short. Business Plan Assignment! Then the Erie board flooded Wall Street with fresh share certificates of dubious legality. A famously corrupt judge, George Barnard, issued arrest warrants for the directors, prompting them to pack up the brainstorming, Erie corporate files (and funds) and flee to New Jersey. Gould visited Albany, New York’s capital, with a suitcase full of greenbacks and checkbooks—which convinced the suddenly enriched state legislators to legalize the new shares. But Barnard kept his arrest warrants out, so the Erie board had to business plan assignment, compromise with Vanderbilt. The company restored his losses on the stock exchange; in return, Vanderbilt asked the judge to lift the warrants and allow the Erie directors to return to New York. This was a critical episode in the making of the modern notion of the “robber baron.” For very good reason, the Erie War came to symbolize the rampant corruption wrought by the enormous new railroad corporations. Yet closer inspection reveals the nuance behind the historical stereotype. Corruption was indeed rampant, and often did involve railroads and wealthy men bribing public officials. Yet it also came in the form of writing, extortion by officeholders, who threatened to pass harmful laws unless corporations paid off the legislators. For all the graft that surrounded Vanderbilt’s career, no evidence has convincingly demonstrated that he corrupted government officials.

The Erie War also suggests why robber barons (or, if you prefer, captains of industry) loom so large in the popular imagination: Through such dramatic episodes, they personalized the very process of depersonalization. Business! The Erie War was waged by outsized individuals, fighting for vast stakes. Yet the weapons, the battlefield, and the prize itself reflected the work page mla research paper, rising institutionalization of the emerging corporate economy. Vanderbilt, Drew, Gould, and Fisk fought with securities—stocks and plan bonds—traded on a formal exchange, financed by large banks, in order to work page, gain control of a massive, bureaucratically managed enterprise. They made dehumanization human. Of course, these individuals were indeed important. They made decisions that affected the lives of business, millions.

Vanderbilt in particular spanned a long period of economic history, from an age of Life, individual proprietors and small partnerships, to a corporate world of anonymous investors and multi-tiered professional management. As one of the most successful businessmen during this transformation, he attained disproportionate wealth and influence. To paraphrase an old cliche, he was in on the ground floor—and as the building rose, he stood atop the roof all the business plan assignment, way, giving directions as it was built. Ironically, this new corporate structure was not dependent upon individuals, as the do my homework online, old society had been. Yet the nature of the corporation allowed Vanderbilt and others to extend their control far beyond their actual holdings. As the assignment, “Railroad King” (to use the newspapers’ nickname for Vanderbilt), he took a series of dramatic steps that reshaped the railroad industry. He consolidated smaller lines into some of the first giant corporations in American history—capitalized at levels that dwarfed entire industries at the time. Work Cited Page Mla Research! With his son William Henry Vanderbilt as his operational chief, he rationalized the assignment, organization of his companies, and brought in professional managers. Work Mla Research! He introduced new efficiency into the nation’s transportation system, lowering costs and building key new infrastructure. The New York Central Hudson River Railroad paid steady, healthy dividends to investors, even during the depression that began with the Panic of business, 1873. As the Railroad Gazette wrote of him after his death in writing in spring 1877, “His early career as a railroad manager was distinguished by a series of bold, startlingly revolutionary measures which attracted universal attention and had an effect reaching far beyond the lines and companies with which he dealt directly.

The Vanderbilt era was the first great era of consolidations.” As the nation’s first big business, railroads occupied the center of the business, economy, a driver of demand and shaper of strategic interests of other enterprises that gave rise to the classic captains of work mla research paper, industry. Business! In Cleveland in be cosic thesis the 1860s, a pious young bookkeeper named John D. Rockefeller Sr. formed a petroleum-refining business with partner Henry Flagler. Business Plan! They called it Standard Oil. Using some of Vanderbilt’s own competitive tactics—driving down prices and buying out competitors—they began to dominate the young oil industry. Relations with railroads, which shipped oil, were a primary concern. Rockefeller worked closely with the Commodore and his son to Social Interaction Life and, maintain healthy relations and obtain preferential rates. Railroads were even more central to Andrew Carnegie’s career. Business Assignment! A famously penniless immigrant from Scotland, Carnegie rose through the ranks of the be cosic thesis, mighty Pennsylvania Railroad as the protege of Thomas A. Plan! Scott, first superintendent and then vice-president of the company.

Scott and J. Edgar Thomson, the Pennsylvania’s president, were professional managers, rather than dominant stockholders, as Vanderbilt and Jay Gould were in the companies they ran. Though they were excellent executives, they also developed a variety of methods to skim money out custom annotations, of the plan assignment, Pennsylvania’s transactions. They often demanded stock in writing custom companies that contracted with the business plan assignment, railroad, and sometimes routed business through shell companies that they personally controlled. Carnegie got his start as an Social Interaction and entrepreneur with a series of enterprises that fed the business plan assignment, Pennsylvania’s voracious demands, from brainstorming sleeping cars to bridges to business plan assignment, iron, obtaining contracts through such pay-offs and his personal relationship with Scott and Thomson. When he constructed his first steel mill in 1873, he went so far as to name the plant after Thomson. Yet he had learned his lessons well: He made sure that the annotations, steel company was a private partnership, and business kept a close eye on the various managers. He did not want anyone to profit off his own firm as his mentors had from the Pennsylvania. J. P. Morgan, too, rose with the railroads.

Born into a banking family, he spent much of his career as a banker to the railways, serving as advisor, organizer, and financial agent. Throughout the quantization of an essay, nineteenth century, railroads continued to assignment, be the most capital-intensive (and thus most capital-hungry) companies in America, so the great financial houses were largely devoted to serving their needs. Page Paper! Morgan helped to reorganize and business plan assignment rationalize burgeoning industries, restructuring railroads to end destructive competition and fostering such giants as General Electric and US Steel. He helped to move big business out of the age of the pioneering titans and into an era of homework online, institutionalization. Ironically, Morgan helped inspire the single most important, and lasting, federal intervention in the economy. “When a panic started in plan assignment New York in 1907,” wrote biographer Jean Strouse, “he led teams of bankers to stop it.” And stop it he did. But his very success made Congress painfully aware of the level of influence held by this private individual, and of the vulnerability of the financial system. The result was the Social Interaction, creation of the Federal Reserve, America’s central bank.

Vanderbilt, Carnegie, Rockefeller, and others are often remembered as monopolists, yet they radically lowered prices. As early entrants into their markets, they fought their way through chaotic competition by strictly controlling costs and increasing efficiency at every step. By making transportation, steel, and oil far cheaper and more widely available, they contributed to the rapid growth the American economy, and the creation of tremendous wealth. Not everyone was happy with these developments. Business Plan Assignment! The rise of large companies also gave rise to a new class of lifelong wage workers (by contrast with earlier generations, which had anticipated owning their farms or shops). Unionization and strikes increased rapidly after the Civil War. Page Mla Research! Starting in the 1870s, workers demanded laws to limit the business plan, workday to eight hours. Farmers, too, felt helpless before the railroads—“the greatest and most powerful monopoly on the face of the earth,” in the words of one orator. “They let the quantization and standardization, public feel their power in the fuel of their kitchens, the bread of plan assignment, their bodies, the brainstorming, material for their houses.” Cheaper transportation integrated the national marketplace, putting farmers in distant regions into assignment direct competition with each other.

And railroads gave discounts to brainstorming, large, long-distance shippers; farmers who sent their harvest and plan assignment livestock over short distances to local markets resented paying a higher rate per mile. As with workers’ demands for eight-hour laws, agrarian radicals wanted government action. One council of Grangers declared, “We hold that a state cannot create a corporation that it cannot thereafter control.” Another speaker said, “The time would come when the Interaction in Everyday Life, management of the plan assignment, roads must fall into the hands of the public.” This call for public regulation, even ownership, marks a major shift in politics. Gone were the days when Jacksonian radicals wanted the mla research paper, government to stay out of the economy, to allow individuals to rise on their merits. Plan! Now those on the left embraced government intervention as a means of of an, countering the new power of large corporations, which towered over the economy as no businesses had before the Civil War. It took decades for this kind of regulation—especially federal regulation—to emerge. Business Plan Assignment! Yet even before the death of brainstorming, Cornelius Vanderbilt in January 1877, the modern argument over private enterprise and the role of plan assignment, government had clearly emerged.

In a sense, it does not matter whether one sees Vanderbilt and his peers as robber barons or captains of industry; it is the fact that we argue about them as one or the other that matters most. They not only do my homework free changed the way we live—they changed the business, way we think. T. J. Stiles is the author of The First Tycoon: The Epic Life of Cornelius Vanderbilt (2009), winner of the 2009 National Book Award for Nonfiction and be cosic thesis the 2010 Pulitzer Prize for Biography, and Jesse James: Last Rebel of the Civil War (2002). Make Gilder Lehrman your Home for History. Please click here to assignment, login and access this page. Click here to get a free subscription if you are a K-12 educator or student, and here for Social Interaction, more information on the Affiliate School Program, which provides even more benefits. Otherwise, click here for plan, information on a paid subscription for those who are not K-12 educators or students. Make Gilder Lehrman your Home for History. Become an Affiliate School to have free access to the Gilder Lehrman site and all its features. Click here to start your Affiliate School application today!

You will have free access while your application is being processed. Individual K-12 educators and Interaction in Everyday and students can also get a free subscription to the site by making a site account with a school-affiliated email address. Click here to do so now! Make Gilder Lehrman your Home for History. Your subscription grants you access to archives of rare historical documents, lectures by top historians, and a wealth of plan assignment, original historical material, while also helping to support history education in schools nationwide. Writing Custom In Spring! Click here to plan, see the kinds of historical resources to which you'll have access and here to brainstorming, read more about the Institute's educational programs. Click here to sign up for an individual subscription to the Gilder Lehrman site. Make Gilder Lehrman your Home for assignment, History.

We're sorry, but it looks as though you do not have access to the full Gilder Lehrman site. All K-12 educators receive free subscriptions to the Gilder Lehrman site, and our Affiliate School members gain even more benefits! Not a educator or student? Click here for more information on purchasing a subscription to the Gilder Lehrman site. Teaching Resource: Essential Questions in Teaching American History Essay: Getting Ready to Lead a World Economy: Enterprise in Nineteenth-Century America Essay: The Square Deal: Theodore Roosevelt and writing custom annotations in spring the Themes of Progressive Reform Video Series: Essential Questions in American History Video Series: Inside the Vault Video Series: Lifetimes Essay: San Francisco and the Great Earthquake of 1906 Essay: The Filibuster King: The Strange Career of William Walker, the Most Dangerous International Criminal of the Nineteenth Century Essay: Theodore Roosevelt: The Making of a Progressive Reformer Essay: Born Modern: An Overview of the West.

This essay would be a good follow-up to Lincoln#039;s concept of assignment, improvement found in THE REPUBLIC OF NATURE ch. 4.

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Investing The Hard Way: Why IGT CEO Patti Hart Has Got To Go. Last week I noted the plan assignment, negative impact that poor management can have on publicly traded companies and their share prices. But in discussing the Interaction and, collapses in stocks like Zynga (ZNGA), Caesars Entertainment (CZR), and Groupon (GRPN) – falls that were, at least in some part led by management – I only listed stocks that investors should have avoided in plan assignment, the past, as opposed to pointing out Interaction in Everyday Life and which stocks investors should avoid going forward. Of course, it is easier to plan assignment recognize poor management in brainstorming, retrospect. But right now, there is one stock that gambling investors should avoid almost solely due to management issues: International Game Technology (IGT). My choice of IGT might seem surprising; at first glance, the tenure of assignment CEO Patti Hart appears to be a moderate success. Indeed, IGT’s stock price has risen nearly 35 percent since her arrival in do my free, April 2009, and adjusted earnings have risen modestly under her tenure amid a highly competitive industry and business, a still-dormant economy. But note Hart’s first day: April 1, 2009, when the stock market was just rebounding from its lows following the financial crisis.

IGT’s 35 percent gain pales in comparison to writing custom annotations in spring the nearly 120 percent gain posted by the Market Vectors Gaming ETF (BJK), comprised of 47 gambling stocks worldwide; the 150 percent rise by competitor Bally Technologies (BYI); or the 12-fold share price growth at Las Vegas Sands (LVS). In fact, IGT’s share price is actually down 40 percent over the last three years; its gain under Hart’s tenure comes solely from business assignment a strong jump in Hart’s first two months on the job, while the CEO was still adjusting to her new position. It’s not hard to see why; IGT may still be the world’s largest slot machine manufacturer, but even its supporters would be hard-pressed to homework free argue it’s firing on all cylinders right now. Assignment. Bally and quantization, upstart Multimedia Games (MGAM) are clearly out-performing IGT, whose market share has been halved since 2004. But beyond the shrinking share and sluggish performance, the key reason to avoid IGT is Hart, a leader whose performance as CEO simply should not inspire any confidence. Hart opened the year by acquiring social game developer Double Down Interactive in plan, a $500 million deal. Analysts at the time were critical of the deal and of an essay, its price tag; months later, Union Gaming analyst Bill Lerner told the Las Vegas Review-Journal that the acquisition was likely responsible for a more than 25% percent drop in plan, IGT stock price over homework, the summer, noting that the plan assignment, acquisition was “dilutive toward earnings.” But in an interview with the mla research, paper last month, Hart defended the purchase, telling columnist Howard Stutz “at some point…it will be the business, best investment we ever made.” Her reasoning for that optimism was questionable – at best.

Hart excitedly noted that management turnover in quantization and standardization of an, the Seattle headquarters of Double Down had been “almost zero” since the acquisition. “That’s almost unheard of in IGT deals,” she added. But in acquiring Double Down, IGT promised some $85 million in retention payments over two years to a company, that according to multiple sources, had only 80 employees at the time of acquisition. Thus, Hart is business plan bragging that IGT maintained Double Down’s staff by paying them an in spring, average of over one million dollars each over two years, a figure that is business plan assignment likely also “unheard of” in deals at IGT – or anywhere else. With that kind of Interaction Life incentive, the plan, only surprise in writing custom, the retention figures is the “almost” in “almost zero.” Hart defended the steep price tag as well. “People were shocked by the sticker price,” she admitted. “It’s a big sticker price, but that’s what it takes to play.” That’s not necessarily true. Assignment. bwin.Party has created its own social gaming unit an estimated cost of be cosic thesis $50 million, 10% of what IGT paid for Double Down. Indeed, bwin.Party Digital Entertainment (BPTY) co-CEO Norbert Teufelberger said on business a conference call in April that Double Down offered “an inferior product and custom annotations, software,” going on to criticize the generally inflated valuations in business assignment, social gaming at brainstorming, the time. Business Plan. In IGT’s third quarter conference call, Hart discussed the bright future prospects for the Double Down-centered interactive division, specifically citing the “continued repurposing” of of an essay IGT proprietary games such as Da Vinci Diamonds for the Double Down casino. Plan Assignment. But that begs the Life, question: why did IGT need to spend half a billion dollars when it had already developed the games that will eventually dominate the Double Down product line? Meanwhile, monthly users for Double Down dropped from plan Q2 to Q3, though bookings per user rose from 25 cents to 24 cents.

That hardly represents the brainstorming, “rapid user and revenue growth” promised when the business assignment, acquisition was announced. And if any question remains about the $500 million purchase price for Double Down, consider the page paper, fate of the largest social gaming developer, Zynga. On the conference call discussing the Double Down acquisition, both Hart and CFO Patrick Cavanaugh justified the half-billion dollar price tag by pointing to Zynga’s valuation. But after its long fall, Zynga’s market capitalization is plan assignment now about $1.78 billion. The company has $1.43 billion in cash and investments, net of long-term debt and liabilities, meaning its enterprise value – the be cosic thesis, value placed on its operating business by the market – is business assignment about $350 million. Zynga has trailing twelve-month net revenues of brainstorming $1.27 billion; Double Down in Q3, based on information in IGT’s earnings release, created somewhere in assignment, the range of $33 milion in net revenue. Brainstorming. (The company did not disclose the exact figure.) As such, Double Down is at assignment, an annual run rate of $130 million or so in Social Interaction Life, sales – barely one-tenth of Zynga’s revenue over the past year. According to the Review-Journal, data from Facebook (FB)’s App Center shows that Double Down Casino has 4.8 million users; some 15 percent of the 32 million-strong user base for Zynga’s Hold ‘Em Poker app. Assignment. And yet, IGT paid nearly 50% more for Double Down than the market currently values Zynga’s operating business. Clearly, IGT overpaid for Double Down. To be fair, Hart’s public optimism on the deal is homework free online somewhat understandable; there is still the possibility that IGT’s interactive division will grow and the Double Down acquisition will seem more reasonable in hindsight. IGT backers would surely argue that it’s far too early to admit defeat – or even to admit that IGT got the plan assignment, raw end of the deal.

It’s also worth noting that IGT’s market capitalization has dropped by $1 billion since the purchase was announced, meaning that much of the negative sentiment toward the Social Interaction and, acquisition has been priced in to the stock by assignment now. But of course, Double Down wasn’t Hart’s first major buy; that was Entraction , bought for $115 million in May 2011. At the time, Hart said the acquisition of the Swedish poker network “advances IGT’s position in legalized interactive gaming markets” and “will drive enhanced value for our global customers.” Sixteen months later, Entraction was shut down. In a telephone interview with Bloomberg, Hart noted that European iGaming had “shifted from dot-com to dot-country,” crushing profits in the unit. But as our own Jamie Hinks noted, two key markets – France and Italy – “had already either moved over or were in the process of writing annotations doing so before IGT acquired Entraction.” And the continued regulatory uncertainty in Europe, including the effects of plan assignment high taxes and annotations, the common contradiction of national and plan, EU policies, had been well-known long before IGT’s Entraction purchase. Hart’s failure to foresee those difficulties in brainstorming, the Entraction purchase means investors should question her optimism about plan assignment Double Down’s future. To be blunt, there are clear questions of competence surrounding Hart’s leadership. Those questions came into national view earlier this year, when then-Yahoo! (YHOO) CEO Scott Thompson came under fire for falsifying his resume to include a computer science degree.

Within days, Thompson resigned, after just four months on the job. The head of the search committee that hired Thompson was none other than Patti Hart, whose group offered Thompson a pay package worth as much as $27 million annually, according to Interaction Life the Los Angeles Times, yet never vetted his credentials. (Thompson’s alma mater Stonehill College didn’t even have a computer science department at the time of his enrollment.) Hart herself resigned amidst the scandal, in part because he was revealed that she, too, had inflated her own credentials. Sources told All Things D that it was the IGT board that asked her to leave the Yahoo! board to, you know, “focus on the company she actually runs.” Perhaps the board should have simply asked Hart to stay over at Yahoo! For if there was any doubt that Hart was incapable of properly managing IGT, it was erased over the summer. In mid-June, IGT announced a $1 billion stock repurchase, including a $400 million “accelerated” stock buyback. The shares jumped 14 percent on the news, though I cautioned that investors should remain skeptical toward the stock and its seemingly overwrought jump. Six weeks later, IGT reported disastrous third quarter earnings, and the stock – the same stock Hart had spent $400 million of shareholder cash to repurchase as quickly as possible – fell 20 percent. I questioned the decision in my third quarter review two weeks ago, but it’s worth emphasizing the sheer insanity of IGT’s repurchase timing. When the repurchase was announced, there were barely more than two weeks left in the fiscal second quarter. Hart and business plan, IGT management simply had to know the quarter would disappoint Wall Street.

Wall Street analyst estimates are widely reported, and one would think that IGT was well aware, with only be cosic thesis 16 days left in business plan, the quarter, that its results would come in below expectations, and its stock would fall. Hart’s decision to not only in Everyday Life buy back shares ahead of the plan assignment, earnings release, but to do so on an accelerated basis, is free online simply dumbfounding. In fact, on the post-earnings conference call with analysts, the very first question asked referenced the “curious” timing of the buyback. After CFO John Vandemore noted that the company “tend(s) to manage the plan assignment, business on an annual basis,” Hart chimed in with an answer that was nothing short of delusional. She opened by work cited arguing that “we don’t see the quarter as having missed on every item as you’ve indicated.”

It’s worth pointing out here that IGT in the quarter reported earnings of 23 cents per share, adjusted for one-time costs related to the Double Down acquisition, while the business, Wall Street consensus estimate was 29 cents per brainstorming share. Revenues were projected by business plan assignment analysts at $564 million; IGT reported sales of brainstorming $532.8 million. For a company like IGT , with a relatively stable operating history, substantial market share, and over 20 analysts providing detailed coverage of the business, the magnitude of the earnings and revenue misses was simply stunning. Indeed, the 20 percent drop caused by the miss is exceedingly rare for a company of IGT’s size; that quarter was one of the worst in IGT’s history, and resulted in one of the biggest single-day plunges in the gambling sector this year. And yet, Hart seemed to be arguing that the assignment, quarter wasn’t that bad, going on to add that “we had very strong revenue growth in the quarter.” That statement is simply untrue; revenue grew 9 percent in the quarter, compared to 15 percent at Bally and 21 percent at Multimedia Games. But nearly all of that growth was purchased from Double Down; excluding growth in interactive, revenue growth in the quarter was less than 2 percent year-over-year. That is not “strong revenue growth” by any measure. Hart wrapped up her defense by echoing her CFO’s long-term focus, noting that “when we deploy capital, we look at Social Life and, a much longer time frame than just one month or two.” That’s a commendable goal; but having a long-term focus doesn’t mean the CEO has to ignore the clear likelihood of a short-term loss. There was simply no reason that the $400 million accelerated repurchase had to be executed in June; indeed, with the likelihood of a weak quarter coming up, there was no reason for the repurchase to be accelerated at all.

If Hart truly had the long-term focus she claims, she could have announced a standard $1 billion repurchase authorization, then used the expected weakness post-earnings to opportunistically pick up IGT shares on plan the cheap. Hart simply appears out of touch with her business, and custom in spring, overmatched as a CEO. Plan. In her three-plus years at the head of IGT, literally every major decision she has made has backfired on her company. In last week’s piece on management, I noted that investors must trust the in Everyday, CEOs of the stocks they own to be careful, cautious, and responsible stewards of their hard-earned capital. Unfortunately for IGT shareholders, Patti Hart has proven that she does not deserve that trust.

views and assignment, opinions expressed are those of the author and do not necessarily reflect those of CalvinAyre .com. Join the do my homework, discussion. 888 Holdings shares dip as co-founder’s family sells out. Caesars restructuring gets final gaming regulatory okay. September 28, 2017. Caesars punts on business WeChat Pay to page win over Chinese gamblers in Las Vegas. Zynga posts rare profit as social slots enjoy record monetization. Report: Caesars to plan run ASF’s Gold Coast casino operations. The CalvinAyre.com media group is brainstorming based in Antigua in the West Indies with teams in London, Manila and Vancouver covering the business plan, global gambling industry.

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19 Reasons Why This Is An Excellent Resume. Recruiters spend an plan assignment, average of six seconds reviewing a resume before they make the initial decision on candidates, according to research conducted by be cosic thesis TheLadders, an online job-matching service for professionals. That means you have to win them over fast. To get a better idea of what makes a resume great, we reached out to Amanda Augustine, career expert at business assignment, TheLadders. Essay! She created an example of an business plan assignment, excellent resume and allowed us to share it. While resumes should be tailored to the industry you're in, the custom one below offers a helpful guide for entry- and assignment, mid-level professionals with three to five years of relevant work experience.. What makes this resume so great? Augustine outlines the following reasons: 1. It includes a URL to the jobseeker's professional online profile. If you don't include URLs to your professional online profiles, hiring managers will look you up regardless. Augustine tells Business Insider that 86% of recruiters admit to reviewing candidates' online profiles, so why not include your URL along with your contact information? This will prevent recruiters from having to guess or mistaking you for custom annotations someone else.

If you have a common name, consider including your middle initial on your resume and online professional profiles to differentiate yourself from the competition, says Augustine. For example, decide if you're Mike Johnson, Michael Johnson, or Mike E. Johnson. Then use this name consistently, be it on LinkedIn, Google+, Twitter, or Facebook. 3. Plan! It includes a single phone number and email address. Choose one phone number for your resume where you control the do my voicemail message and who picks up the phone, she advises. Assignment! The same rule applies to an email address.

4. It does not include an objective statement. There's no point in including a generic objective about a professional looking for opportunities that will allow me to leverage my skills, says Augustine. Quantization Essay! It's not helpful and distracting. Plan! Ditch it. 5. Instead, it includes an executive summary. Replace your fluffy statement with an executive summary, which should be like a 30-second elevator pitch where you explain who you are and what you're looking for . In approximately three to five sentences, explain what you€™re great at, most interested in, and how you can provide value to a prospective employer, Augustine says. 6. It uses reverse chronological order. Be Cosic Thesis! This is the most helpful for recruiters because they're able to see what you've been doing in recent years immediately, says Augustine.

The only time you shouldn't do this is if you're trying to business plan transition to quantization and standardization of an essay another career altogether, but then again, in this situation, you'll probably be relying more on networks, than your resume, she says. Business Plan! 7. It uses keywords like forecasting and strategic planning. Many companies use some kind of screening process to identify the right candidates. You should include the keywords mentioned in brainstorming, the job posting throughout your resume. Identify the common keywords, terminology, and key phrases that routinely pop up in the job descriptions of your target role and incorporate them into business plan assignment your resume (assuming you have those skills), advises Augustine. This will help you make it past the initial screenings and on to the recruiter or hiring manager. 8. It provides company descriptions. It's helpful for recruiters to know the size of the company you used to work for, advises Augustine.

Being a director of a huge company means something very different than a director at a small company, she says. Brainstorming! You can go to business the company's About Us section and custom annotations, rewrite one or two lines of the description. This should be included right underneath the name of the company. While the company size is business helpful information, including the company description will also let the of an essay hiring manager know what industries you've worked in. For example, being an accountant in tech may be very different than being an business, accountant in the hospitality industry. As with most things on a resume, the do my company description should be tailored based on the professional's goals.

If you're looking to switch industries, your focus may be on the company size €” assuming it's similar to your goals €” and business, less on discussing the various products your company sells. 9. In Everyday Life And! It does not list achievements in dense blocks of text. Recruiters receive so many resumes to scan through at a time, so make it as easy as possible for them to understand why you're perfect for the job. Dense blocks of text are too difficult to read, says Augustine.. 10. Instead, achievements are listed in two to five bullet points per job. Business! Under each job or experience you've had, explain how you contributed to or supported your team€™s projects and brainstorming, initiatives. As you build up your experience, save the bullets for your bragging points, says Augustine.

Quantify your major accomplishments and business assignment, contributions for each role, Augustine tells us. Essay! This can include the money you saved or brought in for plan assignment your employer, deals closed, and projects delivered on time or under budget. Do not use any more than three to do my online five bullet points. 12. Accomplishments are formatted as result-and-then-cause. A good rule is to use the result BY action sentence structure whenever possible. For example: Generated approximately $452,000 in annual savings by employing a new procedure which streamlined the business's vendor relationships. 13. White space draws the reader's eyes to important points. Recruiters do not spend a lot of time scanning resumes, so avoid dense blocks of text. The key is to format the information in a way that makes it easy to scan and recognize your job goals and relevant qualifications, Augustine tells us.

14. It doesn't use crazy fonts or colors. Stick to black and white color, says Augustine. As for business font, it's best to stick with the basics, such as Arial, Tahoma, or Calibri. Augustine says you should never write your resume in third person because everyone knows you're the one writing it (unless you go through a professional resume writing service). Instead, you should write it in first person, and do not include pronouns. Do My! It's weird [to include pronouns], and business, it's an brainstorming, extra word you don't need, she says. Business Assignment! You need to streamline your resume because you have limited real estate. Social Interaction! Avoid adding any embedded tables, pictures, or other images in your resume, as this can confuse the applicant-tracking software and jumble your resume in the system, says Augustine.

17. It doesn't use headers or footers. It may look neat and concise to business plan assignment display your contact information in the header, but for work mla research t he same reason with embedded tables and charts, it often gets scrambled in an applicant tracking system, says Augustine. Business Plan! 18. Education is listed at the bottom.

Unless you're a recent graduate, you should highlight your work experience and move your education information to the bottom of your resume, says Augustine. Never include anything about your high-school years. 19. It doesn't say references upon request. Brainstorming! Every recruiter knows you're going to provide references if they request it so there's no reason for you to include this line. Again, remember that space on your resume is crucial so don't waste it on a meaningless line, Augustine tells us. Assignment! Now watch how to homework ace an interview: SEE ALSO: What Recruiters Look At During The 6 Seconds They Spend On Your Resume. NOW WATCH: The 9 Worst Mistakes You Can Make On Your Resume. Recommended For You Powered by Sailthru.

19 Reasons Why This Is An Excellent Resume. Recruiters spend an average of business plan assignment, six seconds. Get the best of Business Insider delivered to your inbox every day.

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cobra law essay This guide is written for students who are following GCE Advanced level (AS and A2) syllabuses in English Language. This resource may also be of general interest to language students on university degree courses, trainee teachers and anyone with a general interest in assignment, language science. On this page I use red type for emphasis. Custom! Brown type is used where italics would appear in print (in this screen font, italic looks like this , and is unkind on most readers). Headings have their own hierarchical logic, too: Main section headings look like this. Sub-section headings look like this. Minor headings within sub-sections look like this. What do the examiners say about this subject? In preparing this topic area candidates should study: conversational analysis; stylistic analysis of texts; historical and business assignment, contemporary changes, as appropriate.

In particular they should examine: influential power (e.g. advertising, politics, media, culture) instrumental power (e.g. law, education, business, management).. One obvious feature of how language operates in essay, social interactions is its relationship with power, both influential and instrumental. Neither rule nor law, neither discipline nor hierarchy sanctions influential power. It inclines us or makes us want to behave in certain ways or adopt opinions or attitudes, without obvious force. It operates in such social phenomena as advertising, culture and the media. (Strictly, we are not coerced into buying what the advertiser shows us, nor will we suffer any penalty for our sales resistance.) Instrumental power is explicit power of the sort imposed by the state, by its laws and conventions or by business plan the organizations for which we work. It operates in business, education and various kinds of management. (In many, but not all cases, if we resist instrumental power, we will be subject to some penalty or in trouble.) Note: instrumental here does comes from the same root as the Social Interaction in Everyday and, instrument we play to make music - they are related etymologically. But it has a quite different meaning today from assignment, instrumental as used to describe music. In your studying instrumental power, please do not for a moment think it has anything to do with the power of music.

In some spheres of do my homework free, social activity, such as politics or law, both kinds of power may be present at the same time: we are subject to laws (enforced by penalties), but some legal processes, such as trial by jury, rely on attempts to persuade. Politicians impose laws, taxes, and bureaucratic systems (instrumental power) but seek to influence us to endorse their policies or turn out to vote for them (influential power). They may wish to assignment influence us to use our collective power to return them to office, where they will use their executive power to direct some aspects of our lives - a curious paradox of our system of parliamentary democratic representation. (That is and standardization of an essay, they get us to give them the power to tell us what to do and how to live. And we really do have the choice, collectively, as we show when we vote for a change of government.) In looking at how power is assignment, exercised through language, you should be able to refer to real examples you have found, and work mla research, explain these texts. But you should also have a theoretical approach that will enable you to interpret language data you are presented with in business assignment, an exam. Among other things, you should look at pragmatics and speech act theory, lexis and semantics (forms and meanings), forms that include or exclude (insiders or outsiders), structures (at phrase, clause and discourse level), forms of do my free online, address, phatic tokens , as well as structural features of speech, which may be used to business exercise or establish power.

And in some contexts, you will need to be able to show how rhetorical devices are used to influence an audience. Consider, for example, how conversational maxims may be adapted for reasons of be cosic thesis, expedience, rather than integrity. Does all power corrupt in language, as (according to Lord Acton) it does generally? Persuasive techniques in language. This guide looks at the different subjects that examiners specify, but there are many techniques that are common to various contexts.

In this section you will find some guidance on business plan assignment these. As well as looking for do my homework them in texts that you study, you may try to use them in texts that you produce - for example in original writing or editorial writing tasks. You may think of these primarily as devices in assignment, poetry, but they abound, consciously or unintended, in almost all spoken and many written texts, as when political reporters talk of a raft of measures. Satan (Andy Hamilton) in an episode (from 2001) of Old Harry's Game (a radio sitcom set in in spring, Hell) remarks of one of the characters that he is plan assignment, shaking like a Millennium Bridge and of another that he has the willpower of Bill Clinton at a cheerleaders' convention. The first is a simile, the second a metaphor. Both were topical in 2000, and quantization of an essay, exploit assumed attitudes in the audience - that we know (and are amused by) the engineering problems of the Millennium Bridge (good to look at, perilous to walk on) and business plan assignment, the reputation of President Clinton. George W. Social Interaction Life And! Bush uses it for more serious effect when (in a State of the Union address) he describes the American faith in freedom and democracy as a seed upon the wind, taking root in many nations. You will find these techniques not only in grand and serious contexts.

If you want to collect metaphors, listen to soccer reports on Radio 5 #45; some of the summarizers even have their own favourite stock of images. Stuart Hall can be relied on for these, whether he is using the assignment, dead metaphor School of Science for Everton FC or likening the soccer player Emile Heskey to a wildebeest. Careless speakers or writers may mix metaphors inadvertently, but some authors do it intentionally. Even Shakespeare does this, as when Hamlet proposes to take arms against a sea of troubles #45; presumably both the playwright and the Prince realize that this is a strange action. The audience sees it as a metaphor of an impossible struggle. (W.B. Yeats used this idea in a poem called Cuchulain's Fight With the Sea ) Mixing metaphors can have comic effects, as when a character in Mel Smith's 1989 film, The Tall Guy , remarks of an attractive woman that: She's like a hungry leopard in full bloom.

In fiction, mixing metaphors in dialogue is a stock way to make the reader question the Social Life, intelligence of a character. In other contexts it may come from the attempt to compare or relate things others have said. Many years ago, the late Enoch Powell, warning about the future effects of large#45;scale immigration referred to rivers of blood running in plan, the UK. In January 2003 the UK Home Secretary David Blunkett referred to Britain as a coiled spring. In Any Questions (a radio programme in be cosic thesis, which various experts answer questions from the audience), Jonathan Dimbleby, the host, first said, (summarizing others' comments), the assignment, country's like a coiled spring and this could spill over. then asked, [is] David Blunkett's coiled spring a tributary of Enoch Powell's river of blood? Mr. Work Page! Dimbleby appears to have seen that this is an plan inelegant mixing of metaphor, but his main purpose was, in posing the question, to custom in spring relate the business plan, statements of others, who chose the original images. In rhetoric, a speaker may return to or develop a metaphor, to Social Interaction Life make an argument seem more compelling.

In John F. Kennedy's 1961 Inaugural Address to the American people, we find an plan extended metaphor of lighting a fire to give light to the world: The energy, the be cosic thesis, faith, the devotion which we bring to this endeavour will light our country and all who serve it, and the glow from plan assignment, that fire can truly light the be cosic thesis, world. Another powerful technique is to assignment refer to, or even quote, a powerful phrase that the audience may already know. There is some risk in this, as the brainstorming, author needs to be sure that enough of the audience will be aware of the allusion or reference, unless the quoted phrase works well even if its origin is not known. In the lines quoted above, Kennedy seems to allude to the image, in St. John's gospel, of Jesus as the light of the world. Ronald Reagan's speechwriter, Peggy Noonan, borrowed an image from business assignment, John Gillespie Magee's poem High Flight to be cosic thesis explain the disaster in 1986 when the Challenger space shuttle exploded:

We will never forget them (the crew), nor the last time we saw them this morning, as they prepared for plan assignment their journey and Social Interaction, waved goodbye, and slipped the surly bonds of earth, to touch the face of business assignment, God. (Magee's poem begins: Oh, I have slipped the surly bonds of earth and ends . I've. Put out my hand and touched the face of God.) In commenting on language data, you may find it hard to detect allusion #45; in a way it is almost impossible unless you know what it is to which the speaker or writer alludes. On the be cosic thesis, other hand, there are many contemporary texts in which a young person has more chance of detecting a reference than an assignment older one. A good example is a short feature (in the Guardian newspaper's tabloid supplement) that purports to brainstorming be an plan assignment extract from a chat forum, but is really a spoof.

In a January 2003 edition, one of the chatroom guests was supposed to be Kim Howells, a junior minister who has been in the news for attacking modern art. He rebukes the other users of the chatroom for their non#45;standard spelling, adding: I blame Mrs. Dynamite. The author intends the reader to be amused by the way Kim Howells tries to show an awareness of youth culture, yet reveals his ignorance in Interaction in Everyday and, changing the title from Ms to plan assignment Mrs (Ms Dynamite, as younger readers will know, is the stage name of the rap singer Niomi McLean#45;Daley.) Three#45;part structures and lists are memorable and resonant in many kinds of text. Here are some examples:

And now abideth faith, hope, charity, these three. St Paul, 1 Corinthians 13.13 (King James Version, 1611) The grandest of brainstorming, these ideals is an unfolding American promise that everyone belongs, that everyone deserves a chance, that no insignificant person was ever born. George W. Bush, Inaugural Address, 2001 If you're a daring designer, a budding botanist or simply green#45;fingered, we want to hear from you. Alan Titchmarsh, Gardeners' World Live , BBC TV, June 2001. Lists of three are not so common in unprepared speaking, but you should look out for them in any language data you have to study. A useful rhetorical device is to repeat a key idea or phrase #45; this may seem crude, but it may lodge in the minds of the audience. We see it in business assignment, a speech made by Harold Wilson, during the and standardization essay, 1974 UK General Election campaign: This election is not about the business assignment, miners; not about the militants; not about the power of the unions. Many writers, especially those who write for public speaking, will divide a sentence or clause into two balanced parts.

This was the basic principle of be cosic thesis, poetry in much of the ancient world. There are almost limitless examples in business plan, the pages of the King James Bible, which was translated to be a version for public reading. Sometimes the second half echoes or develops the first half #45; this is synonymous parallelism . Sometimes the two halves are opposed or contradictory, and this is antithetic parallelism or simply antithesis . We see this in free online, some lines from assignment, George W. Social Interaction In Everyday And! Bush's Inaugural Address, where he refers to US history as: . the story of a power that went into plan assignment the world to protect but not possess, | to defend but not to conquer. In this example the thought of to protect but not possess, is carried further by to in spring defend but not to conquer. Plan! In speaking these lines, there will be a pause after possess. For a more familiar example, look at the British National Anthem: God save our gracious queen, | long live our noble queen.

Antithetic parallelism or antithesis. The first example comes from work mla research paper, a speech of Winston Churchill, in which he challenges the Luftwaffe (the German air force): You do your worst #45; and we will do our best. A celebrated example comes from Kennedy's Inaugural Address (quoted above): And so, my fellow Americans, ask not, what your country can do for you. | Ask what you can do for your country. And we can see antithesis in business, George W. Annotations In Spring! Bush's images of America's faith in business plan assignment, freedom and work mla research, democracy, first as a rock, then, by contrast, as a seed:

Through much of the last century, America's faith in plan, freedom and democracy was a rock in a raging sea. | Now it is a seed upon free online the wind, taking root in many nations. If you wish to plan assignment make a statement, it may be a good idea to work cited page mla research paper ask a question or series of questions to introduce it. This is a common technique in information leaflets, which often pose the question from the reader's viewpoint #45; How can I protect my baby from common infections? and so on. It can also be powerful in political rhetoric #45; How can a Labour government raise standards in plan, education? leading to an exposition of the party's policy. For example, Welcome to the Labour Party , a booklet which gives information to Interaction Life new members, contains pages where statements are introduced by questions, each set out as a section heading, such as: How can I get involved?, What happens at local policy forums?, Do I have to plan go along to brainstorming a local policy forum to have my say? and What is the future?

Using the plan, same initial consonant is a common ploy of Social Interaction in Everyday Life and, poets and advertisers. It can be irritating if it's overdone, but makes lines quotable or memorable. In George W. Assignment! Bush's inaugural speech we note f aith in f reedom and r ock in a r aging sea. Winston Churchill, in be cosic thesis, his speech about the Luftwaffe addresses the business assignment, Nazi leaders and be cosic thesis, refers to the Nazi party as the g risly g ang who w ork your w icked w ill. You can create some good effects by using similar words but with slight differences of form and meaning. Business Plan! Andy Bodle in in Everyday and, a listings article for the film Rancid Aluminium does this by describing the film as part arthouse, part shithouse. Here are a couple of examples.

The first comes from business assignment, Dorothy L. Sayers' Introduction to her translation of quantization, Dante's great narrative poem, Purgatory : Between the bishops who assure us that the family is the one and only seedbed of all the plan, virtues, and the psychiatrists who warn us that it is a hotbed of all the vices, we hardly know how to advise any child to enter upon the hazard of existence. The second comes from quantization and standardization of an essay, Vladimir Nabokov's essay On a book Entitled Lolita . This is an appendix to his novel of the same name. In the essay, Nabokov claims (or pretends) that he can admire but cannot emulate: . the business assignment, accuracy of judgment of do my free online, those who pose the fair young mammals photographed in business plan assignment, magazines where the general neckline is just low enough to homework free online provoke a past master's chuckle and business assignment, just high enough not to make a post#45;master frown. Broadly speaking, advertisers persuade their audience to adopt attitudes to lifestyle, products and services. Brainstorming! It is rare to find advertising that seeks to influence explicitly or directly. Less rare are advertisements in which the link to a product or service is implicit or ambiguous. Business Plan! Consider a TV advertisement (May 2000) which depicts Aimee Mullins a model (who is also a paralympic athlete, sprinter, and double below#45;the#45;knee amputee) preparing for writing in spring the finale of a fashion show for assignment Alexander McQueen #45; the advertisement was made for an Internet service provider, FreeServe, but did no more directly to advertise FreeServe than show the company name and logo. There is an work cited oblique link to the name of the company in the idea of the model's freedom to run with the wild animals depicted in business assignment, the fashion show. At the same time the advertiser skilfully links a possibly un#45;sexy technical service with ideas of beauty, fashion and positive discrimination. Advertising has a lexicon, which may change over time, but is fairly stable #45; new, improved, proven and other qualifiers are seen as reliable.

David Ogilvy in Confessions of an Advertising Man (quoted by Shirley Russell; Grammar, Structure and Style , Oxford, 1994, p. 177) identifies a basic lexicon of Social Interaction Life, qualifiers such as: new, good, crisp, better, fresh, natural, fine, free , and of verbs such as: buy, give, taste, go, look, feel and use . Special registers (technical, scientific or pseudo#45;scientific) may be used for appropriate products. Torque, BHP, valve, ABS for cars or keramides, pro#45;B, hypoallergenic in personal hygiene products. Look out for plan special lexical uses according to custom annotations product, image and target market. Pot Noodle #45; everything else is just pants. Plan! Pants is (or was in and standardization, 2000) fashionable as a mild term of business, disapproval among young people (especially young men) who may be supposed to want food which is inexpensive, quick to cited make, and needs no special preparation or utensils. Advertising borrows and adapts structures and forms from texts of all kinds. Many broadcast advertisements are dramatic, with a narrative conducted through dialogue. Others may show a narrative by business plan assignment images alone, to the accompaniment of music and/or a voiceover. Homework Online! Can you think of business plan, examples? Puns, alliteration, assonance, onomatopoeia, rhyme and other kinds of comic or poetic wordplay are common in advertising. Ambiguity, irony and allusion (reference) are also powerful techniques.

Advertising often makes use of short texts #45; whether in print or broadcast media #45; where every word has to work hard (in this respect very much like poetry). It is very common for the advertiser to use words that belong to some other special lexicon, as if to brainstorming establish a rapport with the assignment, target audience. So a 2002 television advertisement for John Smith's Bitter (beer) opens as if it were a broadcast of an international diving event (the advertisement appeared shortly after the 2002 Commonwealth Games). After divers from work cited mla research, other countries execute technically perfect dives, the British diver jumps in, making a great splash and almost losing his trunks, to business assignment rapturous applause and perfect marks from the judges. The commentator utters the phrase, which is the slogan of the campaign: top bombing. The non#45;standard noun, bombing , suggests something which is be cosic thesis, typically male, fun and demotic #45; it is unpretentious, aimed at people who have traditional ideas of bitter as a down#45;to#45;earth and business plan assignment, blokeish drink, in contrast to brainstorming continental lagers or drinks with other social pretensions. It is very easy to find special lexis in any advertisement. Business Plan Assignment! But in Social in Everyday Life and, explaining how it works, you will need to think about how far the copywriter is using a particular register, or feature of plan assignment, style, which in turn is related to the product brand and image, and the attitudes or values of the audience. Look at the following examples of extracts of text from adverts, culled from a quick look through a selection of brainstorming, newspapers and magazines (the product and the producer appear in plan assignment, parenthesis after the be cosic thesis, advertisement text): The British Airways Sale. Go on.

Take off. (Reduced#45;price flights/British Airways) Imagine a healthier fitter you. (Tanita body fat monitor) Move Mountains. (Sim City 4 PC/Dixons) Not so much a price as an invitation. Business Plan! (Flights to Spain/Iberia Airways) Every year 39,200 women are newly diagnosed with breast cancer. Do My Homework Online! (Medical insurance/AXA PPP healthcare) Go Mobile. (Voyager laptop computer/Evesham Technology) A win, win, win, win, win, win situation. Business Assignment! (6 months' free business banking/Barclays) Demon slashes all broadband set#45;up fees. (Broadband Internet service/Demon) Not even the taxman can catch it. Be Cosic Thesis! (Saab 95 saloon) We don't need your tears we need teachers urgently (Voluntary Service Overseas) Lose weight, the business assignment, healthy herbal way. Be Cosic Thesis! (Weight Loss Aid/Herbal Concepts) Great tasting nutritious supplements. (Build#45;Up Nutrition/Nestle) Helps reduce and overcome smoking at your own pace. (NicoBloc) Always on call. (Day Night Nurse) Technology with style. (DWF614SS dishwasher/Smeg) It only takes a few seconds to realize a diesel can have Va Va Voom. (Renault Clio) Kurt Geiger for her. Paul Smith for him. Tax#45;free prices for you. (Airport shopping/BAA) Authentically French mellow cheese. (Cheese/Port Salut) Having your own ringtone saves you answering someone else's call. (Call Sign/BT) Look for the lexical words ( nouns, verbs, adjectives and adverbs ). What ideas do they suggest? Does the text suggest the ideas of good value (low price), of style, status, sophistication, convenience, fitness and so on? The Iberian Airways advertisement repeats the idea found in many airline ads of good value, while at the same time suggesting something personal about business plan assignment visiting Spain, through the brainstorming, noun invitation #45; which we associate with parties and celebrations. The advertisement for business BAA's Airport shopping works in a similar way: it refers to the low (tax#45;free) prices, yet targets its audience very precisely by cited page mla research naming the fashionable brands on sale #45; if we do not know what Kurt Geiger or Paul Smith makes, then the advert will pass us by. There is also an assumption that the business plan, brands appeal to the different sexes, which works in that the writer of this guide recognizes Paul Smith as a designer of be cosic thesis, formal clothes, but does not know Kurt Geiger. (The advertisement also has a three#45;part structure to point up the business plan assignment, special lexis .) The advertisement for BT's Call Sign service will appeal to a wide audience, but until we know what a ringtone is, we are not likely to wish to have our own.

The meaning of the noun is self#45;explanatory #45; but here it moves from its original context of use (mobile phones) to the related context of brainstorming, fixed telephones #45; so the advertisement targets householders rather than predominantly young people with spending money. The Barclays advertisement uses a phrase that is a cliché or buzzword among business people: a win#45;win situation implies an arrangement that benefits people at either end, and challenges the received wisdom that if X gains then Y loses. So in using the phrase, the advertiser keeps to a register familiar to the business customer, while printing the business plan assignment, adjective six times to indicate the number of months for do my free which the free offer runs. Technology with style is one example of a pattern familiar here #45; that suggests that the product has two things that the audience may think to be normally contradictory or oxymoronic (the idea of having your cake and eating it). Sometimes the assignment, opposition is of price and quality (as in the claim that good food costs less at Sainsburys). Be Cosic Thesis! Here the advertiser contrasts functionality and aesthetic appeal, and claims that the brand in question (Smeg) has both of these at once. Plan Assignment! Similarly the advertisement for NicoBloc combines the idea of efficaciousness (it works) with that of its not being too difficult for the would#45;be non#45;smoker to work cited paper stop smoking. This appears in the suggestion of reducing (consumption) before stopping altogether. The verb overcome has connotations of victory in plan assignment, battle, rather than the breaking of a habit or a simple change in behaviour. These is probably very apt, since the target audience for this advertisement may well have an extreme view, and see the attempt to stop smoking as akin to a great military action. Be Cosic Thesis! (The advertisement comes from Healthy Times a magazine distributed, free to plan assignment readers, by the retail chemists UniChem #45; so the audience has already been targeted.

Advertisements for products that help people stop smoking do of course appear in and standardization of an, more general contexts, as in TV advertising.) This same contrast also appears in business plan, the Renault Clio advertisement #45; but here the lexis is more explicitly making the do my homework, distinction, in diesel and assignment, Va Va Voom . The adjective diesel has immediate denotations of the known properties of this engine type #45; the engine has a longer life, is more dependable and gives better fuel economy, but takes longer to reach high speeds. The advertiser wants to suggest that the work cited mla research paper, car nonetheless has a combination of style, flair, power and youth appeal (not normally associated with diesel engines). Rather than use any of business assignment, these words, Renault has invented its own compound abstract noun #45; Va Va Voom . This is alliterative, and has an interesting sound #45; being quite memorable. The advertisers develop the image by association with, for of an example, the soccer player Thierry Henry #45; who is French, but lives and works in England, and is exceptionally talented and business assignment, athletic. At the same time, M. Henry is shown in brainstorming, situations that suggest a caring and feminine side #45; with pets, sitting at home among soft furnishings, for instance. In this way the advertisements appeal to potential drivers of business, both sexes, and are highly specific to be cosic thesis one make and model of car. By inventing the word, the advertisers are able to adapt it so that it carries exactly the suggestion they wish to make to the audience #45; it should have no prior negative connotations . One of the business plan, advertisements playfully suggests that the new term is part of the standard English lexicon by asking what is the French for Va Va Voom ? Does advertising have distinctive grammar ? Yes #45; in essay, several ways. First, advertising, like poetry, often allows the business plan assignment, author more licence to quantization essay depart from standard forms than in other kinds of text. And second, it makes use of business plan, short forms, of what Professor Crystal calls minor sentences . There is cited page, a connection with pragmatics , therefore, in assignment, that the custom in spring, advertiser makes very great assumptions about the audience.

It is acceptable to puzzle or intrigue in ways that would not be at business assignment, all appropriate if the audience really depended on the advertisers' information. One very common technique is for the author to page mla research paper set nouns and noun phrases or verbs on their own, where the reader or listener supplies the missing elements by conjecture #45; rather as in interpreting notes, so that, for instance, does what it says on the tin is business, understood as this product meets the claims that are printed on do my homework free online the side of the tin. This form may sometimes but not always resemble the assignment, forms used in headlines, so that it is especially suitable for do my homework adverts in business plan assignment, newspapers. Here are some examples taken more or less at custom annotations, random from a trawl through some daily newspapers (January 2003): Happy New Rate Deals to business plan remember Currys sale/Free delivery plus Buy now pay 2004 EMAIL, INTERNET TEXT MESSAGES Winter welcome Free servicing for 3 years Summer seats on sale new year new fares The confidence to writing custom annotations succeed Precious metal for precious little. On their own, these do not tell you how typical they are.

A casual mental count suggests that, in business plan assignment, these newspapers, the advertisements in which the brainstorming, first line (or text nearest the top of the display box) is not a grammatically complete structure (sentence or main clause) outnumber those that are complete in a proportion of at business plan, least three to one. But a more complete survey from a bigger sample would be a suitable task for brainstorming research. Among the few complete structures are: i want extra MONEY Apply now How do you see yourself? Look at the clues Travel with Eurotunnel from just £5. In the 1960s advertisers would often use grammatical conversion , taking a brand name (a noun) and using it as adjective, adverb or verb . This tendency has recently returned as in these examples: There is no attempt to alter the form of the word to correspond to its grammatical category, such as by adding an affix like #45;ish, #45;ic or #45;esque , nor of using an extra word: that's so like Suzuki how like Heineken. In the UK, there are some state controls on what advertisers may or may not claim about their products.

Advertisers, therefore, often exploit the possibilities of connotation (suggested meaning) rather than strict denotation (stated meaning) and imply that products have various merits, without saying so explicitly. One common way of doing so is to use pseudo#45;technical lexis or scientific names for everyday things. However, this is business plan, not desirable in all contexts. In cosmetic and pharmacological products, most advertisers will use scientific lexis to suggest efficacy, as in these examples: Perle de Caviar draws the essential elements of long#45;lasting beauty and a youthful complexion from the brainstorming, depths of the ocean. trace elements, amino acids, mineral salts, iodine and plan assignment, plankton. Combining a perfect balance of these precious elements, each Perle de Caviar product provides an annotations in spring intense thalassotherapy treatment designed to hydrate and regenerate. Regime elevates the use of cosmetics to something complex, while the ® symbol suggests that there is business assignment, something technically sophisticated in the product. It may really simply denote the registration of the trade name to quantization of an essay protect against misuse. This pseudo science is plan, not simply found in the advertisements proper but in the joined#45;up marketing, so that people who apply and demonstrate the brainstorming, products are beauty therapists #45; which may imply similar learning, academic qualifications and status to, for example, speech therapists or physiotherapists.

The beauty therapist wears a white garment like a lab coat, implying some kind of likeness to business a pharmacist. Compare the examples above with one designed for a scientifically qualified readership. This is an advertisement for Xalatan a 0.00#37;5 eye drop solution of latanoprost, licensed for brainstorming use in March 2002, and advertised in The Pharmaceutical Journal of November 2002. The advertisement includes details of nine references to assignment the product in published scientific sources, followed by detailed prescribing information, divided under standard headings such as Presentation, Indication, Dosage and writing in spring, Administration, Contra#45;indications, Precautions, Side Effects, Interactions, and information about the drug's effects in plan assignment, Pregnancy, Lactation and for Driving, Overdosage, Pharmaceutical Precautions, Legal Category, Packaging Quantities and Basic NHS price and details of the Social and, Product Licence Number and plan assignment, Holder . This degree of information distinguishes licensed pharmaceutical products from beauty treatments. In the latter case, the advertisers might wish us to believe that Laboratoires Garnier and the Ponds Institute are comparable to medical research institutions. Of An! In the west, Ponds appears to business assignment have dropped references to the fictitious institute #45; a search on the Web leads to some amusing spoofs, though the Ponds Institute is still used in annotations in spring, advertisements in the developing world. A register of pharmaceutical laboratories in France (at www.pharmaxie.com) does not show Laboratoires Garnier under entries for the letter g. In relation to food and assignment, drink, however, advertisers are usually keen to stress its naturalness. So while the product packaging will list all additives, flavourings and colourings, advertisements will identify the quantization of an essay, brand and basic food content, as in Filippo Berio/The World's Finest Olive Oil/Filippo Berio/Olive Oil/Pure Genius #45; the brand name and the principal ingredient appear twice, along with the adjective pure, to suggest the idea that there is nothing but the natural oil in the bottle that the advertisement depicts.

A full#45;page advertisement for Cobra beer, in Sainsburys Magazine for January 2003, shows lots of blank space, a small photograph of two bottles of Cobra, the Web site address, and this text: If you like Cobra,/drink Cobra and The less gassy bottled beer that puts you under no pressure. There are some exceptions to this rule of thumb, however #45; vitamins and mono#45;unsaturated fats, for example #45; which advertisers do sometimes mention. Advertisers occupy the spaces where we are typically attending to other things #45; watching television, reading or browsing a magazine on the way to work, looking at posters on an underground train, platform or escalator, or from a car, bus or bicycle. Plan! They will try to appeal to all our senses and different language processing faculties at the same time. It is quite common for be cosic thesis a TV advertisement to feature any or all of plan assignment, these at the same time: musical track, sound FX, voiceover, dialogue spoken by character or celebrity in custom in spring, or out of role, static text, moving text or text spelling out letter by plan assignment letter on screen, with or without extra graphic embellishment . What we do, if anything with these, may vary from person to person #45; but is something one can research. You can do this, for example, by showing advertisements to people (categorizing the people by whether they have seen the work page paper, advertisement before, and how often, as well as by other things like sex and age), then asking them whether they think the advert contains an example of each of the kinds of text that the business plan assignment, researcher has identified. (It is possible to Social Life and add some that are not there, as distractor questions, to eliminate some kinds of respondent.) A very good pragmatic approach is to consider the position and viewpoint that the audience is being asked to adopt. This can be something very simple, as in an assumption that we all want to assignment save money. This assumption is very widespread among advertisers and marketers.

Regularly someone telephones me to ask if I would like to save a given figure on my utility bills. My stock response is to say that I do not wish to brainstorming save this amount (or even a lot more) to change something with which I am currently content, thinking it a fair price for a reliable service. This often leads the caller to question whether I really mean what I say, and to business revert to a script that stresses this potential saving. By no means all advertisements make this assumption. Others assume that the reader or listener has anxieties about his or her self#45;image, and that he or she can become more attractive by wearing the watch or clothes advertised, or driving a different car. An extreme (and offensive) example was a TV advert that featured a young man mounting a supermarket trolley and racing it around a supermarket. Do My Homework! A female voiceover spoke the phrase: Inadequate car. (The advert is offensive in suggesting that the business assignment, choice or ownership of a marque of car is the measure of a human being.) Various advertisers of Life and, mobile phones try to persuade existing owners that they need to replace a model that is not stylish and a likely cause of ridicule, as in business plan, an advertisement series (shown on UK television) for Phones4U. In these adverts the do my homework free online, comedian Paul Merton speaks a voiceover: We'll find the business assignment, right phone for you. Writing Custom In Spring! Does the advertiser consider how far the audience may resist the notion that there is a right phone for us? A more objective approach to pragmatics might be to business plan assignment consider what grammatical person or form of Social Interaction in Everyday and, address advertisers use, if they try to plan speak directly to us.

Do they use imperatives (Look at the clues), do they make statements (We don't serve lobster in of an, the directors' dining room) or do they plant noun#45;phrases (Free servicing for 3 years) and business, leave us to work out what to do about these? Discourse structures in advertising. Advertising is highly derivative and imitative (if not parasitic or plagiarizing) in the genres, text types and structures it uses. In effect, any kind of text that exists for any other purpose may be the blueprint for an advertisement. Homework Free! (This is not a one#45;way relationship: dramatic narratives and comic animations often borrow structures and techniques that first appeared in advertising. And there are many examples of business, television or print fiction that started life as advertisements #45; the of an essay, Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles in the 1990s or Torchie the Battery Boy in the 1960s.) A very common general approach (for any broadcast medium and cinema) is to create narratives #45; which may be self#45;contained or episodic. While the advertiser may not wish to plan point out that these are narratives, this is not always the case.

A series of advertisements for the BMW Mini car uses the format of stories with a plot consisting of three or four statements, read as voiceover with accompanying action #45; the subject of each sentence is usually New Mini, and each example ends with: The end. It's a Mini adventure. At the opposite extreme would be a series of page paper, advertisements produced by the agency McCann Erickson for Nescafe's Gold Blend brand of instant coffee. This campaign ran from November 1987 to 1993, containing twelve episodes released at business assignment, the rate of quantization and standardization of an essay, one or two a year. The agency produced a compilation of the first eleven episodes before screening the conclusion. The story was adapted as a romantic novel, entitled Love Over Gold . An even longer#45;running series featured the OXO couple Katie and Philip, in a series of domestic scenes. Business Plan Assignment! The Gold Blend series may have prompted the advertisers of the Renault Clio to make a series of advertisements featuring a French father and daughter (Papa and Nicole) into a more coherent narrative, ending with a wedding, which sends up the classic film The Graduate . In this advertisement, two entertainers, then at the height of their popularity (Vic Reeves and Bob Mortimer) played the jilted groom and the successful old flame who runs off with the girl. A Channel 4 poll showed this series to be the most popular of all UK TV adverts, while other studies have claimed that the series was the homework free, most successful in terms of the audience's ability to plan assignment identify the product advertised. As styles of TV broadcast have developed (say lifestyle programmes or reality shows), so advertisements have moved to emulate them. So we see the home makeover and DIY show mirrored by advertisements for Homebase, in page mla research paper, which Neil Morrissey and Lesley Ash appear as a couple (loosely resembling the characters they played in the sitcom Men Behaving Badly ) while post#45;watershed documentaries about sexual behaviour clearly have inspired the campaign (starting in 2002) for Pot Noodle (It's dirty but you want it) in business plan, which a young man visits various clubs and asks young women in underwear or bondage gear whether they do Pot Noodle, or in Social Interaction in Everyday Life and, which a young woman (seemingly a girlfriend) accuses the young man of indulging in his Pot Noodle habit. You can find many advertisements by plan going to paper the Web sites of the various agencies, or looking for named directors of commercials.

But two big portals worth visiting are: As a critique of advertising, you should look at Adbusters , at adbusters.org/home. The features of political language vary, as do its purposes. Where politicians interact with society generally, their purposes may be, to persuade voters with a party loyalty to business turn out to vote; to move a floating voter's party allegiance, or to be cosic thesis make us adopt general political or social attitudes, so we support a given policy. Politicians may also use particular language forms when answering journalists' questions. Business Plan Assignment! Where politicians engage in language interactions with other politicians, they may use other particular forms #45; either loosely or under the rule of an arbiter, such as the Speakers in brainstorming, the UK House of Commons and the US House of Representatives. Business Plan! And finally, a contemporary feature of custom annotations, political language use is what is known as spin #45; providing information to business plan assignment the media in such a way as to favour a desired interpretation, not explicitly stated. Persuasive language techniques, especially in speech, take their name from the Greek noun for a professional speaker, rhetor (the Latin equivalent is of an essay, orator ). Many of these techniques are found in written records of speeches in the ancient world #45; such as Jesus' use, in Matthew's and Luke's gospels of parable, antithesis and patterned speech which even survive translation into English: Blessed are those who mourn, | for they shall be comforted.

Blessed are the pure in business plan assignment, heart, | for they shall see God. We have similarly ancient records of political speeches, such as those of page paper, Demosthenes, that show the use of techniques that are as effective today, as they were in the past. Max Atkinson, of Oxford University, suggests that political speechwriters consistently rely on a range of powerful techniques: alliteration, allusion, antithesis (inversion), asking questions and suggesting answers, lists (especially of three items), metaphor (especially extended metaphor), parallelism, parenthesis, repetition and redundant questioning. To see these in action, you should look at examples of speeches written for politicians, and find out business assignment how these work. Obtaining example data for this purpose is very easy. You can use the work paper, official record of the UK House of business plan assignment, Commons. (This is custom annotations, called Hansard after Thomas Curson Hansard, who began producing reports unofficially, and put his name to the record in 1829.

Hansard's reports were so accurate that they became the standard record on merit. At the start of the 20th century the UK government established an Official Report. It dropped the Hansard name, but popular usage preserved it, and in 1943 the name was officially reinstated, even though the report now has no connection with the Hansard family.) Hansard 's reports are available in business assignment, print and on the World Wide Web, as are records of proceedings in the parliaments of many other countries (which also use the name Hansard ). In the Social and, UK, the BBC has a digital television channel ( BBC Parliament ) that broadcasts debates and business assignment, meetings of quantization and standardization of an, select committees #45; from which you can make recordings and transcripts. Business! The federal government and state governments in the USA also publish the and standardization essay, text of speeches, such as the President's Inaugural Address and State of the Union speeches. Once you have found your transcript, what can you do with it? One exercise is to look for rhetorical techniques in action. Plan Assignment! Consider this extract from a speech made by be cosic thesis the late Harold Wilson, the Labour leader, before the business assignment, 1974 UK General Election: This election is not about the miners; not about the brainstorming, militants; not about the power of the unions: it's about the disastrous failure of three and business plan assignment, a half years of do my free, Conservative government which has turned Britain from the path of business assignment, prosperity to the road of Social in Everyday and, ruin. What is Mr.

Wilson doing here? We find. repetition of the formula not about, and antithesis between is business, not about and it's about. Path of prosperity and road of ruin repeat the same form, use alliteration and are related metaphors. In John F. Kennedy's Inaugural Address from January 20, 1961, we find an extended metaphor (of lighting a fire to writing annotations give light to assignment the world) and a concluding antithesis: The energy, the faith, the devotion which we bring to this endeavour will light our country and work page mla research, all who serve it, and the glow from that fire can truly light the world. And so, my fellow Americans, ask not, what your country can do for you. Ask what you can do for plan your country.

The last two sentences use many of the same lexemes , but transpose (switch) the subject and the indirect object. (You can find the Interaction Life, whole text of the speech and an audio recording [Real Audio] to download at business, the JFK Library and Museum, hosted by the University of in Everyday and, Massachusetts Department of Computer Science at: For a humorous allusion, consider Margaret Thatcher's: To those waiting with bated breath for that favourite modern catchphrase the 'U#45; turn', I have only business plan, one thing to say: You turn, if you like; the lady's not for turning! There is wordplay on the homophones U#45;turn/you turn, and a reference to Mrs. Thatcher's Iron Lady nickname, while the final phrase is a painful pun on custom annotations the title of plan assignment, Christopher Fry's play (about a witch): The Lady's Not for Burning . Ronald Reagan's speechwriter, Peggy Noonan, borrowed an do my online image from John Gillespie Magee's poem High Flight to explain the disaster in 1986 when the Challenger space shuttle exploded: We will never forget them (the crew), nor the plan assignment, last time we saw them this morning, as they prepared for their journey and waved goodbye, and slipped the page paper, surly bonds of earth, to assignment touch the face of in Everyday, God. Now look at these longer extracts (from which some of the examples above come), and see if you can find other ways in which the writer (not the business, same person as the and, speaker, usually) uses specific techniques to achieve particular effects. In the long history of the assignment, world only a few generations have been granted the page mla research, rle of defending freedom in its hour of maximum danger. I do not shrink from this responsibility; I welcome it.

I do not believe that any of us would exchange places with any other people or any other generation. The energy, the faith, the devotion which we bring to this endeavour will light our country and all who serve it, and the glow from business assignment, that fire can truly light the writing custom annotations, world. And so, my fellow Americans, ask not, what your country can do for you. Ask what you can do for your country. I'll tell you what happens with impossible promises: you start with far#45;fetched resolutions; they are then pickled into business assignment a rigid dogma cold. And you go through the years, sticking to that: outdated, misplaced, irrelevant to the real needs. And you end in Social and, the grotesque chaos of a Labour council #45; a Labour council #45; hiring taxis to scuttle round a city, handing out redundancy notices to its own workers. I'm telling you now: no matter how entertaining, how fulfilling to business plan short#45;term egos #45; I'll tell you and you'll listen #45; I'm telling you, I'm telling you #45; you can't play politics with people's jobs and people's services. Parliamentary and unparliamentary language. In the UK Parliament, a range of special language features marks proceedings.

These include: a special lexicon and forms of be cosic thesis, address, disallowing personally abusive epithets use of special structures Parliamentary privilege #45; freedom from liability for slander rules for taking and plan, holding turns procedures for supportive and explicatory interventions submission to the arbitration of the chairman or woman, the Speaker and Deputy Speakers. David Crystal ( Cambridge Encyclopedia of the English Language , p. 378) suggests also that maxims of conversational theory do not apply to parliamentary dialogue. Work Cited Mla Research! Other participants or commentators do not assume that speakers are telling the truth, are speaking clearly or with relevance. This may need some clarification. In some ways, debate is like social conversation #45; people speak in sequence, respond to each other and develop ideas. And outside of occasions when MPs adopt ritual enmities (Prime Minister's Question Time or the presenting of a new draft bill, say), the plan assignment, speakers may follow cooperative rules and observe conversational maxims. Do My Free! But they have other motivations than the success of the conversation #45; and (in pragmatic terms) may want the exchange not to be successful, that is in coming to an accommodation. For an exhaustive discussion of how different theoretical models usefully explain parliamentary discourse, have a look at Chris Christie's Politeness and the Linguistic Construction of Gender in Parliament: An Analysis of Transgressions and assignment, Apology Behaviour at www.shu.ac.uk/wpw/politeness. In this article, Chris Christie effectively qualifies Professor Crystal's assertion, as she does see what happens if one uses models from Pragmatics (specifically politeness theory) to explain Parliamentary exchanges. The UK parliament has a s pecial lexicon #45; something you will find in quantization and standardization of an essay, the political systems of many states. This includes terms denoting the institutions, practices and officials of the assignment, parliament #45; things like bench (back bench, cross bench, front bench), Black Rod, speaker, under#45;secretary, whip (noun and brainstorming, verb).

This lexicon is very extensive (there are many guides available to business plan explain the brainstorming, meanings of terms). Some are descriptive and more or less self#45;explanatory, such as: Committee of plan assignment, Selection, Disclaiming a Peerage and Prime Minister's Questions (though here we need to know that the brainstorming, questions are asked of or to, but not by, the business, Prime Minister, who gives the answers). Others are opaque #45; we need to know more information in order to understand the meaning, as with: 1922 Committee, Another Place, Chiltern Hundreds, Hansard and I Spy Strangers . You can find explanations of these and other terms on various A to Z guides, but if you want to know the meaning of these particular terms they are as follows ( Hansard is explained above): Below is a list of further words and Interaction, phrases which have a special meaning in the context of Parliament. How many do you know? Check the assignment, BBC's, or Parliament's own, A to Interaction Life and Z guide to find out what they mean. Go to: Any hours motion. Below the business plan assignment, gangway.

Cabinet Office Secretariat. Chairman of Ways and Means. Chancellor of the Duchy of brainstorming, Lancaster. Chancellor of the exchequer. Chief whip (government) Clerk of the Parliaments. Contempt of business, Parliament. Crossing the Floor.

Disclaiming a peerage. Early Day Motion. Father of the of an essay, House. I Spy Strangers. Journal of the Commons. Leader of the House. Early Day Motion. Father of the House. I Spy Strangers. Journal of the Commons.

Leader of the business plan, House. Lord Privy Seal. Orders in mla research, Council. Orders of the Day. Parliamentary Private Secretaries (PPSs) Points Of Order. Prime Minister's Questions. Printed Paper Office. Private Bill Office. Private Member's Bills. Private Notice Question.

Public Accounts Committee. Public Bill Office. Readings of Bills. Recesses and Recalls. Serjeant at Arms. Ten Minute Rule Bill. Forms of address may confuse the assignment, outsider. Simple forms include my honourable Friend, the honourable Gentleman/Lady or the honourable Member for Finchley . These denote an MP simply #45; other members are supposed to know who represents each constituency (electoral area). A friend is usually of the same parliamentary party as the Interaction Life and, person who uses this epithet.

If the MP is a Privy Councillor (usually a former minister), then he or she is the right honourable Lady or Gentleman . If the MP is a barrister (as many are) he or she may be a learned Lady or Gentleman . Business Plan Assignment! The Speaker and Deputy Speaker chair debates. Remarks should be primarily addressed to them, using the formula Madam/Mr. Speaker or Madam/Mr. Deputy Speaker. For example, here is a comment from Hansard for 21 January 2003, in which Mike O'Brien (Parliamentary Under#45;Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs) refers to Ann Clwyd: I pay tribute to the work of my hon. Friend the Member for Cynon Valley. (In Hansard hon. is the standard abbreviation for honourable.) Directly addressing another person with the second person pronoun (You) is disallowed and may earn a rebuke from the Speaker, as in this exchange: Mr. Prescott: You might be #45; perhaps that is new new Conservatism #45; but you should have a chat to cited your mate on the Front Bench. Mr.

Deputy Speaker: Order. I am sorry to stop the Secretary of State's speech, but I would be grateful if he would use the correct parliamentary language. In this case the Speaker signals his disapproval and calls Mr. Prescott to attention with the call: Order. This is business plan assignment, technically a command , even though on occasions a rowdy House ignores it initially. In Spring! Interestingly, he says nothing about the mate on the Front Bench #45; so Mr. Prescott might have escaped rebuke, had he said, the honourable member for North Wiltshire should have a chat with his mate on the Front Bench, the [right] honourable member for business plan assignment X. Mr. Prescott's error is to use second person you, and speak directly to Mr.

Gray. However, in choosing among possible alternative forms in a given context, speakers may illustrate pragmatic rules or principles #45; perhaps using a polite formula to cover hostility or aggression, while in a naturally friendly exchange a less explicitly courteous form may be acceptable. Also, even when a speaker refers to his or her honourable friend, he or she is technically addressing the Speaker, while the Interaction in Everyday Life and, honourable friend is in the third person. In the plan assignment, House of Commons speakers may assert things which elsewhere would allow others to sue them for libel #45; this is Social, Parliamentary Privilege . On the other hand swearing (of almost any degree) and calling other speakers liars are formally disallowed. The Speaker asks any Member who breaches these rules to withdraw the remark. If he or she persists, the Speaker may ban the offender from the House for a given period. The Commons has other rules defining contempts, such as giving false evidence to a Select Committee, threatening MPs about how they vote , and offering bribes . To vote, members go through a lobby. If they support a motion, they go through the Aye (yes) lobby ; to business plan oppose it, they enter the No lobby . To give the result, the Speaker states the in Everyday, number of votes for Aye and No , and says that either the Ayes or the Noes have it. In a debate, the Speaker of the House calls MPs to take a turn . Business Plan Assignment! The holder of the turn may allow another speaker to interrupt his or her speaking. The new would#45;be speaker may ask, Will you give way? The MP who is speaking may agree to this, using the form: I will give way.

Etiquette dictates that the new speaker should make a brief contribution before allowing the first speaker back. This is a highly formalized version of turn taking. Cited Page Paper! Of course, on many occasions, the person who has the floor will refuse to assignment allow the interruption, for reasons of time or policy. MPs may not read aloud written speeches during debate, though they may use notes. They are not allowed to read newspapers, magazines and letters.

They may not make use of visual aids, such as diagrams and free, maps. Short slogans, like those in advertisements, often mark the speech of politicians answering questions from journalists (or their opponents). These are repeated in such a way as to persuade the listener of their truth or reason. Plan! For example, in do my, defending policies which apparently increased unemployment in business plan, the UK but raised the value of the do my free online, currency, Mrs. Thatcher coined the phrase: There is no alternative. Business Plan! There obviously were alternative suggested policies but denying their existence made them seem impractical.

Whether or not they were really impractical is not the linguist's concern: we are interested in work cited page, the linguistic means by which Mrs. Thatcher justified her dismissal of them. A very simple but effective sound bite is the name New Labour . New is well known as an effective qualifier in advertising, and the UK Labour Party in the 1990s was keen to distance itself from the (supposedly unelectable) Labour Party of the 1980s. Constant repetition of the name made it stick. The Conservative Party, then in government, attacked New Labour in the 1997 election campaign with the slogan New Labour, New Danger. Arguably, this reinforced the business assignment, idea that Labour had changed and do my homework, helped the party win the election. (broadcast, print, new technologies) While any text may be influenced by the maker's preconceptions and world view, many media texts arise from an explicit intention of promoting given values or attitudes, whether sincerely, because the author believes in them, or cynically, to attract an audience. As students of language, you have no interest in this #45; your concern is the language features in which these attitudes are embodied or expressed . It may be helpful not to think of these preconceptions as bias, since this implies disapproval. They are, rather, the speaker's or writer's outlook, assumptions or editorial stance . You should be aware that certain media texts proclaim and business assignment, admit these underlying attitudes #45; opinion columns or current affairs broadcasts explicitly adopt such a stance.

But others, such as reporting, may aspire to neutrality, yet display the of an, author's value systems by choices of lexis or current metaphors . For example: Do we read of refugees, economic migrants or asylum seekers ? Are they bogus , and are they passing through open (or about#45;to#45;be#45;open) floodgates ? (How often do you meet floodgates in assignment, a literal, rather than metaphorical sense?) Are those who resist the state guerrillas, freedom fighters or terrorists ? Does a writer introduce ideas of legality to confer (dis)approval, so legal intoxicants (alcohol, tobacco) are distinguished from those that are illegal, and so referred to as drugs . New media texts may reveal very different attitudes, but in similar ways #45; they, too, have distinctive lexis and metaphors. Individual expression rather than central editorial control may permit greater language diversity. Be Cosic Thesis! Perhaps influential power is less monolithic, but appears in trends and business plan, fashions. There is plenty of space for critics #45; the brainstorming, World Wide Web abounds with sites that proclaim why X sucks , where X is business assignment, a powerful business corporation.

Lexical choices reflect shifts in subjective meaning or connotation or contemporary attitudes, so that they carry a sense of approval (approbation) or disapproval (pejoration). They may also be euphemistic , appearing as an acceptable substitute for some word or phrase that the writer or speaker thinks too strong or direct #45; as when the Social Interaction in Everyday and, inadvertent killing of soldiers by their own allies or compatriots is friendly fire, and plan assignment, the killing of civilians is collateral damage. Political correctness (as a linguistic rather than social attitude) represents an attempt to find neutral terms. In Everyday Life And! While PC language is often a subject for ridicule, it arises from business plan assignment, a sensitivity to the connotations or implications of brainstorming, more common forms. It is worth paying attention to recurring forms #45; how often does anyone talk about addressing the issues (in the loose sense of talking about things or sorting them out). Context is very important #45; some areas of the media will use traditional and quite literary forms to suggest seriousness and dignity, as, say, on Alistair Cooke's Letter from America , broadcast on BBC Radio 4. Presenters of plan, children's programmes on homework BBC1, BBC2 and CBBC will use forms closer to business plan those of everyday speech among young people #45; or will they? Perhaps this is homework, generally true, but they will have their own taboos #45; so they will not normally refer to sex, violence, gambling and alcohol, or swear and blaspheme. We can apply the theories of pragmatics to language use in the media #45; but should note some special features of how they work. A simple example might be a political interview, broadcast on radio or television.

What the listener or viewer might miss is an understanding of how far the speakers are aware of the wider audience , and how far the questions and answers are, or are not, spontaneous, as the interviewee may have seen them before the business, interview is recorded. Another complicating factor is the effect of editing , where an interview is quantization of an essay, recorded for later broadcast #45; this can remove the sense of two or more people observing the cooperative principle or exhibiting politeness . In the case of broadcast texts generally, one should consider the relationship between the author or the publisher and the audience. Take news broadcasts, for example. We are familiar with the convention of business plan assignment, a newsreader's sitting down at or behind a desk, but not all newsreaders do this. Some newsreaders greet the audience: Good evening, here is the news, while others say This is [name of news organization] news or simply: The six o'clock news from the BBC. Even things like the newsreaders' clothes may be important #45; suits and ties are common (for men) in the west and in the developing world, but in some countries newsreaders wear traditional or culturally significant clothes. This is something very easy to study: record a series of broadcasts on radio and TV over a day or two #45; if you have digital TV and radio, you can record bulletins from a much wider range. Do My Online! Then study each and note down how they do certain things.

For example: How many are there #45; one, two, more and of what sex? What do they wear? Do they sit, stand, move, stay still and so on? Do they acknowledge each other? How do they introduce reports from other correspondents? How do they address the unseen audience? Do we see filmed footage (on TV news)?

Do we see any graphic images or captions? Do we see text giving people's names? These are just a few ideas #45; you should be able to think of many more. Once you have noted down the information, you might like to arrange it, say in a table. Now you can consider what, if anything, this tells you about the kinds of interaction going on. To take one example Channel 4's seven o'clock (p.m.) news bulletin on Saturday February 8th, 2003 carried a report on the pay rise awarded to the Lord Chancellor, Derry Irvine. To show the value of this rise (£22,000), the broadcaster used on#45;screen graphics showing what this amount would buy (a teacher's salary, so many bottles of claret and other things), while displaying an animated image of a fruit#45;machine bearing the business plan assignment, name: Derry's Jackpot. Leaving aside the question of how the do my homework online, viewer may feel about the news story here, we may consider how the use of these techniques affects that view.

The image of the fruit machine may be significant to some parts of the plan, audience, but may give offence to others, who disapprove of gambling. We may ask whether the broadcaster should use any images or animations to suggest the idea of an unmerited benefit and whether the fruit machine animation makes the story clearer. Should the story be left to speak for writing custom in spring itself? Or is some kind of editorial slant inevitable? We can apply similar considerations to other spoken media texts #45; say the way in which a programme host talks to a guest on business plan a phone#45;in quiz or similar activity. On a TV game show, for in Everyday and example, we may see the host's supporting the business plan, participants to avoid their being unduly humiliated or, worse, not keeping to the programme's format and structure. Recent broadcasts, of the so#45;called Reality TV genre, are quite different #45; in many of these, there is no such protection or nurturing of the participants. Quantization And Standardization Essay! Instead they are subject to insult by the hosts or other participants. It is relatively easy to study grammar , by looking at very specific features of language data such as verb tenses and pronoun choices #45; these can become conventional in certain forms or genres, and assignment, harden into writing custom annotations a kind of plan, style.

So, with broadcast news, we will be familiar with the forms in: Fifty#45;three people died when their bus collided with a train in central China early this morning. The clause structure is subject + verb (past imperfect tense) + adverbial . This is an effective model or structure because the grammatical subject also signals the subject of the cited paper, story (the victims of the crash), then says what happened, then gives information about how and why it happened, or further information about the circumstances of the plan, event. If we look at. The Prime Minister flew to France this afternoon for a meeting with President Chirac. we can see that this is more or less the same structure. Some kinds of text, like reportage, use formulas like this, because the Interaction, writers work at speed and are meant to publish the story rather than create literary work. Do persuasive media texts have distinctive grammatical forms that reinforce their tendency to persuade? Perhaps.

What might these be? Well, I have just used one in the two previous sentences #45; taking what might be declarative sentences and recasting them as questions and business assignment, answers . Qualifiers can be used, as their name implies to qualify the work page paper, meaning of verbs and nouns #45; so that our view is affected #45; which really takes us back into semantics and plan assignment, stylistics . Are there distinctive structures for persuasive texts in the media? First, we may want to page paper identify what such persuasive media texts might be. Some are easy to name, as they are explicitly intended to alter our view #45; as with party election or political broadcasts, editorials in newspapers and campaigns, such as the campaign in 2001 by the News of the World (a UK Sunday newspaper) to business introduce Sarah's Law (the equivalent of the US Megan's Law, here named after murder victim Sarah Payne), such that families could know the identities of writing custom, convicted paedophiles living near them. Other texts may have less obviously persuasive qualities #45; such as a documentary broadcast that leads the audience to some kind of position or view. Sometimes the text will seek to persuade through ridicule, using the structure and style of some other kind of text, but subverting it. What are the structures for plan assignment these texts?

Editorials may be a few hundred words in length #45; a headline, a simple introduction, an elaboration of argument with examples, leading to Life a simple conclusion. Business Plan! While the homework free online, lexicon and business plan, style may vary according to the target readership of the newspaper, the be cosic thesis, structure is more or less the same for different kinds of newspaper. The party election or political broadcast in the UK is limited in time to a few minutes #45; so the writers have developed structures like extended advertisements. The extract below comes from a 1994 party political broadcast for the Labour Party, which had a running time of 4 minutes 40 seconds: [Opening shot: Time#45;lapse photography of the sun rising over the Palace of Westminster] TONY BLAIR: [voice#45;over] It is an honour to business assignment lead this party. I accept it with excitement.. [cut to shots of Blair reviewing papers in be cosic thesis, the back seat of a car] .. but also with humility, and business plan assignment, with a profound sense of the responsibility that is placed upon me. [cut to someone adjusting the rear#45;view mirror to show Blair] [Cut to Radio Two studio] VOICE#45;OVER: [station identifier] Radio Two #45; Jimmy Young.

JIMMY YOUNG: And in the studio with me now, the new Leader of the quantization and standardization of an essay, Labour Party, Tony Blair. Good Morning Tony. TONY BLAIR: Good Morning Jim. [Cut to vox pops] VOX POP 1: Tony Blair has a sense of vision. VOX POP 2: You know what they say about politicians, they never look you in the eye. He certainly does. VOX POP 3: I feel I can trust him. [Cut to Blair talking to camera; caption The Rt.Hon. Tony Blair MP Leader of the business, Labour Party]

This is more complex than a newspaper editorial. The editorial has a common theme, but also may have a reasonably clear argument, using examples to illustrate it. In the broadcast, there is still the common theme, but there is not a simple or clear line of argument, rather a series of elements that are assembled loosely. The writer relies on brainstorming the audience to supply the connections, so that we do not have an obvious sense of plan, someone's telling us what to Interaction in Everyday Life and think. The image of the business plan assignment, sunrise and the recording of Tony Blair's accepting the leadership of the be cosic thesis, party both suggest the assignment, idea of change #45; in 1994 the custom annotations, Labour Party was trying to persuade the British electorate to return Labour to business power.

We can see how the writer first shows Tony Blair or has him speaking on a voice#45;over, but does not have him speaking straight to camera until some way into the broadcast. The party political broadcast must have quite a distinctive style, since it lends itself to comic treatment. A search on the World Wide Web will turn up many spoof broadcasts, including several Monty Python Sketches. The extract below comes from brainstorming, a broadcast (November 2001) of the ruling People's Action Party of assignment, Singapore and published on do my online the party's Web site at www.pap.org.sg. It is far simpler than the Labour broadcast above: In two days' time, you will be casting your votes. Before you vote, ask yourself this question: in business plan, this economic downturn, who can help you find jobs? Nobody can say when our economy will recover. The US is quantization and standardization of an essay, fighting a war against terrorism #45; in Afghanistan and in assignment, the US itself.

If the war goes badly, the global recession could drag on. Be Cosic Thesis! Singapore could then take one and business plan, a half to two years to recover. This is why I have called for and elections now, as I want your strong mandate for our programme to save and plan assignment, create jobs for you. JOBS TODAY, JOBS TOMORROW. I am especially concerned for older Singaporeans. They have families to look after. They find it harder to find and fit into new jobs. This is true of Social Interaction in Everyday and, most older workers, factory workers, office workers, professionals too. How do we help you? First, let us try to save existing jobs.

Next, let us help retrenched workers find new jobs. Thirdly, for the longer term, we must create more jobs. This broadcast is no more than a speech #45; we do not (on the Web document) have an indication of what might be shown on TV or if it is a radio broadcast only, but it seems to be the text of a speech by the leader. In the business assignment, Labour broadcast, Tony Blair eventually speaks about the work cited mla research, economy and jobs #45; but here the speaker moves straight to these subjects, without any real preliminaries. There is no suggestion of how to create jobs, but the business assignment, noun is repeated many times. The notion of a canon of classic works of art has not gone away, but is in creative tension with alternative contemporary visions. We cannot readily call these modern since this label has been appropriated for custom works from the early 20th century, and post#45;modern smacks of the business plan, 1980s. Some works, hailed in the moment of publication or exhibition as masterpieces, are quickly forgotten. Be Cosic Thesis! Nevertheless, most developed societies allow space for vigorous public debate about art and culture.

And we are comfortable with a distinction between popular, lowbrow or commercial music, writing and business plan assignment, so on, and serious, classical or highbrow art. Culture, especially popular culture, exerts a massive influence on how people think and of an essay, see the world. Business Plan! And this is reflected in a range of language forms. When we need comfort, our friends tell us that they are or will be there for us. Unless we are pedantic we do not ask where there is. Soap operas and advertisements present us with tidy versions of real life scenarios and the language forms we need to understand or endure them: a lexicon for our troubles and problems, helpful phrases and even extended discourse structures or paradigms for coping. Have a good cry we are told, because we have to grieve (a metaphor of pressure which must be released before it does harm, often appears). You owe it to yourself or because I'm worth it express positively attitudes that seem far less attractive when called selfish or narcissistic. The fictional trial of a character for a topical crime (rape, wife beating, road rage) may provoke intelligent reflection leading to greater understanding. But it may be so plausible and quantization and standardization essay, convincing that it replaces proper public debate. What kinds of persuasive texts might there be in the general category of culture?

These would include satire, polemical writing, poetry and theatre . While some legal processes are used to enact power, others are devised to allow lawyers to persuade a judge or a jury, within an adversarial system of persuasion. This has its own distinctive language forms, and is much more constrained by rules than other kinds of persuasion #45; so much so that failure to obey the rules can overturn the business plan assignment, decisions of Interaction in Everyday, a court. David Crystal ( Cambridge Encyclopedia of the English Language , p. 374) distinguishes between the language of the legislature (Parliament) which institutes a legal text (sets down the law in written form) and the language of the judiciary (law courts and plan assignment, judges) which interprets and applies it. The law also has its own lexicon: this preserves archaic terms, perhaps to promote respect for its processes or intimidate. Annotations! While this continues to business plan be acceptable in criminal law, in April 1999 civil courts saw a change in their lexicon.

A Mareva injunction (which prevents the sale of assets during litigation) became a freezing injunction , in camera became in private , a minor or infant became a child , a plaintiff became a claimant , inter partes became with notice , ex parte became without notice , while pleading was replaced by brainstorming statement of case . These changes were made on the recommendation of Lord Woolf, the Master of the Rolls , whose own title reflects the archaic origin of much legal lexis. The Norman Conquest established French (which included many Latin loanwords) as the language of law and politics. Later, Latin was used, and English only replaced Latin as the language of English law in the 17th century. Plan Assignment! For this reason Latin phrases abound ( mens rea, ab initio, certiorari, ex parte ) as do French loanwords ( lien, plaintiff, tort ). To show the difference between areas where one is under obligation and those where one has some room to choose, the law makes use of modal verbs such as may, must, shall . To establish its general applicability the law uses pronouns such as all and whoever or generic nouns such as vehicle or person . To simplify or modernize the language of the law seems desirable, but may be problematic. Ordinary people may have a better sense of understanding and therefore more respect for laws expressed simply and do my homework online, plainly. Business Plan Assignment! But some apparently obscure terms may have been coined precisely to do my homework free online express subtle or unusual meanings or distinctions. And if the law uses the common register, then an updated term may itself become obsolete, as its common meaning misleads people about its legal sense. Fiona Kerr, who used to practise law, gives this example of what she calls the difference between lawyer#45;speak and business plan, normal language: The general public use murdered interchangeably with killed, no#45;one ever says he manslaughtered him.

Consider also what most people mean when they refer to personal property as compared with my understanding of it as everything which isn't land (roughly speaking). When Mrs Bloggins does her own will and brainstorming, leaves her personal property to the nice lady who looked after her cat whilst she was in hospital, she may intend to leave her collection of tin ornaments and a few skirts, but is she intending to also bequeath her savings to said nice lady or did she intend to leave them to her son, along with the house? Only a Judge can decide and by the time he has, there won't be any savings left for the winning litigant to spend #45; and assignment, the loser could be in debt. Law is often expressed in quantization and standardization of an essay, lengthy sentences marked by plan lists of items to ensure that nothing is be cosic thesis, missed out which the law should cover, so we know later whether or not it applies in a certain case. Parentheses or subordinate clauses appear frequently to plan clarify a preceding clause. Alternatively a number may refer to a footnote, where a phrase is more extensively or unambiguously defined. Legal documents are notorious for brainstorming hyper#45;complex syntax , with several degrees of subordination of clauses . They also allow, often without clarifying punctuation, lengthy adverbial phrases , such as: And any such release settlement discharge shall as between you and the undersigned be deemed to have been given or made upon the express condition that it shall become and assignment, be wholly void and of no effect if the homework online, assurance security or payment on the faith of business plan, which it was made or given shall be void. While literary texts (such as Dickens' or Hardy's novels) suggest that in quantization and standardization essay, earlier times ordinary readers could process complex syntactic structures, and understand their meaning, modern readers or listeners may find this troublesome.

Shorter and less complex syntax is business assignment, easier to understand, while some features of punctuation, typography and layout can all aid comprehension. It is not so much that lawyers in Social Interaction Life and, the past did not know how to make themselves understood. They perhaps never intended to do so. Advocacy , as practised by barristers in criminal courts, can be contrasted with advertising. In one case, there are no rules, while approaches change and are expedient #45; advertisers do whatever works. Advertisers are constrained by some standards and a code of practice. Assignment! But advocates in the law courts are subject to very precise rules about evidence, kinds of argument and turn taking, among other things, in a forum (the court) over which a judge presides. As regards sequence, barristers must outline a case and then present it, with the counsel (advocate) for the prosecution going before the defence counsel. The prosecution must prove its case beyond reasonable doubt; the defence, as barristers and judges often remind juries, does not have to Interaction in Everyday Life prove anything #45; it is enough to discredit the prosecution or show that the prosecution has not proved the case beyond reasonable doubt. Each side may question its own witnesses, but the other side may subsequently cross#45;examine (question) them. Each side must sum up its case, and the judge must also sum up the business plan assignment, whole proceedings and advise the jury about how to be cosic thesis arrive at its verdict.

In asking a question of a witness, an advocate is not normally allowed to invite the witness to agree with a version of business plan assignment, events the advocate has described #45; that is, by asking leading questions. In some state court systems of the USA the opposing counsel may call out Objection and the judge may direct the jury to disregard what they have heard. In the do my, UK, judges make such rulings directly without the business, protest of Objection. In order to make the trial fair to the accused, the writing custom annotations, prosecution may not refer to any crimes of which he or she has been convicted in assignment, the past, though the defendant may voluntarily disclose this information. (This is changing in English law.) And each side must disclose to the other, before the brainstorming, trial begins, the evidence it intends to use in plan, the trial. Unlike everyday argument or conversational disputes, each side makes its case largely without interruptions from the other side.

Each may take as long as the evidence it presents allows #45; it is up to the judge to decide if something is not relevant and stop a line of brainstorming, questioning or argument. Business Assignment! The closest thing to interruption is the chance to writing annotations in spring challenge a witness's testimony in cross#45;examination. The advocates do not at any point interrupt each other. Plan Assignment! But both sides may, in examining a witness, interrupt the witness where an answer is not forthcoming or seems open to challenge. The witness may be intimidated, but is not obliged to respond instantaneously. The judge may restrain an advocate who uses an inappropriate manner or asks questions that seem not relevant to a line of questioning. The fundamental principle of advocacy is so familiar that its strangeness is often overlooked #45; that is, that experts in argument (advocates) compete, under known rules, to secure conviction or acquittal for another person. On occasions, in both criminal and civil trials, people do represent themselves #45; but this is very rare. Thus David Irving (2000) presented his own (civil) case in suing another historian who had called him a Holocaust denier. Free Online! (He lost the case, so anyone may now describe Mr.

Irving as a Holocaust denier, without risk of libel.) A jury has a difficult task, in attending both to the detail of a witness's evidence or an advocate's interpretation, as well as to the whole case presented by either side. Although the business plan assignment, jury ultimately decides on matters of fact, the judge will help them by explaining matters of quantization essay, law. Thus, a verdict may depend not only on what the accused did or did not do, but also on the offence of which he or she is accused. In England and Wales, for most criminal offences, a verdict of guilty is represented as beyond reasonable doubt. Business Plan Assignment! The presiding judge may help the be cosic thesis, jury with the meaning of reasonable. In Scotland, as well as verdicts of guilty or not guilty, a jury may bring in a verdict of not proven. This allows them to indicate their uncertainty #45; the accused is not convicted, but does not walk away clear of business, suspicion. According to mla research Fiona Kerr: A guilty verdict means that the conduct complained of must have matched the conduct covered by business the charge and that the be cosic thesis, conduct must be proved beyond reasonable doubt. In studying the language of the business, law, you may think primarily of those who speak and write it, but be aware also of listeners or readers.

In the case of a jury, a very unusual kind of listening (and reading) is work cited page mla research paper, required. The jury is business plan assignment, able to brainstorming make requests of the business plan, judge, for example, to look again at a record of some part of a trial, but its discretion is limited by what the judge allows or thinks appropriate. Writing In Spring! Jurors may make notes, and keep these with them for the duration of a trial #45; these notes stay in court or the jury retiring room (a special room where jurors meet to consider a verdict, or in some kinds of break during a trial). Business Plan Assignment! Once the jury reaches a verdict, these notes are destroyed. One interesting expression of homework, courtesy is the legal fiction that every judge knows all the law. A barrister who wishes to business plan correct a judge on a point where his or her knowledge is not complete may use a form such as, As your lordship well remembers.

Fiona Kerr notes that: the Barrister may well be supplying the work, Judge's ignorance but everyone pretends that every Judge has an encyclopaedic knowledge which is frankly unrealistic. Their Lordships have to deal with every aspect of Law and there's no way they know that much, so Counsel tells them the arguments and business plan assignment, the law as if they know it already, even if they don't. The barrister supplies the relevant information but effectively offers it to the judge for endorsement in a manner that signals deference. This may be the origin of be cosic thesis, with respect. At some point in the past it may have been necessary for assignment a speaker to exhibit real deference while correcting a superior - since discourtesy would have led to a loss of honour or reputation, as well, perhaps, as advancement that would be in homework online, the gift of the person to whom the business plan, respect in question was due. Be Cosic Thesis! Nowadays the plan assignment, function of with respect (an implied correction by work mla research paper one with better information) remains, but its literal denotation (showing respect to one who deserves it) may be lost. Beneath the explicit or official rules that govern the way barristers present a case, are some common tactics (some of which you may have observed in fictional representations as well as any real trials that you have attended). Fiona Kerr observes:

There's the day#45;to#45;day code of insults with which you are probably familiar, such as with respect (i.e. you're wrong), with great respect (i.e. Business! you are completely wrong) and, ultimately with the greatest respect (i.e. you are an utter fool). There are power structures in education, from nurseries to universities, but these are often concealed from those who are subject to Interaction in Everyday and them. Schools often produce codes or summaries or lists of rules, but these may have only a local or relative force, since the school itself is business plan, subject to laws that protect the interests of different groups. We can perhaps helpfully distinguish educational institutions (other than officer training colleges for the police and armed forces) from the armed services, which have explicit published regulations, a clear hierarchy of command, and tribunals to quantization and standardization resolve the business plan assignment, few disputed cases that defy this system. In recent times some UK schools and universities may have required parents or students to give assent to a code of rules or home#45;school agreement, but there is no universal model for these, and few parents or students would accept that attending a school has the same force in imposing rules, as joining the army or police service. Educational establishments have some powers of last resort, such as temporary or permanent exclusion but otherwise have very much to be cosic thesis derive their power from the consent of those who are governed. Traditionally, schools have exerted power on plan their students, but we can also see how power lies with the pupils in essay, many situations #45; at the least because most of what teachers and parents expect to happen can do so only with some assent from the students. What happens if one adult (usually one, though in classrooms today there may be several adults present) spends an hour #45; or several hours in a primary classroom #45; in the company of between twenty and plan, thirty young people? Experience suggests that there is a massive variety of results. In one case, the adult imposes his or her will by various means on writing custom in spring the students, who comply with the adult's lead or, if they defy it, find themselves excluded or subject to some kind of sanction. In another case, the plan, children react to the adult in subversive and confrontational ways (sometimes more actively than the mla research paper, same children would be if left unattended in a classroom).

In yet another case, the adult and business assignment, children achieve a kind of equilibrium, where each takes turns, gives way or takes the lead, and all work productively towards an agreed set of goals, or give outward assent to the majority who wish to do so. There will be other situations, and maybe the same group will at different times approximate more to one position than another #45; so a class that meets a new teacher for Social Life and the first time may do things to test his or her character; while over time, a class may come to like and respect a teacher, so that he or she can, on occasion, appeal to a perceived obligation. Business! Students can be very effective in nurturing and supporting an adult, where they judge that this is appropriate. Many of the be cosic thesis, causes of these relationships are found in the personalities of the teachers and the learners #45; but they also lie clearly in business plan assignment, the nature of the language interactions that occur between adult and Social Interaction Life and, pupil. And we can study these objectively. For example, we can investigate. the frequency with which a request takes a given form #45; direct imperative (do X) or question (would you do X?), whether the person making the business, request uses a name or other form of address , whether there is a please and thank you and so on. We could also measure objectively whether use of direct commands is more or less efficient (in the time it takes) than use of requests. Writing Custom Annotations In Spring! We might wish to relate these things to plan assignment the age, ability, prior social experience and so on, of the brainstorming, learners. Another thing we might like to business observe, and possibly quantify, is the ability of a student, by speaking in certain ways, to provoke a given response from the teacher. That is, how far each (student or teacher) is writing custom, ready to business plan adopt ritualised or predictable and practised rôles in an interchange: the writing custom in spring, student presses a particular button, and business plan assignment, the teacher reacts in the expected way.

Of course, such ritual exchanges need not be confrontational or hostile. They may be playful in tone, but serious in an underlying dialogue. Or they may be very friendly interchanges, in work cited paper, which all parties are reinforcing an existing social relationship #45; the teacher tells a weak joke, the pupils tell him how unfunny he is, then ask about plan assignment his sick cat or whether the new baby is still keeping him awake. Study of classroom discourse may differ from conversational analysis, in that one person is trying to establish a rapport with a complete group at some points, with sub#45;groups at other points, and work cited page, individuals at other times. In any one lesson it is almost impossible to achieve this, but over business plan, a series of lessons it is possible #45; though without any objective method, even the do my homework online, best#45;intentioned teacher may not give a fair allocation of time to all. Business! Are there devices that, addressed to a group, can make individuals feel that the comment is for homework online them in particular? Almost any of the methods of analysis of assignment, spoken utterances that come under the general heading of pragmatics may be fruitful when used to writing custom annotations in spring study language exchanges in the classroom. Instrumental power #45; business and plan assignment, management. There are useful general approaches that we can take in analysing and explaining language interchanges in various social contexts, but some features are relevant to one social context more than another. Private enterprise (in much of the English#45;speaking world) is regulated by some laws that, for example, describe and defend the be cosic thesis, human rights and welfare of employees, but it is not organized into a universal system, so that language use can emerge rather as a fashion #45; and power may come partly from using the plan assignment, current or the most novel special forms. Like any social context, business and management have their own distinctive lexis . This includes both useful and necessary names for things that are peculiar to the way business works, as well as buzzwords . These are neologisms and phrases that disguise more familiar things or give them a temporary sense of novelty or mystique.

In time they may become seen as cliches or otherwise ridiculous. Let's look at some real examples. Guru , which denotes a religious teacher famed for homework online great wisdom, has become compounded into other forms such as Internet#45;guru, management#45;guru, business#45;guru and so on. One such management guru is Charles Handy, who has invented a special set of names for management structures, derived from the business assignment, gods and goddesses of classical Greece. He describes four cultures: the Zeus Culture , the Athena Culture , the Apollo Culture and the Dionysian Culture . (It is not clear why he uses the noun form as attributive adjective for three of these, but uses an do my free online established adjectival form in Dionysian.) So what do the names mean?

Zeus Culture: an organization dominated by the personality and power of one person, often the founder or owner, after the ruler of the gods. Apollo Culture: an organization dominated by rules and procedures, after Apollo the God of harmony and order. Business Plan! Athena Culture: the brainstorming, project organization that dominates consultancies, advertising agencies and, increasingly, all innovative businesses, after Athena, the warrior goddess. Dionysian Culture: an plan assignment organization in which the individual has the freedom to be cosic thesis develop his or her own ideas in the way they want #45; an artists' studio, perhaps, or a university. They are hard to manage, these Dionysian places, but increasingly necessary if you want to plan assignment employ really creative people. In an be cosic thesis interview with the BBC, Charles Handy continues: What interested me, however, was not the downsizing or the re#45;engineering itself, as others began to call it, but the consequences for business assignment our individual working lives.

Organizations, it seemed to me, would increasingly dispense with our services in our mid#45;lives as they concentrated on fewer and Social Interaction, younger people in their cores, with only a few wise heads to keep the show on track. You can find the interview at. In this short extract we see the business#45;specific terms: downsizing, re#45;engineering and keep the show on track. Downsizing is now quite well established as a verb that means reducing the business, number of employees, and perhaps other features of the organization (physical premises, costs and so on). It is cited page mla research, self#45;explanatory but has rather odd morphology, being a compound of adverb, and noun (size) converted to verb. Re#45;engineering is a metaphor whereby the reorganization of people is likened to business plan assignment a change in a mechanized process #45; it is therefore rather impersonal. Keep the show on track is Social Interaction in Everyday Life and, not confined to plan business, but used in many kinds of human activity #45; it is a metaphor derived from travelling stage shows.

More commonly people say they try to keep the homework free, show on the road. Charles Handy's use of track may come from mixing the assignment, phrase with the Social in Everyday, ending of back on business plan assignment track. Business terms may be more or less well assimilated into the common lexicon. You can test this by looking for writing custom annotations them in different dictionaries and seeing whether or not they appear as an entry, as with blue chip (a common stock that has consistently paid dividends over assignment, a long period of time); bundling (the grouping of several products and/or services into one package. It benefits buyers by condensing several purchases into one. Companies benefit by reducing the ability of consumers to compare individual product prices with those of competing companies.) The term is be cosic thesis, very common in relation to business plan assignment computer software, bundled with a machine for consumers to buy; cherry picking (purchasing products individually from Life, a variety of companies rather than as a bundle from one company)

At a series of presentations from bidders to supply products to plan assignment the Yorkshire and Humberside Regional Broadband Project (October 2000), each presenter in turn referred to his or her product as best of breed and brainstorming, most described a mutually advantageous arrangement as a win#45;win situation. The former metaphor is business plan assignment, taken from the Crufts annual dog show, but none of the presenters gave any hint of brainstorming, knowing this provenance, of relating their presentations to assignment it, or even that breed is a biological term, which they were applying to computer networks, hardware and software products. More recently, at a conference (February 2003, East Riding of Yorkshire), I heard almost every speaker refer to important things as key. A frequent collocation was key drivers #45; where drivers are influences or causes (key drivers of change and so on). Later I heard reference to key players which mixes metaphors from music (or locks) and sport: The early involvement of key players has enriched the curriculum. Speakers several times mentioned routeways in a metaphorical sense: All the routeways that they [learners] want and open up the routeways. Another image to suggest the do my online, idea of causing things to plan happen is be cosic thesis, trigger, so we heard of something that would be a trigger for partners collectively.

Deliver is a verb that has become fashionable to express the idea of making something happen or simply doing something #45; so one speaker referred to those who are actively engaged with delivering the concept. Since the late 1990s issues has become an all#45;purpose noun for abstract things, in contexts where earlier we might have seen matters. It is frequently joined by the verb address so that people address the issues #45; which usually means to assignment talk, think or do something about be cosic thesis some other things. Now issues has come also to denote things that concern one or call for special attention, in the simple phrase have issues, as in I have or she has issues around that. Less common but no less interesting are event horizon and plan, hedgehog concept.

As we sit on the brink of this 'event horizon' for equity markets, you should ask whether this 'black hole' we are entering will deliver us to a new dimension where bulls run freely, or will it tear the market, destroying what we've built up? The term comes from astrophysics, but entered popular use after the publication of Professor Stephen Hawking's A Brief History of Time . In the example above Don Wellenreiter continues the astrophysical theme with black hole and do my homework free, new dimension, then mixes it with the traditional bull image (as contrasted with a bear market) and finally a third idea of assignment, tearing something up. Hedgehog concept appears to be derived from Isaiah Berlin's essay The Hedgehog and the Fox (1953). Berlin writes: There is writing in spring, a line among the plan assignment, fragments of the Greek poet Archilochus which says: 'The fox knows many things, but the hedgehog knows one big thing'. Work Page Paper! The hedgehog concept is one that, if done extremely well and to the exclusion of business assignment, almost everything else, can help a person's career or a company's business achieve its full potential. Here's an brainstorming example:

Walgreens' hedgehog concept is to run the best, most convenient drug stores with high profit per customer visit, Jorndt continued. We know who we are and what we are all about plan assignment #45; running drug stores. We work like crazy to execute it in our stores. The notion of buzzwords arises from annotations in spring, a wish to plan subvert or ridicule the do my, pretentiousness and inelegance of much special lexis in business and management: . drones and peons are slyly mocking the new corporate culture #45; and their cliche#45;spouting bosses. One of their weapons is an underground game called buzzword bingo, which works like a surreptitious form of business assignment, regular bingo. Buzzwords #45; 'incent,' 'proactive, 'impactfulness,' for example #45; are preselected and placed on a bingo#45;like card in random boxes.

Players sit in meetings and conferences and silently check off buzzwords as their bosses spout them; the first to fill in a complete line wins. But, in deference to the setting, the winner typically coughs instead of shouting out 'bingo.' Buzzwords are particularly opaque when combined into phrases or longer structures #45; as in these examples from a satirical Web site. These use a basic structure and a range of metaphors: filter it though the cappuccino machine and see if it comes out frothy; run it up the flag pole and see who salutes it; throw a crumb in the cage and see if the budgie bites; let's put that in the lift and see which floor it stops at. It is hard to imagine anyone's using these phrases without a sense of their playfulness #45; and writing in spring, it is possible for people to invent new versions, following this basic formula: do X and see if/who/what/which etc. Here are some more words and phrases: assets#45;based assessment or approach best practices model democratising of information grass roots initiated if you'd like to climb into your helicopters so we can look at that from business assignment, above inclusiveness infrastructure leave it up to the man on the coalface management bandwidth measurable outcomes multi#45;sector need based or deficit assessment or approach non#45;duplicative/reduces duplication one stop shops outsourcing quality of life reflects cultural diversity/culturally sensitive scuba in your think#45;tank singing from the be cosic thesis, same hymn#45;sheet systems change awareness window of opportunity.

Are these words or phrases useful? Can you think of simpler or more direct alternatives? Why might people use these buzzwords in preference to business assignment more basic forms? In the armed services and some other organizations there may be defined rules for addressing someone by rank, title or name. In business, the practice may vary according to the organization's culture and the relative status of two speakers. Two modes of homework free, address that may be distinctive to business and management is the use of business, descriptive titles and be cosic thesis, of initials.

In some cases the title may reflect some kind of deference by the speaker, or recognition that the holder of the office is somehow dignified by it. Thus we speak of the business assignment, Director or the Chairman and address them directly as Director or [Mr./Madam] Chairman. Some people like to brainstorming use their initials rather than name or title, as with M. Gerbeau, the chief executive of the business plan, Millennium Dome, who liked to be known as P#45;Y: Pierre#45;Yves (he is custom annotations in spring, always called P#45;Y) Gerbeau is a remarkable man. BBC profile, December 2000. We can also think of the assignment, fictitious oil baron J.R. in the TV series Dallas or CJ, the communications officer in The West Wing . Quantization And Standardization Essay! The implication is assignment, that people in the organization know who he or she is, so that use of the quantization, initials is a form of respect or recognition. If one speaker uses title and business assignment, last name (TLN), and the other first name (FN) only, we infer difference in status. And Standardization Essay! The social superior (the FN speaker) may invite the inferior to assignment use FN in response. In some occupations holders of particular offices may use their job title: coach (in the USA), chairman and so on. Generic titles to indicate status are not as common as they were, especially in brainstorming, business, where we may speak about the boss but are less likely to address him or her directly as boss (chief and business assignment, guv are even less common). Business does not have a series of be cosic thesis, honorary titles in the way that the plan, courts and political institutions to, or ranks as in the armed services #45; sir may still be used, but does not have a very specific reference.

The guidance below is summarized from an article in the Guardian's Rise jobs supplement and a Web site (www.speakfirst.co.uk), which gives guidance on effective presentations: Fiddling with your tie is distracting and this, along with the stuttered 'ums' and 'ers', 'you knows 'and 'I means', will devalue your message and make you seem less confident.. When you're making a point, keep to it and don't digress. If you're a newcomer in be cosic thesis, a meeting do not become too cosy. Deal with interruptions. For example, say: Let me just finish this section, then I'll come back to that point. Ask questions How often have you. Can you remember a time when. Business Assignment! Use bridge words and phrases as well as; consequently; in closing.

Reiterate #45; repeat and go over important points. You can preface this with a rhetorical question: So what have I covered so far? Pausing can be very effective. It gives the audience a chance to work page mla research paper think about what is being said. It also gives the speaker an opportunity to breathe and business, think ahead. Michael Begeman, an anthropologist and computer scientist of the 3M Meeting Network, suggests that meetings should follow different structures, according to their purpose.

He suggests that meetings can be built around three kinds of conversation: for possibility, opportunity and for action . Conversations for possibility: The group acknowledges that it has come together to generate ideas, not to make decisions. Its goal is to maximize creativity. Conversations for opportunity: The goal is not to reach a final decision but to narrow down a range of options. People gather information, do some analysis, and take positions. Conversations for cited page action: The goal is to decide, to commit: We want to leave this room with our four development priorities for business 2004. Begeman suggests that the meeting should have what he calls rules of engagement #45; and translate implicit expectations into explicit agreements, about timing, and progress. You can even create rules of engagement about individual behavior. For example: Before anyone makes a point, that person has to find merit in the point made by the previous speaker. Social Interaction Life And! Or, the senior people in the meeting can speak only business plan, after the junior people have had a chance to express themselves. Quantization Of An! It's a pretty simple idea, really.

All you are trying to do is to plan make the invisible visible, to make the automatic deliberate. These. rules of engagement give people a chance to mla research design how they treat one another in meetings. Michael Begeman suggests, too, that though social talk may seem inefficient or a distraction, it can be fruitful in helping people relax or think creatively when the meeting proceeds to serious business. Assignment! You can find his article at: According to Mr. Nik at www.btinternet.com/ mr.nik/business, corporate language is fundamental to business communication principles. These principles include: Stating things in a way that makes them hard to argue with. Stating things in a way that makes you seem important and knowledgeable. Making sure what you say can't come back to haunt you. Repeating what your boss said, but trying to disguise it. nventing as many phrases for very good as possible.

Using warm, fluffy words to fool employees into being happy and fulfilled. This rather facetious description includes ideas familiar from pragmatics #45; such as conversational maxims and politeness or mirroring other people's speech. What Mr. Nik does not make clear #45; but pragmatic analysis does #45; is do my homework online, how one does these things. In fact, one need not try to disguise a repetition of business assignment, what another says, either in content or manner #45; since this often is in Everyday and, very effective in securing other people's cooperation.

It is possible to make some employees more contented at work, without any extra expense to the organization, by a change of job title #45; ideally one that suggests a more elevated status, without significant extra workload. Stating things in a way that makes you seem important and business assignment, knowledgeable is more problematic. Of An! Novel lexis can intimidate those who assume that their ignorance of the special forms or buzzwords is a mark of weakness. Business Plan Assignment! But it can easily excite ridicule among those who see it as pretentious, and are ready to cut through the vagueness or to challenge the speaker to use plain or direct forms #45; or who play buzzword bingo. As a technique for annotations in spring establishing some temporary advantage by confusing others, verbal inflation may work. But it does not help real understanding and collaboration, and plan assignment, impedes exchanges where people are trying to agree on a course of action to follow. Specimen exam questions from past papers.

I have not shown the texts used in some of the example questions #45; for two reasons: they come from sources which are protected by be cosic thesis copyright, and teachers may want to use the questions (from real past papers) for practice exams in school - so they won't want me to have shown them here. Text D is a transcript of part of a lesson at plan, a primary school. The teacher is do my homework free, discussing a visit made by an animal expert to business plan assignment the class on the previous day. Show by detailed reference to the transcript how both teacher and pupils demonstrate power in this discourse. The following text is be cosic thesis, a transcript of the business plan assignment, first part of a BBC Radio 4 interview by John Humphrys on quantization of an 5 May 2000. He is questioning Margaret Beckett MP about the local by#45;election results. Show by plan detailed reference to the transcript how both interviewer and interviewee demonstrate power and control in brainstorming, their discourse.

Note: JH = John Humphrys; MB = Margaret Beckett; () indicates a brief pause; underlining indicates emphasis in speech; italicised words between vertical lines indicate simultaneous speech; [laughs] in square brackets indicates that speaker laughs. The text printed on pages 6 and 7 is the first two pages from Our Children's Education #45; The Updated Parent's Charter , issued by the Department for plan Education and sent to every home in England. Show by detailed reference to the text how it demonstrates power and authority in its use of language. In your answer you should refer to any relevant research and to any frameworks you consider appropriate. The following text is be cosic thesis, a page from a leaflet published by Plan International UK, providing information about how to sponsor a child. Show by detailed reference to the text how it tries to make the plan, reader feel powerful. In your answer you should refer to cited relevant ideas from language study and to any frameworks you consider appropriate. Example texts with interpretation. Transcript of an advertisement for Head and Shoulders shampoo, broadcast on television in assignment, the early 1990s. WOMAN: Richard! (She is mla research, expressing surprise at business plan assignment, his arrival #45; perhaps he is do my, late #45; and his appearance.)

RICHARD: (Explaining both at once) The car! Richard goes to bathroom to wash oil from hands. He turns the tap with his elbow and looks in the mirror, noticing the Head and Shoulders shampoo bottle on the shelf beneath it. RICHARD: Head and Shoulders? (Half turns to address her over his shoulder) But you don't have dandruff! WOMAN: (Shakes hair to let it hang down; smiles to the camera) No #45; but I do have great looking hair! This advertisement has the discourse structure of TV dramatic narrative #45; it resembles a scene from a soap opera (appropriate, given the product).

The advertisement must be brief, so the plan assignment, narrative is compressed, and carried by the images as much as the quantization and standardization of an essay, dialogue. Plan Assignment! We can look at pragmatics within the narrative (how the characters speak to each other) and between us as the audience and the advertiser. Be Cosic Thesis! In the former case, we see that Richard suggests surprise and mild disapproval. His going into the bathroom without asking suggests that he is on friendly terms with the woman, though his surprise at business, the bottle of Head and Shoulders shows that he does not live with her. The car alone means nothing, but as a response to Richard, and be cosic thesis, coupled with the oily hands, it suggests some unspecified mechanical problem which Richard has put right, since he has now arrived. Moving out of the business, advert and looking at Social in Everyday, its relationship with the audience, we see that the writer expects us to know the conventions of naturalistic television drama, so we know how to read the scene. The writer uses the common lexicon of everyday speech #45; with the exception of the proper noun for the brand name, Head and Shoulders. The last line of dialogue, however, includes the three#45;word slogan (great looking hair) that runs through the whole campaign #45; which included similar stories featuring other characters.

This is not a transcript of natural speech, and thus avoids irrelevant or incomplete utterances #45; if these were real people, then their conversation would be exemplary in observing the cooperative principle . It is, of business assignment, course, scripted dramatic dialogue. Life! The grammar is marked by minor sentences #45; one of one word and another of two, though with more implied #45; so Richard may suggest Richard, you're late and your hands are covered in oil while The car suggests I'm sorry I'm late, the car had a problem but I've fixed it now. Plan! The last two lines of dialogue are more literary #45; especially the but before you don't have dandruff where Richard is effectively responding to in Everyday Life and the idea that the woman might have suffered from business plan assignment, dandruff, since she is using Head and quantization of an, Shoulders. Second example - political rhetoric. From President John F. Kennedy's Inaugural Address, Friday, January 20, 1961. We dare not forget today that we are the heirs of that first revolution. Let the word go forth from this time and place, to friend and foe alike, that the torch has been passed to business a new generation of Americans #45; born in this century, tempered by war, disciplined by quantization a hard and bitter peace, proud of our ancient heritage #45; and unwilling to witness or permit the slow undoing of those human rights to which this Nation has always been committed, and to assignment which we are committed today at quantization and standardization of an, home and around the world. Let every nation know, whether it wishes us well or ill, that we shall pay any price, bear any burden, meet any hardship, support any friend, oppose any foe, in order to assure the survival and the success of liberty.

To those old allies whose cultural and spiritual origins we share, we pledge the loyalty of faithful friends. United, there is little we cannot do in a host of cooperative ventures. Divided, there is business assignment, little we can do #45; for we dare not meet a powerful challenge at odds and split asunder. To our sister republics south of our border, we offer a special pledge #45; to convert our good words into good deeds #45; in writing custom, a new alliance for assignment progress #45; to assist free men and free governments in casting off the chains of poverty. But this peaceful revolution of hope cannot become the prey of hostile powers. Let all our neighbors know that we shall join with them to oppose aggression or subversion anywhere in the Americas. And let every other power know that this Hemisphere intends to remain the master of its own house.

Many familiar rhetorical devices mark this text: antithetic and synonymous parallelism , lists of custom, three and complex patterning (structures within structures). There are metaphors, imperative verbs and parentheses . The speech opens with a direct address to some special guests and the audience more generally #45; both locally present and business, listening to the broadcast #45; it will end by including all of brainstorming, these together as my fellow Americans. So the assignment, President first shows respect for the status of the do my homework free online, distinguished guests, then cleverly reduces them all to the common level of business plan assignment, citizens of the great republic #45; making them seem all equal, as they are before God. Custom! At once we see uses of antithetic parallelism. The first antithesis is in a not. but structure. (There are several in business plan assignment, this extract: can you find them all?) . we observe today not a victory of party, but a celebration of freedom.

while the next comes in two pairs (end and beginning; renewal and homework free online, change) . symbolizing an end, as well as a beginning #45; signifying renewal, as well as change. Conjunctive for is used almost adverbially . The written text gives an indication of the pauses in speech #45; and President Kennedy completes sentences (twice) before starting others with for, that serves as comment on what precedes it: For I have sworn. and For man holds in his mortal hands. We see how the President begins a series of sentences with the object of the main verb, where the subject is always we (as in the American people) #45; so each sentence follows the pattern: To X we say or do A, B and business assignment, C . In this section we find a list of six groups of people whom the President apostrophises: old allies, new (friendly) states, people in huts and villages (the developing world), sister republics (in Central and South America) and do my homework online, the United Nations . But the sixth group differs #45; these are the business assignment, potential enemies to whom the President offers a warning. It appears that he is speaking to be cosic thesis these various groups, but this is only a secondary concern (insofar as his speech will be reported in these places). In reality he is plan, speaking to the people of the USA here #45; and letting them know his view of these other places in the world.

The language has a stately allusive quality that comes from echoing the style of the English bible #45; so we read four times imperative verb clauses beginning let #45; reminding us of be cosic thesis, how God said Let there be light, while the word has an echo of the opening of plan assignment, Saint John's Gospel. (Later in the speech, Kennedy uses the gospel image of the light of the do my online, world.) Let the word go forth and let every nation know could almost (though they do not) come from the Bible #45; the lexis is timeless here, and both forth and nation are words we meet throughout the Old Testament in versions in the King James tradition, such as the plan, American Revised Standard Version of the Bible. As well as the Bible, the President alludes to the Declaration of Independence in referring to the rights of man that come from the hand of God. Homework Free! (Note how he speaks of plan, God without hesitation, in vivid Old Testament terms, as having a hand #45; whether this is of an, a metaphor or meant literally.) And he alludes to business assignment Rousseau's famous statement (that man is work page, born free but everywhere in chains), and slightly alters its application so that the business plan assignment, chains do not come from simple political or legal oppression, but from being poor. He promises: . to assist free men and free governments in casting off the chains of poverty. Social Interaction Life And! The President uses simple verbal embellishment in the repetition of sound ( alliteration ) in lines like: writ may run and business plan assignment, dark powers of destruction. Frequently the lines have a metrical scansion : For man holds in his mortal hands the Social Interaction in Everyday Life, power. and . have far outpaced the instruments of peace. are both true iambic pentameters. We find other metres in . born in this century, tempered by war. and . to strengthen its shield of the new and business, the weak. In Everyday! The lexis of the speech comes from everyday speech #45; there are no specialist or obscure terms. And most are simple structurally #45; like a good poet he uses monosyllabic and two#45;syllable words: Let the word go forth. opens a sequence of plan assignment, twenty monosyllables and a solitary two#45;syllable word (alike). His images are vivid and concrete #45; the hand of God, riding the tiger, handing on a torch, casting off chains and strengthening a shield. Third example - courtroom dialogue. Extract from the transcript of David Irving's High Court action against Penguin Books and Deborah Lipstadt.

MR JUSTICE GRAY: I saw the report. I did not read it. What about it are you concerned? MR IRVING: Very well, my Lord. Clearly, it would be improper for any of the parties in this case to start putting hand outs to the press in do my homework free online, the way I appreciate the law is on contempt which would disadvantage the other party.

MR IRVING: #45; for the next hour, shall we say? Firstly, there will be no more traps being sprung. I am sure that the Professor will appreciate advance notification. There are no more hidden booby#45;traps or mines, but I am going to be dwelling briefly on crematorium No. II still for assignment a while because I believe the Professor wishes to quantization and standardization of an essay make certain comments on plan what I said yesterday. In this part of the trial before Mr. Justice Gray, David Irving attends to two kinds of do my homework, business: first, to question the reporting of the trial in newspapers, to ask the business, judge to Social in Everyday consider the possibility that this may influence the outcome of the process, and second, to outline the business plan, part of his case that he will present next.

The exchange is marked by Interaction Life and formal expressions of courtesy #45; and, on assignment David Irving's part, deference to the judge, yet these do not really interfere with an efficient taking of turns, and writing custom annotations, a high degree of business, relevance in the way the exchanges proceed. If we can call this a conversation, then it observes the maxims of quality, quantity and relevance very well. (Usually, if an exchange in court does not observe one or more of these, the judge will intervene. Relevance is perhaps most important; quality and quantity may depend more on the judge's discretion and attitude to the speaker.) Beneath this, we can see a struggle for power. David Irving invites Mr. Justice Gray to make some allowance for reporting of the case (which Irving believes to be hostile to him) #45; in effect, he attempts to be cosic thesis direct the judge in his conduct of the business plan assignment, trial. Mr. Justice Gray, firmly but courteously, tells David Irving that his particular plea is of no account, but in doing so also reasserts his own direction of the legal process.

How does this work? Irving identifies a connection between mischievous and inaccurate reporting and public hostility to himself. (This is work cited paper, plausible: he may be a Holocaust denier or a racist, but it is business assignment, possible for the reporters to exaggerate or distort the true account of his racism.) From this premise he moves to the conclusion: This clearly disadvantages me. But at once he contradicts this apparently firm statement with the of an, recognition that the judge is trying the case without a jury, so the only public opinion that affects the outcome is his (the judge's) own. Mr. Justice Gray's reply is, on business plan the surface, a firm rebuttal of the possibility of his being influenced by the reporting: Really, what matters here for my purposes is whether I am going to be influenced by it and, as I have not read it, I will not be.

There is a hint of ridicule or sarcasm here #45; as the Social Interaction, judge points out what appears to be a truism or statement of the obvious: he cannot be affected by what he has not read. Business! In saying this, he is saying rather more #45; that it is not for David Irving to alert him (the judge) to be cosic thesis possible abuses or contempts of the court. It is business, precisely the brainstorming, judge's rôle (among other things) to business plan assignment decide such matters, with the benefit of his expert knowledge of the legal process. In saying . that really is a sort of fact of life that you just have to put up with. Mr. Quantization Essay! Justice Gray is drawing a distinction between a kind of rough treatment that anyone in such a case can expect to plan suffer from the brainstorming, press and a serious contempt or indiscretion in the reporting that might in some way interfere with the process of the law. (This has happened notoriously in many high#45;profile jury trials.) The judge is effectively telling David Irving to be a bit tougher, and business plan assignment, making clear that it is for him (the judge) to say when any unfair play may affect the trial. Perhaps he is aware of his robustness in dealing with David Irving's expression of worry, as he attempts some mitigation #45; inviting Irving, should anything appear that really does disturb him, to mention this. Be Cosic Thesis! This is formally polite #45; but seems insincere, as he has just dismissed Irving's existing account of business assignment, what really disturbs him. It allows the judge to move onto the real business of the trial.

When David Irving offers to outline the next part of his case, Mr. Justice Gray responds very differently from what has gone before. Brainstorming! I would find that very helpful is formally polite and may really be so (it seems sincere). Now that David Irving is plan assignment, falling into his appointed rôle in the trial, then the judge is happy #45; not least because the whole process moves on, whereas the protests about the reporting have threatened to delay the trial proper. Given the nature of Social Interaction in Everyday and, this trial and the excited reporting of which David Irving has earlier complained we may be struck by the formal politeness of the outline, in business assignment, which Irving expresses a concern to be cosic thesis treat his opponent in the case (the defendant, Professor Deborah Lipstadt) with fairness. There seems, however, to business be some history implied in what he says. In mentioning no more traps being sprung, he evidently appeals to do my homework free online shared knowledge at least between himself and the judge (but probably also by the defendant) of some earlier traps. Since he gives the judge this reassurance, we may ask why? Why deprive himself of a potential stratagem? One possible reason is that the plan assignment, judge has rebuked him previously for presenting evidence without giving the defendant's counsel notice of cited page paper, this.

So now he is really reassuring the judge that he will follow the proper procedures and etiquette #45; or asking the judge for an endorsement of the plan assignment, way he proposes to present the work page mla research paper, next part of his case. The judge's approval is not, of course, in any sense an approval of David Irving's case. It is an approval of his complying with the business assignment, expected procedure in presenting his case. Irving moves to a very specific outline of points of detail, identifying particular people whose testimony forms part of the accepted record of the do my free online, Holocaust. Finally (in this extract) he refers to alleged gassing facilities at business plan, Auschwitz. Do My Homework Online! Given that part of his case relies on questioning the historic accuracy of accounts of genocide at Auschwitz, this seems logical, if shocking to the ears of people who do not question the Holocaust.

But it may not help influence the judge's opinion in his favour, as it is likely to excite a strong emotional reaction. That is, here his argument is not there was a Holocaust and Professor Lipstadt is wrong in business assignment, saying I denied it but I cannot have denied what never happened #45; in effect, he is repeating the denial in court. We refer to an alleged crime or misdemeanour while a defendant is on in Everyday Life and trial, because we presume him or her to be innocent until proved otherwise. And if he or she is found not guilty, then, had we referred to the crime (without any alleged) we would have slandered the innocent suspect. But the gassing of Jews at Auschwitz is not something that we attribute to anyone on trial now. (There were historic trials, and people were found guilty of war crimes.) So Irving's use of alleged here is intended to challenge the common belief that gassing really happened in Auschwitz. It may be enough, of course, for David Irving to show merely that it is not absolutely certain that the Holocaust happened #45; as this would make Professor Lipstadt's accusation seem libellous, as if she has called him a denier whereas he is really a doubter, only. So the surface courtesy may conceal the business, momentous nature of the trial. Professor Lipstadt has called him a Holocaust denier because she wants people to be aware of denial as a technique of historical interpretation, and, in do my homework free, a real sense, pass a moral judgement or condemn those who do it. Business Plan! David Irving, meanwhile, intends to submit statements about history to the same kind of brainstorming, legal scrutiny which applies in trials where the witness statements are made in court and refer to the conduct of those being tried. In representing himself, David Irving does not (apparently) understand how to conduct his case in all respects. He has a rather shallow sense of how to do so, by business plan assignment aping the formal address he has noticed from counsel in observing trials #45; so we note how he calls Mr.

Justice Gray my lord rather easily, and twice in successive answers uses the formula very well, my lord. Fourth example - parliamentary exchanges. This is an extract from brainstorming, Hansard. It is a report of Oral Answers to Questions on Foreign and Commonwealth affairs. Business! The questions are put to Mr. Jack Straw (Secretary of quantization and standardization of an, State) and Mr. Mike O'Brien (Parliamentary Under#45;Secretary) Richard Ottaway (Croydon, South): Does the Foreign Secretary agree that dialogue is the best way to combat terrorism?

Bearing that in mind, why did he decline to meet Mr. Netanyahu when he was in London? 21 Jan 2003 : Column 151. Mr. O'Brien: I will pass on my hon. Friend's thanks to the high commissioner.

We are following closely the circumstances in business assignment, Bangladesh and particularly the arrests of some journalists and opposition leaders. We welcome the release of Hussein Chaudry and others. Social Interaction In Everyday! Democracy means allowing disagreement and debate, and in Bangladesh that means that the Awami league as well as the Bangladesh Nationalist party must have the right to voice their opinions. We have raised our concerns informally with the Bangladesh authorities, and will continue to do so. I will write to my hon. Friend on the issue of the indemnity Bill.

Surat Miah, who was killed at Dhaka airport, was a British resident but not a British national. We have let the Bangladesh authorities know that there is business plan assignment, widespread concern about the case in this country, and we have made representations in that regard. The transcript here uses some conventions, such as hon. where the speaker says honourable. All the of an essay, participants observe the business plan assignment, convention of indirect speech among themselves, mediated through the Social in Everyday and, Speaker #45; so they always use the third person pronouns or a title : not Do you agree that. Business Plan! but Does the Foreign Secretary agree that. Of An Essay! Where there is a choice of a pronoun (he/him) or a title, we find the assignment, speakers mostly use the latter. Brainstorming! You can check this for yourself. How often does anyone say he/she/him/her?

How often does anyone use a descriptive title in referring to another #45; Foreign Secretary, (right) hon. Friend, Minister and so on? We note that the plan assignment, questioners often open their questions with a subordinate clause , expressing some condition or qualification of the question: Given that the military wing of the Palestinian Authority. claims responsibility . and be cosic thesis, Following the business plan, reported human rights abuses. We note, too, how some of the questions are not really requests for essay new information, but an invitation to endorse a statement that the questioner makes: does X accept that/agree that. Mr. Assignment! Ottaway asks two questions.

But the second presupposes that Mr. Straw has answered the brainstorming, first by agreeing with the suggested statement #45; which Mr. Business! Straw plainly has not done. So in Mr. Ottway's Bearing that in mind, that refers to online the suggested maxim that dialogue is the plan, best way to combat terrorism. Writing Annotations! Mr. Straw does not endorse the suggestion, nor does he refute it.

Instead he evades both questions by saying that he did not meet Mr. Netanyahu (on the assignment, later occasion) because he had done so already on homework online an earlier occasion. In doing this, Mr. Business Plan Assignment! Straw mitigates the suggestion of discourtesy to the Israeli Minister (Mr. Netanyahu), by producing evidence of earlier courtesy.

At the same time, he avoids giving any recent or continued indication of approval of Mr. Netanyahu. In this respect, the mention of the very good lunch becomes relevant. We do not need to know that there was a lunch (of whatever quality) to and establish whether Mr. Plan Assignment! Straw did or did not meet him. But the work cited mla research paper, mention of the lunch will appear as a tangible proof that the meeting happened, and that Mr. Straw recalls this circumstantial detail #45; whereas he cannot, or will not, say anything about the content of the meeting in terms of who said what to whom. The junior minister supports this account by recalling the lunch. He appears to be giving evidence to plan assignment the House that this is what indeed happened.

But, once more, they do not need someone's recollection of a meal to prove it. Mr. O'Brien is not so much telling the House about what happened, but signalling solidarity with his boss, the Secretary of State. Mrs. King initially asks an open question about the Minister's assessment. of the situation in Bangladesh. She does not (as earlier questioners do with Mr.

Straw) immediately invite Mr. O'Brien to brainstorming agree with some statement of hers. In allowing him to give an answer that she has not suggested to him, she may be establishing trust in the conversation #45; he can see that he is not having words put into his mouth. Next Mrs. King secures even more cooperation, in expressing gratitude to the servant of the plan, crown, the British Ambassador. This is in question form , but is really a statement (to the question, May I thank. no answer of yes or no is possible, except as a comic non#45;sequitur).

Having secured, Mr. O'Brien's cooperation, Mrs. King moves to a series of three questions #45; of which the first is open, but which she effectively reduces to the two specific requests that follow. Brainstorming! That is, she may seem to ask what (which may be anything at all) the Government is business, doing about democracy in Bangladesh. But really she is asking whether Mr.

O'Brien will do two very specific things: to ask the Bangladesh government about the killing of do my free online, a British resident, and whether he will write to her on a particular bill (a proposed piece of new legislation). Mr. O'Brien answers both questions clearly and fully #45; observing conversational maxims of quality, quantity and relevance . He changes the order, as the second question needs only a yes or no (he says yes #45; he will write to Mrs. King). Business Plan Assignment! There is more to say about Surat Miah #45; and Mr. Quantization! O'Brien appears to be well informed about the plan assignment, details of Mr. Do My Free! Miah's death.

This extract does not support a common view of Parliamentary exchanges. It does not appear to plan be aggressive or confrontational, and we find Mr. Straw and Mr. O'Brien agreeing with some things, and not adopting a position on party lines. On the other hand, there is a huge difference between the very serious and Interaction, informed answer to Louise Ellman and the seemingly facetious response to Richard Ottaway.

Does Mr. Straw do this because he is speaking to a man, who can take this kind of humour? Or is it a device to evade Mr. Ottaway's trap #45; which is to business plan assignment give Mr. Straw two choices, neither of which he can accept: If he says that he did not want to be cosic thesis meet Mr. Business! Netanyahu, he may offend the Israeli state.

If he expresses approval of Mr. Netanyahu, he may appear to support Israel's policy in work page paper, Palestine and offend Arab and Muslim opinion. When the subject of the plan assignment, questions changes from Palestine to Bangladesh, the Secretary of State hands the mla research paper, speaking turn to his Minister #45; but Mr. O'Brien establishes some continuity with Mr. Straw in that, before answering Mrs. King's question, he backs up Mr. Business Plan Assignment! Straw's story about the be cosic thesis, good lunch. The exchanges are marked by frequent use of modal verbs may and will. Generally, the business plan, speech is quite expansive #45; whoever holds a turn is able to speak at writing custom in spring, some length without interruption. The comment on the good lunch is therefore rather untypical in its brevity.

Either Mr. Straw has a gift for witty improvisation, or he has anticipated the business plan assignment, question and prepared the answer, whereas elsewhere he and Mr. O'Brien are developing their responses as he makes them #45; the quantization essay, component phrases are sometimes elegant, often familiar collocations , and assignment, they are arranged loosely without elaborate rhetorical patterns. We can see a string of be cosic thesis, such collocations in horror and repulsion. unnecessary and assignment, gratuitous. effective control. terrorist organizations. Mr.

O'Brien's made representations in that regard is an example of a diplomatic or bureaucratic register #45; in more demotic speech this equates simply to a statement that the UK government has asked the Bangladesh government about writing custom Mr. Miah's death. In fact, since it follows the statement We have let the plan, Bangladesh authorities know that there is widespread concern about the brainstorming, case in this country, it appears to be a repetition of the initial clause #45; how much difference is there between letting someone know a thing and making representations about plan it? Perhaps there is a slight distinction between informing Bangladesh that people in the UK are bothered about Mr. Miah's death and their asking the in spring, Bangladesh authorities to take some action. Ultimately, in that regard is ambiguous #45; since it may mean either that the UK government has made representations about Mr.

Miah's death in itself or about the widespread concern in the UK over the killing. Can I print this guide and photocopy it? This guide is free for individual users - for example, teachers or students working from home - in any part of the world. Business Plan! You can print out the brainstorming, guide, but it is not ideal for plan printing and photocopying, and in spring, may run to business assignment many more pages than you expect. If you are working in a school or college, you may purchase a high-quality printed version optimized for multiple photocopying. The cost of the printed version includes permission for unlimited reproduction within your institution - if you expect to Interaction Life make multiple copies, this will probably save on plan your bulk photocopying and printing costs. Cited Page Paper! To obtain the printed guide, contact: ZigZag Education and Computing Centre Publications Greenway Business Centre Doncaster Road Bristol BS10 5PY Tel: +44 (0)117 950 3199. Click on the link to business go to the ZigZag Education Web site:

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