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Persuasive essay letter

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Boo-yah this: #39;Lazy Portfolios#39; beat #39;Mad Money#39; Published: Nov 13, 2007 9:48 a.m. ET. Why waste 15 hours a week and lose a $72,000 'opportunity cost?' This column, originally published Nov. 6, has been updated with a link to persuasive letter Jim Cramer's response. ARROYO GRANDE, Calif. (MarketWatch) -- Last week I finally listened to the Mad Money show for a full hour.

When channel surfing in the past I'd move on after 30 seconds. It's about as educational as Saturday morning cartoons. Gmat Essay Test? What I heard was a manic distraction for addicted personalities. But there I was, alone in the car on a five-hour trip back home. So I made a conscious decision to persuasive essay letter listen to the entire show, first time (and last!). Oh god, what torture, I screamed aloud somewhere near Gilroy, the garlic capital of the world: This is crazy-making, what a waste of time!

Of course that was the voice of a research paper, passive investors coming out from deep within my soul, speaking for the 90 million American investors who don't have the time to waste watching this inane entertainment program that's brainwashing innocent minds, repeating the dot-com drumbeat of the late 1990s. Persuasive Essay Letter? Seriously, most folks have real jobs that take up most of their time, real families, real outside interests, real lives to essay live. Fortunately many Americans have figured out that active trading is a dead-end street. Persuasive Letter? Remember University of California-Davis finance Profs. Terry Odean and Brad Barber and their famous study of 66,400 accounts at a major Wall Street brokerage?

They concluded that transaction costs, fees and taxes ate much of the pretax returns: The more you trade the less you earn. Active traders actually made a third less than passive buy-and-holders. And it's still true. OK, assuming you're one of America's 2 million to 5 million fairly active traders, calm down. I know you're dismissing what I said. Gmat Essay? But stick with me for a minute. Take a deep breath before you fire off a nasty email. Quash those emotions and persuasive essay, let's look at this another way.

Figure your 'opportunity cost' of trading. You already know that the Odean and Barber research tells us that traders are running the race with a huge handicap. Purpose? So, let's quantify traders' opportunity cost, the economic cost of an opportunity foregone when they spend time playing by persuasive essay letter Mad Money rules (or any other trading game). Gmat? In short, what's your time worth if you watch Mad Money daily and persuasive essay, do the homework Cramer recommends? Jim Cramer's a brilliant trader. I interviewed him in the late 1990s when he was a hedge fund manager. Elements Of Research And Thesis? He didn't like my criticism of the Mutual Fund Derby Race on, of which he was one of the founders. Said I was over the top.

That was at a time when a competing dart-throwing chimpanzee's index called Monkeydex was beating America's top funds. The fact is, what was over the top was TheStreet's manic racetrack imagery that encouraged passive investors to start trading funds, only to rue the day a couple years later when the market tanked and lost $8 trillion in a three-year bear/recession. That was bad media. And last week's Mad Money program is the essay same kind of subtle brainwashing that's misleading passive investors unconsciously into high-risk trading. Vs Authority? Work the numbers. Cramer's emphatic: Do your homework, the essay letter right homework. That can mean many things, depending on your approach to stock research. But one thing's certain, Cramer says: Doing homework could take as much as an hour per week per position. But when he says that to investors, they look at me as if I am some kind of old-fashioned teacher who is asking for way too much in this busy world in which we live. Vs Authority? That's just plain wrong.

Good advice. But the essay one hour daily Mad Money show is such a manic wisecracking racetrack mentality with funny costumes, bizarre sound effects and boo-yah cheers that it totally undercuts the publish a research paper subtlety of doing passive homework. It's more like a hard-sell infomercial to get you to buy a trading system guaranteed to make you a successful trader. Except Mad Money is drawing people into a new 2007 Derby Race, targeting traders with the minds of kids chasing instant gratification. Read Jim Cramer's response. Essay? 'Mad Money's' wasted 'opportunity cost' Here's the hard facts folks: How to quantify the economic opportunity cost of the gmat practice Mad Money game. Cramer's right, you must do serious analysis of your positions.

OK, so for five hours a week he overwhelms your mind with tons of opportunities. Let's say that somehow, when the smoke clears, you have 10 positions. Now let's do the math in letter this simple economic equation: If you're following Prof. Cramer's rules and power vs authority, doing your homework you're watching Mad Money five hours a week and doing another 10 hours of persuasive essay letter, homework on your positions. That's potentially 60 hours of your valuable time each month, on top of on autumn, your full-time job. Assuming you're a professional or business executive, let's say your time's worth $100 per hour, probably more. So, bottom line: Your economic opportunity lost for 60 hours is at least $6,000 a month or $72,000 a year, playing by persuasive letter Mad Money rules.

Get it folks? Your time is valuable. If you're worth a minimum of apa style references, $100 an hour and you spend 60 hours a week on any activity, you darn well better be earning at least $72,000 a year. Persuasive Essay? And to make that kind of essay, money at, say, 15% a year you'd need more than $400,000 capital at risk. Persuasive Essay Letter? My guess is that most of the Mad Money audience takes the easy route: They just go emotionally gaga over basic of research paper some of Cramer's manic stock picking and buy some, without doing the necessary hours of homework. 'Lazy portfolios' outperform 'Mad Money' The vast majority of persuasive letter, American investors, probably 95%, will likely never waste their valuable time playing Mad Money's new Racing Derby, watching and doing all the necessary homework. The odds aren't very good anyway: the unofficial tracking site says Cramer's chance of making a wrong call is about 42%. That means that nearly half the time you may be misled. How about portfolio performance? says the essay 30-day average return on the Cramer Index was 14.90% on persuasive Nov. 2, though undoubtedly much less on an after-tax basis. Basic? The Web site tracks a Jim Cramer index of more than 1,600 stocks. Essay Letter? You can find data on Cramer's individual stock picks on, a staggering 3,000 from the prior three months -- about elements of research, 50 a day. But to essay letter get a peek at some of his portfolio data you have to subscribe to apa style unpublished his service for $400 a year.

Now suppose you're a full-time teacher, cop, attorney or entrepreneur running your own business. You don't have an extra 60 hours a month. Or maybe you're already a nervous active trader whose family wants more quality time, and isn't making that $72,000 breakeven ROI for persuasive letter, your valuable time. So, compare the lazy portfolios: They require almost no time, so you can continue making money on your job plus add some nice passive money from your customized lazy portfolio, without wasting the opportunity cost on basic elements paper trading. See how the lazy portfolios stacked up in essay letter the third quarter. Elements Of Research Paper? True, only five of our eight lazy portfolios return more than the 14.9% from Mad Money's active trading. But that is letter giving Cramer a tremendous benefit of the doubt, since the publish a research paper lazy portfolio returns are computed as an persuasive essay letter annual gain and apa style unpublished, the Cramer index is a 30-day moving average. On Sept. 17, for persuasive essay, example, that average was closer to 9%. Even with that edge, the gmat lazy portfolios stack up well. The Aronson Family Portfolio's one-year return of 23.5% is beating Mad Money's number by a wide margin.

And the lazy fees, taxes and transaction costs are less than with active trading, if you reflect on the Odean-Barber research. And even more embarrassing, the persuasive essay letter passive three-fund Second Grader's Starter Portfolio is also beating the CramerProject Index, 19.5% to purpose and form 14.9%. And that kid's a full-time student, so he doesn't have time to persuasive letter watch Mad Money. Plus he's doing some real homework and it looks like he's already learned a valuable lesson that goes over the heads of the Mad Money crowd: The more you trade the less you earn! Boo-yah! Paul B. Farrell is a MarketWatch columnist based in San Luis Obispo, Calif. Publish? Follow him on Twitter @MKTWFarrell. Paul B. Persuasive Essay Letter? Farrell is a MarketWatch columnist based in San Luis Obispo, Calif. Publish Paper? Follow him on Twitter @MKTWFarrell. Join the conversation.

Copyright 2017 MarketWatch, Inc. All rights reserved.

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paracha bo resume Hashem ordeno a Moshe advertir al Faraon acerca de la octava Plaga que El causaria a los Egipcios. “Di al Faraon,?No suele alguien que invita a un huesped esforzarse el mismo para asistirlo en toda forma posible? A pesar de ello despues de que tu invitaste a los Judios como huespedes a tu pais, los disuadiste a servirte y finalmente los hiciste tus esclavos y los oprimiste amargamente. Essay Letter! ?Yo juro que tu probaras esa mismisima amargura por haber cambiado tan vergonzosamente tu conducta hacia los Benei Israel!”. Descriptive On Autumn! 1. Moshe y Aharon transmitieron el mensaje de Hashem al Faraon. Persuasive Essay Letter! Ellos le advirtieron, “Asi dice Hashem, Di-s de los Hebreos, ‘Si tu aun rehusas dejar ir a Mi pueblo, Yo traere langostas dentro de tus fronteras manana.

Ellas devoraran el trigo y el espelto que fueron eximidos del Granizo. Basic Of Research! 2 Las langostas llenaran tus casas y las casas de tus sirvientes y todo Egipto. Letter! ?Sera una plaga cuyo parecido nunca fue experimentado por tus padres y los padres de tus padres!”’. Moshe comunico el mensaje y noto que los sirvientes del Faraon se echaban miradas entre si- aparentemente creian sus palabras esta vez. And Form! El se retiro por algun tiempo para darles la oportunidad de discutir la situacion entre si mismos y hacer teshuva.3 “Sed sensato,” los sirvientes aconsejaron al Faraon. Letter! “?Cuanto tiempo debe este hombre continuar siendo una amenaza para nosotros? Si la Plaga de Langostas nos golpea, nosotros estamos destinados a morir de hambre.4 Poned a todos los Judios en libertad para que ellos adoren a su Di-s; ?No os dais cuenta de que Egipto esta perdido?”. El Faraon despacho un mensajero para traer a Moshe y Aharon de regreso al palacio. Purpose! 5 Les dijo, “?id servid a vuestro Di-s! ?Quienes seran las personas que iran?”.

Moshe respondio, “Nosotros iremos con nuestros jovenes y nuestros ancianos, con nuestros hijos y nuestras hijas, nuestras ovejas y nuestro ganado. Essay! Al igual que todos nosotros os servimos a vos, asi nosotros todos serviremos a Hashem.” 6 “Solo hombres ofrecen sacrificios,” objeto el Faraon. Purpose Essay! “?Para que proposito vosotros necesitais a los ninos? Debeis estar planeando escapar, y Yo no puedo escucharos. Persuasive Essay! No penseis que vuestro plan de llevar a los Judios al desierto tendra exito. And Form Essay! Soy un experto astrologo, y veo a la estrella Ra ‘a cerniendose sobre el pueblo Judio en el desierto. Persuasive! Esa estrella significa sangre. Purpose And Form! ?Vosotros todos perecereis miserablemente en el desierto!”. Cuando los Benei Israel escucharon las ominosas palabras del Faraon, temblaron. De hecho, el Faraon estaba acertado al predecir que la estrella Ra’a simbolizaba sangre para el pueblo Judio.

Mas el no sabia que Hashem convertiria la Sangre de Muerte en la Sangre del brit mila comandando a los Benei Israel a circuncidarse a si mismos antes de entrar a Eretz Israel. Letter! 7. El Faraon previo cual seria la suerte de K’lal Israel de acuerdo con las leyes de la astrologia las cuales son las leyes de la naturaleza. Power! En verdad, Hashem elevo el destino de K’lal Israel sobre las estrellas y los condujo a traves del desierto con milagros. Essay Letter! 8. El Faraon dio ordenes de arrojar a Moshe y Aharon fuera del palacio. Hashem entonces ordeno a Moshe extender su mano. Descriptive Essay Season! Inmediatamente, un poderoso viento del este comenzo a soplar. Essay! Continuo soplando el dia entero y la noche. Publish A Research Paper! Al fin de la noche, trajo enjambres de langostas sobre Egipto. Letter! Hashem demoro la Plaga hasta el fin de la noche en la esperanza de que los Egipcios pudieran aun cambiar su opinion.

9. La vision de nubes de langostas descendiendo sobre Egipto no entristecio a los Egipcios sino, por el contrario, los alegro. Gmat Practice Test! “?Estas langostas haran alimentos deliciosos de conservas de langostas!” se regocijaron. Letter! “?Nosotros las pondremos dentro de barriles, las salaremos, y nos las comeremos!”. Purpose And Form Essay! La razon por la cual estaban tan felices era que estaban al borde de la inanicion. Persuasive Essay Letter! La Pestilencia habia exterminado sus animales para que no se pudiera obtener carne, y la Plaga del Granizo habia destruido toda provision de fruta y vegetales. References Unpublished! 10. Estas langostas no eran insectos ordinarios. Persuasive Letter! Eran un ejercito de insectos maravillosos, milagrosamente equipados con organos especiales para herir y matar a los Egipcios. Gmat Practice! Poseian dientes como el acero, cuernos semejantes a aquellos de bueyes, garras como leones, alas como aguilas, y colas sibilantes como culebras.

Saltaban a los rostros de los Egipcios y taladraban sus ojos con sus garras. Essay Letter! Su saliva era veneno mortal; cuandoquiera que ella se derramaba sobre un Egipcio, el inmediatamente moria. Practice! 11. Las langostas eran literalmente insaciables. Persuasive Essay Letter! No solo consumian los arboles y la hierba, sino incluso brincaban dentro de las casas de los Egipcios y devoraban su joyeria, ropas, y articulos preciados.Habia tantas de ellas que oscurecieron el cielo, cubrieron la superficie de la tierra y obstruyeron los pozos. Essay Practice! Ellas devoraron todo en Egipto de modo que para el fin de la Plaga, ni una sola hoja o brizna de hierba fue dejada en la tierra entera.

12. ? Por que fueron los Egipcios afligidos con esta Plaga? Hashem los estaba castigando mida- kenegued- mida por haber forzado a los Benei Israel a sembrar sus cosechas. Persuasive Essay! Ahora las langostas devoraron todo lo que los Benei Israel habian sembrado. Publish! 13 Ademas, luego de la Plaga del Granizo, los Egipcios creyeron que ellos se beneficiarian de las frutas que cayeron al suelo cuando las piedras de granizo destrozaron los arboles. Persuasive Letter! Hashem por consiguiente envio a las langostas a consumir cualquier cosa comestible que habia sido arrojada al suelo por el Granizo. Purpose And Form! 14.

El Faraon apresuradamente convoco a Moshe y Aharon, confesando, “?Yo peque contra Hashem vuestro Di-s y contra vosotros! ?Perdonadme ami solo esta unica vez, e implorad a Hashem que El me alivie de las Langostas que nos causan a nosotros muerte por inanicion!”. Letter! 15. Cuando Moshe oro, Hashem trajo un fuerte viento del oeste. Apa Style References! Con una sola rafaga, el se llevo todas las langostas y las arrojo en el 1am SuJ. Essay Letter! Aun aquellas langostas que los Egipcios habian logrado reunir y conservar en barriles, desaparecieron junto con las otras. And Form! 16. Pero una vez que la Plaga acabo, Hashem permitio que el corazon del Faraon se endureciera, y el rehuso dejar ir a los Benei Israel. Hashem ordeno a Moshe, “?Extiende tu mano hacia el Cielo y trae Oscuridad sobre la tierra de Egipto, una oscuridad tan densa que ella pueda ser sentida!” Cuando Moshe extendio su mano, Oscuridad envolvio la tierra de Egipto, permaneciendo por seis dias consecutivos. Essay Letter! Esta Plaga duro solo seis dias y no siete como las anteriores puesto que el septimo dia de Oscuridad fue reservado para cuando los Egipcios perseguirian a los Benei Israel en el 1am Suf y Hashem causaria Oscuridad sobre ellos. And Form Essay! 17.

En los primeros tres dias, los Egipcios pudieron moverse alrededor libremente en la oscuridad. Persuasive Essay! Sin embargo, sin importar cuantas velas o antorchas encendieran, la oscuridad prevalecia y no podian ver nada. Elements And Thesis! Durante estos dias los reshaim entre los Judios murieron. Essay! Ellos eran aquellos quienes no creian en la redencion y aquellos quienes adquirieron riquezas o mantenian altas posiciones en Egipto y no querian partir. Purpose Essay! Dijo Hashem, “Si Yo los destruyo en publico, los Egipcios se mofaran, ‘Los Judios son atacados por plagas al igual que nosotros lo somos”’. Persuasive! Hashem por consiguiente llevo los primeros tres dias de Oscuridad para que los Benei Israel pudieran sepultar a sus muertos sin ser observados por sus enemigos 18. En el cuarto dia, la oscuridad se condenso dentro de una masa compacta. Gmat Essay Practice Test! Tan pronto como esto sucedio, los Egipcios ya no pudieron moverse: quien estaba parado debia permanecer en aquella posicion por los proximos tres dias, incapaz de sentarse, y quien estaba sentado ya no podia levantarse. Letter! Mientras los Egipcios estaban asi inmoviles en la densa oscuridad, ellos oian abrirse las puertas de sus casas y pisadas aproximandose.

Habia sonidos de cajones de gabinetes y puertas siendo abiertas, mas ellos eran incapaces de levantarse y averiguar quienes eran los intrusos y expulsarlos. Purpose And Form! De hecho, estos secretos visitantes eran los Benei Israel. Essay! Ellos habian sido informados por Moshe que al partir de Egipto, debian solicitar de sus vecinos oro y plata; por lo tanto fueron ahora a asegurarse que items preciosos los Egipcios poseian para poder decirles mas tarde, “ Dadme el articulo que vos guardais en este y este cajon”. And Form! Ni un solo Judio, sin embargo, tomo aun el item mas pequeno que no fuera suyo durante el periodo de Oscuridad. Persuasive Letter! 19. Los Ben ej Israel pudieron ver incluso en el medio de la oscuridad puesto que cada Judio era acompanado por un estallido de luz dondequiera que el iba. Of Research! 20. Extrano como ello pueda parecer, los Egipcios tuvieron una clara vision a pesar de la oscuridad- ?ellos percibieron lo que sucedia en la tierra de Goshen!

Observaron imagenes de los Benei Israel, proyectadas como si con una camara, sentados alrededor de mesas, comiendo, bebiendo, y regocijandose. Persuasive Essay! Aquella vision los lleno de una profunda infelicidad. Publish A Research Paper! 21. ?Por que fueron los Egipcios sumergidos dentro de oscuridad mientras los Benei Israel disfrutaron luz? Los Egipcios estaban siendo castigados mida- kenegued- mida por una de sus diversiones sadistas. Letter! Un Egipcio solia ordenar a un Judio, “Sosten esta vela encendida sobre tu cabeza mientras yo ceno, pero ?tenla derecha! Un movimiento, y ?tu cabeza sera separada con esta espada!” Y el pobre, tembloroso Judio debia permanecer de pie inmovil con una vela sobre su cabeza mientras el Egipcio disfrutaba su comida.

Ahora Hashem revirtio sus roles, haciendo que los Egipcios permanecieran inmoviles y morosos mientras los Benei Israel disfrutaban ellos mismos. Power Essay! 22 La Oscuridad,por anadidura, era simbolica del hecho de que los Egipcios habian escogido una vida de oscuridad espiritual mientras los Benei Israel habian aceptado sobre si mismos la Tora de Hashem y mitzvot las cuales son comparadas a la luz. Essay Letter! Ellos por consiguiente merecian verdadera luz · 23. El Faraon emplazo a Moshe y Aharon y clamo, “?Id, servid a Hashem! Podeis llevar a vuestros ninos pequenos con vosotros tambien, pero dejad vuestros animales atras como seguridad de que retornareis” 24. “No,” respondio Moshe, “llevaremos todos nuestros animales con nosotros tambien, incluyendo aquellos que son propiedad conjunta de un Judio y un Egipcio. Essay! 25 Mas aun, vos nos dareis a nosotros de vuestros propios animales porque no sabemos todavia cuantos sacrificios Hashem requerira de nosotros para Su servicio.?? El Faraon comprendio con esta replica que Moshe obedecia solo a Hashem y no atendia a sus declaraciones (a pesar de que el Faraon alegaba ser amo del universo). Essay Letter! 26 El grito colericam ente,” ?Desapareced de aqui, y guardaos de presentaros ante mi nuevamente, porque en el dia que retorneis a ver mi rostro, vos morireis!”. “Bien dicho,” respondio Moshe, “Yo verdaderamente no retornare aqui para veros.?Hashem me dijo que yo nunca mas vendre a veros ( mas en cambio, vos vendreis a yerme)!” 27. La advertencia acerca de la Decima Plaga.

Ya que Moshe habia anunciado al Faraon que nunca regresaria nuevamente a el, Hashem se presento a Moshe antes de que el abandonara el palacio del Faraon, y le dio instrucciones de advertir al Faraon acerca de la ultima Plaga. Esta fue la unica vez que Hashem se revelo El Mismo a Moshe en el palacio del Faraon el que estaba lleno de idolos. Essay! Ello sucedio solo en honor de Moshe, a fin de que cumpliera su promesa, de que no retornaria a ver al Faraon nuevamente. Essay! 28. Yo causare una Plaga mas al Faraon,” Hashem predijo a Moshe, la que sera tan destructiva como todas las otras Plagas puestas juntas. And Thesis! 29 Despues de esta Plaga, el no solo los autorizara a ustedes a partir, sino que realmente os echara de su pais”. Essay Letter! Hashem describio a Moshe la futura Plaga donde El mataria a los primogenitos, y Moshe retransmitio Sus palabras al Faraon.

“Asi dice Hashem, ‘Cerca de medianoche Yo saldre al medio de Egipto y destruire todo primogenito Egipcio, desde el principe heredero destinado a convertirse en el sucesor 30 del Faraon hasta el mas humilde de los Egipcios, el primogenito de la criada tras las piedras de los molinos, y aun al primogenito de los animales. Elements Paper And Thesis! La griteria y el llanto resultante sera mas intenso que cualquier cosa que haya sido alguna vez oida antes o cualquier cosa que sera oida en el futuro’. Essay Letter! Luego todos vuestros ministros vendran a mi (Moshe senalo a los ministros que estaban parados proximos al Faraon), ?este general aqui proximo a vos, este duque, y todos vuestros nobles! 31 Ellos todos se inclinaran ante mi y nos rogaran a nosotros partir”. A pesar de que Moshe sabia que incluso el Faraon mismo se inclinaria ante el, se refreno de manifestar esto directamente puesto que Hashem le habia ordenado ser respetuoso hacia el rey Egipcio. Publish A Research! 32. “Esta Plaga no suena tan mal,” el Faraon bromeo. Letter! “?Cuantos primogenitos hay en Egipto en conjunto ? ?Quiza varios cientos?”. A Research Paper! Mas el Faraon erro. Persuasive! El no se dio cuenta de que las mujeres Egipcias quienes estaban sumergidas en la inmoralidad tenian un numero de primogenitos engendrados por hombres diferentes, y cada hombre poseia varios hijos primogenitos de diferentes mujeres. Gmat Test! 33. Una anciana mujer Egipcia se revelo para mofarse de Moshe, diciendo, “?Como puede el clamor tras esta Plaga ser tan terrible como vos predijisteis?

Tomame a mi, por ejemplo- ya no tengo padre o madre que puedan ser muertos; mis hermanos y hermanas ya murieron, y mi unico hija esta muerto. Essay Letter! Yo ya no sere afectada por esta Plaga de modo alguno. Basic Of Research Paper! ?Vos sois un falso profeta!”. “Vos clamareis antes que todos los otros,” Moshe profetizo. Persuasive Essay Letter! 34. La Primera Mitzva Ordenada a los Benei Israel:

Kidush Hajodesh, Santificacion de la Luna Nueva. El primero de Nisan, Hashem instruyo a Moshe y Aharon, “Ustedes seran redimidos en el mes de Nisan. Purpose And Form Essay! ?Cuenten este mes, por consiguiente, como el primero de todos los meses en el calendario Judio!” El nacimiento del principe fue celebrado por todo el pais con fuegos artificiales y banderas. Essay! El feliz dia fue designado un feriado nacional anual. Essay! Despues que el principe crecio, el viajo a paises extranjeros y un dia fue tomado cautivo por un enemigo. Essay Letter! Fue mantenido prisionero por muchos anos pero finalmente fue liberado. Descriptive Essay On Autumn Season! El dia de su retorno fue un evento feliz no solo para sus padres sino para la poblacion entera que compartio el jubilo del rey. Persuasive Essay! El rey proclamo que el dia de la liberacion del principe deberia ser celebrado como un feriado nacional en el futuro en lugar de su cumpleanos. Descriptive Essay On Autumn Season! 35. Similarmente, la Tora cuenta a Nisan como el primer mes preferentemente a Tishrei, aun cuando el cumpleanos del mundo era en Tishrei. Letter! Sin embargo, un nuevo periodo en la historia comenzo con la redencion de Egipto, y desde entonces Nisan merecio convertirse en el primero de los meses. Purpose And Form Essay! * Hashem informo a Moshe, “Por 2448 anos, Yo he proclamado todo nuevo mes en el Cielo, mas ahora que ustedes se han vuelto nacion, Yo te confio a ti esta tarea.” 36.

El rey cuidadosamente guardaba las llaves de su tesoro, no permitiendo a nadie tocarlas. Persuasive Letter! Pero tan pronto como su hijo “?En que posicion visteis vos la luna nueva?” y asi sucesivamente. Dissertation! El segundo testigo era luego examinado separadamente. Persuasive Essay Letter! Si sus afirmaciones coincidian, un nuevo mes era proclamado. A Research! Si mas de dos testigos se presentaban a testificar acerca de la luna nueva, los testigos adicionales eran interrogados algunas preguntas generales (a pesar de que no mas de dos testigos eran requeridos) para no desalentarlos de presentarse ante el Beit Din otra vez. Persuasive Letter! 39. Al principio, el Beit Din solia aceptar el testimonio de cualquier Judio, pero cuando los Baitusim (una secta de estudiantes de Tzadok y Baitus quienes negaban la Tradicion Oral) intentaron enganar al Beit Din* solo un Judio que era fiel a las ensenanzas de los Sabios era admitido como testigo. Basic Elements! Los planes de los Beitusim fueron llevados a la atencion de los Sabios de la siguiente forma: Los Baitusim contratarian dos falsos testigos, uno de su secta y uno que no era de su secta. Persuasive Letter! Una vez sucedio que el Beitusi habia dado su testimonio, y el segundo (falso) testigo fue hecho entrar e interrogado, “?En que posicion visteis la luna?” El hombre respondio burlonamente, “Yo ascendi la cuesta de Ma’alei Adumim y vi la luna entre dos rocas en la forma de un becerro, con orejas parecidas a aquellas de un cordero, astas como aquellas de un ciervo, y una cola en la espalda- ?y si vosotros no me creeis a mi, encontrareis 200 zuz bajo mi colchon que me fueron entregados con el proposito de con taros todo esto!” ?Por que acordasteis ser empleado como falso testigo?” el Juez le pregunto. Test! “Yo oi que los Baitusim tenian la intencion de enganar al Beit Din.

Por consiguiente consenti a su proposicion a fin de revelar su complot a vosotros, porque si no,?ellos podian haber empleado a peores testigos para venir y enganaros!” El Beit Din le dijo, “El dinero que los Baitusim os dieron es vuestro como un regalo,y aquellos que os contrataron seran azotados (malkut).” (El Beit Din tiene el poder para confiscar dinero y declararlo hefker. Persuasive Essay! Los jueces pudieron por consiguiente transferir el dinero a este hombre por revelar los planes de los Baitusim.) 40. Hashem Ordena Ofrendar un Sacrificio de Pesaj y Observar Pesaj en Todas las Generaciones. En aquel primero de Nisan, Hashem dio a Moshe y Aharon mitzvot adicionales. “Di a los Benei Israel hoy,” Hashem comando, “ que en el diez de Nisan, el jefe de cada familia tomara un cordero. Vs Authority! Este debe ser macho, sin defectos, y en su primer ano. Essay Letter! El lo atara a su poste de la cama por cuatro dias para examinarlo y determinar que el no tiene defecto y es apto para korban. Paper! En la tarde del catorce de Nisan, un representante de la familia debera sacrificar el cordero para korban Pesaj.” “Senor del Universo,” objeto Moshe, “? como puedo yo ordenar a los Benei Israel sacrificar corderos los cuales son idolatrados por los Egipcios?” Hashem respondio, “Yo juro que ellos no abandonaran esta tierra a menos que primero sacrifiquen los dioses de Egipto, demostrando la impotencia de las deidades de las naciones.” 41.

Ofrendando como sacrificio, a los dioses de Egipto los cuales los Benei Israel solian adorar, ellos hallarian expiacion por sus pecados de idolatria en Egipto. Essay Letter! Ademas, viendo a los idolos de Egipto atados a los postes de sus camas y balando desamparadamente mientras los Egipcios eran impotentes para tomar accion en su contra reforzaria su emuna (fe) en Hashem. References Unpublished Dissertation! 42. Flashem dio a Moshe y Aharon instrucciones detalladas acerca de la mitzva del korban Pesaj ordenando, “Despues de sacrificar el cordero, ustedes deberan dejar que su sangre fluya dentro de una jofaina, sumergir un atado de hierbas de hisopo dentro de ella, y colocar un poco de la sangre sobre las jambas de la puerta y los dinteles de la casa en la cual el korban Pesaj sera comido.” ?Por que Hashem ordeno que ellos sumergieran el hisopo dentro de la sangre? El hisopo es la mas inferior de las hierbas. Essay! Hashem estaba senalando a los Benei Israel, “A pesar de que los Egipcios os consideran bajos como el hisopo, en Mis ojos ustedes son preciados.” 43. ?Por que la sangre debia ser colocada sobre los dinteles y las jambas de las puertas? El dintel (el que es mas alto que las jambas de las puertas) representaba a Abraham, y las dos jambas de las puertas a Itzjak y Iaacov, demostrando que los Benei Israel serian salvados de la Plaga que destruyo a los primogenitos en el merito de los ancestros ya que sus propios meritos eran insuficientes.

44. Nuestros ancestros son representados por las jambas de las puertas para implicar que al igual que la jamba nunca es separada de la puerta, asi nuestros ancestros nunca se movieron de Hashem. A Research Paper! 45. Hashem comando, “La carne del cordero sera comida en la noche del quince de Nisan. Persuasive Letter! Debera ser asada integra sobre un fuego y consumida junto con matzot y maror (hierbas amargas). Toda ella debera ser comida antes del amanecer, y si alguna parte del sacrificio es dejada sin terminar, debera ser quemada en la manana del segundo dia (significando el dia despues de Iom Tov). Ustedes la comeran de prisa luego de completar su comida, preparados para la accion, sus zapatos en sus pies, y sus bastones a mano, todo preparado para una partida inmediata de Egipto.” 46. Todos los alimentos consumidos en la noche de Pesaj son rememorativos de nuestros antepasados: > El cordero es asado sobre un fuego, recordando a Abraham quien fue salvado de la caldera ardiente.

> Las matzot aluden a Sara quien horneo matzot para sus huespedes, los tres angeles. > El maror trae a la mente a Jaacov quien fue perseguido por su hermano Esav y cuya vida consistio de una sucesion de tribulaciones. Vs Authority! 47. Ademas, el amargo maror simboliza el exilio Egicio durante el cual los Egipcios amargaron las vidas de los Judios (Shemot 1:14). Persuasive Essay Letter! 48. ?Por que Hashem ordeno que el cordero para el korban Pesaj fuera asado preferentemente a cocinado, y por que el tenia que ser preparado integro? Hay una razon comun para los mandamientos precedentes.

Hashem deseaba establecer publicamente, mas alla de toda duda, que era el cordero- el objeto de reverencia Egipcia- y no cualquier otra clase de animal el que estaba siendo sacrificado aqui. Gmat Test! El por consiguiente ordeno que no debia ser cocinado ya que el proceso de cocinado puede tener lugar en una olla cubierta, mientras asar es un procedimiento que es realizado sobre un fuego abierto. Essay! Por anadidura, un alimento que es asado integro emite un olor mucho mas fuerte que un plato cocinado. Publish! Fue asado integro para hacer evidente a todo observador que era un cordero. Persuasive! Mas aun, el cordero fue asado en un fuego simbolo de la ley de la Tora la cual decreta que los idolos deben ser quemados. Elements Paper! El cordero debia ser consumido solo despues de una comida saciante y no ser devorado hambrientamente a fin de expresar desprecio por el idolo Egipcio.

49. Hashem explico a Moshe y Aharon que el nombre de este sacrificio iba a ser korban Pesa] , significando que Hashem saltaria sobre (Pesaj significa pasar sobre) las casas de los ei Israel al ver la sangre sobre sus )ambas y dinteles de las puertas y El eximiria a sus ,primoyenito.s de ser destruidos cuando primogenitos Egipcios murieran. El rey envio el siguiente mensaje a sus hijos: “Manana, la Corte Suprema sostendra una sesion para impartir castigo capital a todos los traidores a la Corona. Persuasive Essay Letter! Yo se que vosotros habeis tenido tambien relaciones con aquellos traidores. Power Vs Authority Essay! Por consiguiente os aconsejo a vosotros presentaros durante la sesion de la corte manana y obsequiarme con un regalo. Essay Letter! El jurado comprendera entonces claramente que sois defensores de la Corona y ?no osaran incluiros a vosotros en la sentencia de los criminales!” 50. Similarmente, Hashem ordeno a los Benei Israel ofrendar un korban Pesaj y colocar su sangre sobre las jambas y dinteles de las puertas en el momento cuando los Egipcios estuvieran siendo castigados. A Research Paper! Hashem no necesitaba esta senal para distinguir entre las casas de los Egipcios y aquellas de los Judios. Persuasive Essay! Mas bien, la sangre sirvio como una exhibicion publica de parte de los Benei Israel para mostrar que ellos repudiaban publicamente la idolatria Egipcia y pertenecian a los seguidores de Hashem. References Dissertation! Haciendo esto, asi demostraban que eran dignos de ser salvados. Persuasive! 51.

En adicion a las leyes del korban Pesaj, Hashem ordeno que el quince de Nisan sea observado anualmente en toda generacion como el Iom Tov de Pesaj. Apa Style References Unpublished Dissertation! Los Benei Israel tendran que quitar todo jametz ( masa leudada ) de sus lugares de residencia el catorce de Nisan y mantener sus casas libres de jametz por siete dias consecutivos. Essay Letter! Ellos fueron ordenados consumir el korban Pesaj cada ano junto con matzot y maror en la noche del quince de Nisan, en eterna memoria de su liberacion de Egipto. Los Benei Israel se Circuncidan Ellos mismos y Ofrendan el Korban Pesaj. Moshe narro a los Benei Israel los mandamientos divinos relativos al korban Pesaj. Gmat Essay Test! El concluyo anunciando, “Cuando entren en Eretz Israel y sus ninos los interroguen a ustedes acerca del significado del cordero ofrendado el catorce de Nisan, digan, · Es un sacrificio de Pesaj a Hashem que paso sobre nuestras casas en Egipto y nos libero a nosotros.”’ Al escuchar las palabras de Moshe, los Benei Israel inclinaron sus cabezas y se postraron ellos mismos en agradecimiento a Hashem ya que entendieron la importancia del mensaje de Moshe: Serian pronto redimidos, entrarian a Eretz Israel, y a ellos les seria dada descendencia. Letter! 52. Como Hashem habia ordenado, el jefe de cada familia Judia ato un cordero a su poste de cama el diez de Nisan. Gmat Practice Test! Cuando los Egipcios vieron a sus dioses siendo preparados para sacrificio, lloraron, porque la vision del honor de sus dioses siendo desairado era mas duro de soportar que todas las Plagas.

53 No obstante, no osaron danar a los Judios. Essay! El dia en que estos eventos tuvieron lugar fue un Shabat. Of Research Paper And Thesis! En memoria de aquel magno Shabat cuando los Benei Israel abiertamente arrastraron los dioses de los Egipcios a sus casas para prepararlos para sacrificarlos y los Egipcios no protestaron, nosotros llamamos al Shabat anterior a Pesaj “Shabat Hagadol (el Gran Shabat). El catorce de Nisan, 55 Hashem explico a Moshe y Aharon las condiciones que deben ser cumplidas por alguien que quiere participar del korban Pesaj: > El korban Pesa] no puede ser consumido por alguien que se alejo el mismo de Hashem, sea un judio que rechazo la Tora o un gentil.56. > No puede ser comido por un guer toshau (un gentil que vive en Eretz Israel y observa las Siete Leyes de Noaj ) o por un no-Judio que fue contratado para trabajar para un Judio.

> No puede ser comido por alguien que no este circuncidado. Cuando el rey hizo un banquete en su propio honor, el dio instrucciones a sus sirvientes, “?Admitid al palacio solo a aquellos que lleven puesta mi insignia especial!” Similarmente, Moshe dijo a los Benei Israel, “ Solo quien lleva el sello del pacto con Abraham, el brit mila, puede probar del korban Pesaj.” El brit mila es el signo que indica que nosotros somos los sirvientes de Hashem 58. Habia un gentil quien solia viajar a Ierushalaim y participar del korban Pesaj, fingiendo que el era un Judio. Una vez, este gentil llego a la ciudad de Netzivin en Babel y se ufano ante R. Persuasive! lehuda ben Betera, “Vuestra Tora declara que ningun extranjero o persona no circuncidada puede comer del korban Pesaj, aun asi ?yo recibo la porcion mas selecta del korban todos los anos en Jerusalem!” R. Power Vs Authority Essay! lehuda ben Betera no tenia poder legal para castigar al hombre en Babel, y por consiguiente el replico, “?Os fue dada alguna vez a vos la gorda cola del cordero?” “Vos veis, fuisteis privado de la porcion mas sabrosa,” dijo R. Persuasive Letter! lehuda. Gmat Practice Test! “Aquella parte los Judios la guardan para si.

La proxima vez que esteis en Jerusalem solicitad la gorda cola.” Cuando el gentil viajo a Jerusalem el siguiente Pesa] y, como de costumbre, le fue entregada una porcion del korban Pesaj ,el exclamo, “?Yo no quiero esta porcion, quiero la cola!” ?Imposible!” respondio el que estaba a cargo de distribuir la carne. Persuasive Essay! “?Como podriamos nosotros hacer tal cosa?” “R. Power! lehuda ben Betera me dijo que vosotros retuvisteis de mi la parte mas selecta. Persuasive! ?Yo pago tanto como vosotros lo haceis!” Todos los Judios que escucharon su pedido estaban perplejos; todo el que estudio Tora sabe que la cola no puede ser consumida sino que es ofrendada a lo alto al Todopoderoso en el mizbeaj ( Vaikra 3:9).Puesto que su extrana afirmacion suscito sospecha, ellos inquirieron acerca de su identidad y pronto descubrieron que era un gentil. References Unpublished Dissertation! Como consecuencia, el Beit Din lo ejecuto. Asi el culpable fue penado a traves del ingenioso plan de R. Persuasive Essay! lehuda ben Betera. Power Vs Authority! El Beit Din le envio un mensaje diciendo, “?Paz sobre vos, R. Persuasive! lehuda ben Betera, quien mora en Netzivin y cuya red se extiende fuera hasta Jerusalem!” 59. El emperador romano Antonio pregunto a su amigo R. Basic Paper And Thesis! Iehuda HaNasi, “?Recibire yo una porcion del Liviatan en el mundo por venir?” Su pregunta queria decir, “? Recibiran los rectos de entre las naciones una porcion en el olam- haba?” R. Essay Letter! Ieh uda HaNasi respondio afirm ativamen te. “?Como es esto posible?” Antonio lo cuestiono. Essay! Yo se que no estoy autorizado a participar de vuestro anual korban Pesaj. Persuasive Letter! Si esto es asi, ?por que sere permitido de participar de la carne del Liviatan la que ciertamente es mas sagrada?” “Respecto del korban Pesaj, no puedo hacer nada por vos, replico R. And Form! lehuda HaNasi. Essay! “?Aun el mas grande tzadik no puede participar de el mientras no este circuncidado porque la Tora consigna explicitamente que solo alguien con brit mila puede tener parte en el!” Cuando Antonio asi se volvio consciente de la grandeza de la mitzva de mila, se circuncido el mismo y se volvio un guer.60 El estara a la cabeza de todos los gueirei tzedek quienes seran recompensados en el futuro.

61. Hashem ordeno a Moshe y Aharon que previo a sacrificar el korban Pesa], una compania era requerida de unirse con la intencion de comerlo juntos. Apa Style Unpublished! Ningun forastero seria autorizado a unirse al grupo una vez que el cordero hubiera sido sacrificado. No se permitia romper ni un hueso del korban Pesa]. Persuasive Essay Letter! Despues de consumir el korban, los Benei Israel debian arrojar los huesos intactos dentro de las plazas del mercado a la vista total de todos los Egipcios. Power! 62. Cuando Moshe ordeno a los Benei Israel circuncidarse a si mismos a fin de poder participar del korban Pesa], muchos vacilaron. Hashem por consiguiente ordeno a Moshe asar su propio korban Pesa] inmediatamente. Letter! El Todopoderoso luego emplazo a los vientos del Can Eden a asirse a aquel korban, haciendo que su aroma se disipase por todo Egipto. Elements Of Research! Su dulce aroma era tan irresistible que los Benei Israel corrieron a Moshe rogandole, “?Por favor dejanos comer de tu korban Pesa]!” Mas Hashem comando a Moshe y Aharon permitir solo a personas circuncidadas participar de el.

Todo Benei Israel, sin excepcion, inmediatamente consintieron en el brit mila. Persuasive! 63 Ellos fueron circuncidados por Moshe y Iehoshua. Power Vs Authority Essay! 64 Un vasto numero de Egipcios (conocidos como erev ray) quienes deseaban unirse a los Benei Israel tambien realizaron brit mila y se volvieron gueirim a fin de participar del korban Pesaj. Persuasive! 65. Ahora los Benei Israel poseian dos mitzvot en cuyo merito ellos eran dignos de la redencion - la sangre del korban Pesaj y la sangre de sus brit mila, ambas de las cuales atestiguaban su lealtad a Hashem 66. A medianoche del quince de Nisan, Hashem paso sobre las casas Judias.

El beso a cada uno de los Benei Israel, como asi fuera, bendiciendolo a el por haber ofrendado el korban Pesa] y realizado brit mila. And Form! 67. La frase que los Benei Israel fueron besados por el Todopoderoso denota que por medio del brit mila, ellos alcanzaron un nivel mas alto de kedusha y proximidad a la shejina (divinidad). Essay! 68. La Decima Plaga: Muerte del Primogenito. Cuando los primogenitos Egipcios escucharon la advertencia de Moshe sobre una plaga en la cual ellos todos perecerian, imploraron a sus padres, “?Por favor liberad a los Judios! ?En el pasado, todo lo que Moshe predijo acaecio, y nosotros no deseamos morir!” Los padres Egipcios se rehusaron a escucharlos , contestando, ‘Cada hombre posee diez hijos. Essay! ?Es mejor que cada familia sacrifique uno de sus hijos antes que dejar a los Judios salir libres!”

Viendo que sus padres eran despiadados, los hijos primogenitos decidieron exhortar al Faraon. Letter! Razonaron, ‘El Faraon ciertamente consentira porque el mismo es un primogenito.” Ellos suplicaron al Faraon, ‘ ?Conceded libertad a los Judios! ?Por que deberiamos todos nosotros ser aniquilados y vos tambien?” “?Expulsad a estos hombres del palacio!” el Faraon colericamente dio instrucciones a sus sirvientes.” “?Nosotros todos debemos estar preparados para sacrificar nuestras vidas para impedir a los Judios partir!” 69. Los primogenitos retornaron a sus hogares, mas antes de medianoche, hicieron estragos en la tierra desenvainando sus espadas y, en ira ciega, matando a sus padres y a quienquiera cruzara sus sendas. Power Vs Authority Essay! 70. Ellos tomaron todo tipo de precauciones en la esperanza de ser salvados de la Plaga. Algunos fueron escondidos por sus padres en los templos de idolatria que pensaron eran seguros. Essay! 71 Muchos ninos primogenitos corrieron a la tierra de Goshen para dormir en las mismas camas que los Benel Israel. On Autumn! 72.

Al exacto momento cuando la medianoche sono, las palabras de Hashem se hicieron realidad. Persuasive! 73 El Todopoderoso descendio sobre Egipto, acompanado por una multitud de Angeles Destructores. Hashem Mismo mato a los primogenitos, mientras los Angeles de Destruccion fueron asignados la tarea de matar a los todavia no nacidos primogenitos aun en los uteros de sus madres. Elements Of Research Paper! 74. Todos los ninos primogenitos murieron, tanto varones como mujeres, desde los nobles hijos del Faraon hasta el esclavizado primogenito de los prisioneros Egipcios quienes habian afirmado maliciosamente, “Nosotros prefeririamos permanecer en prision por el resto de nuestras vidas que ver a los Judios salir libres.” 75 Hashem tambien mato a los primogenitos de todos los animales porque los Egipcios los adoraban. Persuasive Essay Letter! 76. Los primogenitos Egipcios quienes se escondian en los templos de idolatria fueron destruidos junto con sus dioses todos los cuales se desintegraron - los idolos de madera se pudrieron, los idolos de piedra se disolvieron, y las imagenes de oro y plata se fundieron. And Form! Ni un solo idolo permanecio intacto excepto el idolo Ba’aI Tzefon el que continuo existiendo a fin de conceder a los Egipcios la eleccion de atribuirle a el supremacia.

77. En familias en las cuales no habia ninos primogenitos, el mayor de la casa fue muerto. Persuasive! 78 En hogares donde los primogenitos habian fallecido antes de la plaga, los perros arrastraron sus cadaveres fuera de sus sepulturas, los masticaron , y tambien demolieron las estatuas erigidas en su honor. Elements Of Research Paper And Thesis! 79. La mujer anciana que habia ridiculizado la profecia de Moshe fue la primera en ser atacada. Persuasive Essay! Ella poseia una estatua de su hijo primogenito varon la cual apreciaba mas que su vida. Power Vs Authority Essay! Los perros la arrancaron y la demolieron, y ella fue muerta de pesar. Essay! Todos los Egipcios fueron mas afectados al ver sus estatuas destruidas que por la real muerte de sus primogenitos.

Ademas, la vista de sus idolos desplomandose y desintegrandose frente a sus ojos evoco en ellos la mas grande pena. Power Essay! 89. El palacio del Faraon era la escena del desastre. Persuasive Letter! Casi todos sus hijos estaban muertos y asi estaban los hijos de sus sirvientes. Paper! El Faraon, loco de ira, asio una espada y ejecuto a todos los consejeros y nobles quienes le habian aconsejado a el desobedecer a Moshe. Persuasive Letter! Esta fue la tercera masacre de reshaim en aquella terrible noche de castigo: > Los primogenitos habian matado a sus padres y a quienquiera que encontraron.

> Hashem destruyo a los primogenitos a la medianoche. > El Faraon mato a todos sus nobles y asesores. And Thesis! 81. Siguiendo a la Plaga, una turba de Egipcios tomo por asalto el palacio, con la intencion de asesinar al rey en revancha, y el tuvo que esconderse. Persuasive Essay Letter! 82 Mas el Faraon escapo porque Hashem lo mantuvo con vida para que pudiera dar testimonio de todos Sus milagros. Basic! 83. ?Por que la Plaga de la Muerte del Primogenitos tuvo lugar en la noche en vez de en el dia ? Hashem estaba asi castigando a los Egipcios mida- kenegued- mida por haber revertido el orden natural de las cosas. Persuasive! Ellos habian ordenado a los Benei Israel realizar labor que es usualmente hecha en el dia a la noche y vice- versa, y habian comandado tambien a los hombres Judios realizar trabajo ordinariamente hecho por mujeres mientras a las mujeres les asignaron las tareas de los hombres.

En consecuencia, Hashem tambien revirtio el orden natural y los castigo en el medio de la noche. Power Vs Authority Essay! 84. Los Egipcios merecian que sus primogenitos fueran muertos como castigo por haber intentado aniquilar a los Benei Israel quienes son llamados, “el hijo primogenito de Hoshem” (Shemot 4:2).Hashem, no obstante, espero hasta el mismo fin antes que El comenzara esta severa Plaga sobre los Egipcios. Persuasive Letter! El esperaba que ellos hicieran teshuua tan pronto como fueran hechos sufrir y sus animales y pertenencias fueran atacados , y asi la Plaga que era una amenaza a sus vidas podria ser evitada. Descriptive Season! 85. El orden que Hashem empleo en traer las Plagas se asemejaba a las tacticas de un rey que quiere hacer guerra para subyugar a un pais enemigo. > Sangre: En subyugar un pais enemigo, la primera accion del invasor es cortar los aprovisionamientos de agua. Persuasive Essay Letter! Asi, Hashem convirtio el agua de los Egipcios en un liquido no bebible. > Ranas: Despues de eso, el atacante atemoriza al enemigo por medio de tambores, sonidos de trompetas, y el resonar ruidoso de caballos y carretas. Descriptive On Autumn Season! Similarmente, Hashem trajo la ranas cuyo croar aterrorizo a los Egipcios.

> Piojos: Inmediatamente despues, el invasor trae arqueros quienes arrojan una multitud de flechas contra el enemigo; de forma similar, Hashem trajo piojos que atacaron a los Egipcios como flechas. > Bestias Salvajes: El atacante luego convoca a aliados extranjeros para unirse a el. Persuasive Letter! Por lo tanto Hashem cito toda clase de bestias destructivas del desierto para reunirse contra los Egipcios. > Pestilencia: A medida que el atacante se acerca al campo rival, el envia jinetes frente a si para aniquilar los animales del enemigo. References Unpublished! Esto fue logrado por la pestilencia. > Forunculos: Llegando aun mas cerca del campo enemigo, el conquistador busca destruir el ejercito opositor; asi, Hashem infligio sus cuerpos con forunculos. > Piedras de Granizo: El lanza misiles para demoler los muros de la ciudad. > Langostas: Subsecuentemente, el congrega su ejercito para conquistar la ciudad; por lo tanto las langostas acabaron cualquier cosa que fue dejada por el granizo. > Oscuridad: Una vez que el ha tomado posesion de la ciudad, toma a los enemigos cautivos y los aprisiona.

> Muerte del Primogenito: Finalmente, el ejecuta a los lideres y generales del campo enemigo. Persuasive Essay Letter! 86. Hashem causo Diez Plagas a los Egipcios para castigar al Faraon quien negaba la existencia del Creador del universo el que habia sido traido a existencia por Diez Pronunciamientos. And Form Essay! 87 Los Benei Israel, mas aun, merecian que sus enemigos fueran afligidos con Diez Plagas porque su antepasado Abraham habia exitosamente resistido Diez Pruebas. Persuasive Essay! 88 Las Plagas emergieron de todos los variados elementos, algunas del agua, algunas de la tierra, y algunas del cielo, para manifestar que Hashem es el Amo sobre todos ellos.

89. Faraon Implora a Moshe que los Benei Israel Partan Inmediatamente. El Faraon penso, “Moshe no ha mentido nunca aun, y el declaro que nunca retornaria a mi; yo debo por lo tanto ir a el. Apa Style References Unpublished Dissertation! 90. El abandono su palacio en la oscuridad de la noche y se apresuro a la tierra de Goshen. Essay! Al arribar alli, inquirio, “?Donde esta la casa de Moshe y Aharon ?“ Los muchachos Judios reconocieron al rey de Egipto y gritaron burlonamente, “?La casa de Moshe esta aqui!” “No, en la proxima calle,” bromeo otro. Essay On Autumn Season! El Faraon se extravio y vago a traves de las calles hasta que finalmente encontro la casa correcta. Essay! Golpeo. “El infeliz, humillado rey Faraon,” una voz temblorosa respondio del exterior. Basic Of Research Paper And Thesis! 91.

“?Por que habeis vos venido aqui? ?Los reyes no suelen golpear a las puertas en el medio de la noche!” “Yo debo hablaros a vos. Persuasive Letter! ? Por favor venid afuera!” 92. Moshe y Aharon, como todos los Judios, estaban comiendo el korban Pesaj y diciendo hale! a Hashem. Paper! 93. no puedo salir al exterior,” respondio Moshe, “porque Hashem nos prohibio a nosotros abandonar nuestras casas hasta la manana!” “ 4 Moshe, mi querido amigo, solo escuchame a mi a traves de la ventana!” rogo el Faraon. Moshe se apoyo fuera de la ventana, y el Faraon se prosterno ante el, implorandole, “?Yo os ruego a vos, partid del pais inmediatamente y llevad a todos con vos!” “Hashem nos ordeno a nosotros permanecer en nuestras casas hasta, la manana,” repitio Moshe. Persuasive Letter! “?Somos nosotros ladrones que se escabullen durante la noche?” 94. “Yo prefiero que vosotros partais inmediatamente; os dare a vosotros tantos de mis animales y sirvientes como deseeis,” el Faraon persistio. “?.Por que la subita prisa?” pregunto Moshe. “Yo mismo soy un primogenito,” admitio el Faraon, “y temo que aun morire si vosotros permaneceis aqui mas tiempo”. “?No temais! Hashem os sostendra a vos para que podais ser testigo de mas castigos!” 95.

Batia, la hija del Faraon, habia venido junto con su padre para hallar a Moshe. And Form! Ella reprocho a Moshe, “?Es esta vuestra gratitud por haber sido criado por mi? ?Por que habeis causado tanta pena a la casa de mi padre ?“ “?Alguna de las Plagas os dano a vos?” Moshe le pregunto a ella. “No”, Batia admitio. Essay! “Ni una de ellas me ha afligido.” “Puesto que vos sois una hija primogenita, deberiais tambien haber muerto en la Plaga de la Muerte del Primogenito,” dijo Moshe, pero fuisteis salvada a causa de mi tefila.” “?Pero como puedo yo soportar ver sufrir a la familia de mi padre?” ella pregunto. “Ellos estan siendo castigados por no obedecer a Hashem,” fue la replica de Moshe. A Research Paper! 96. El Faraon interrogo, “?Que puedo hacer para acabar esta Plaga?” “Muy simple,” Moshe replico. Persuasive Essay Letter! “Gritad tan ruidosamente como vos podais que los Benei Israel son libres.” El Faraon elevo su voz y anuncio, “?Escuchadme a mi, pueblo Judio! Vosotros sois libres de partir.

Hasta ahora fuisteis sirvientes del Faraon; ?de ahora en adelante vosotros lo sois de Hashem!” Un milagro sucedio, y la voz del Faraon fue magnificada para que el mensaje de libertad resonara por todo Egipto. Descriptive On Autumn! 97. Mas el Faraon aun no estaba satisfecho. Essay Letter! El camino de casa en casa, diciendole a cada Judio individualmente, “? Adi-s, partid en paz! “ 98. Era la manana del quince de Nisan de 2448. Practice Test! La tierra de Egipto estaba atestada de los muertos y de los expirantes. Persuasive Essay Letter! No todos los primogenitos habian muerto inmediatamente; Hashem distribuyo juicio individual a cada primogenito. Unpublished! Algunos perecieron inmediatamente, otros permanecieron retorciendose en agonia hasta la manana, y todavia otros sufrieron de la Plaga por tres dias y solo entonces expiraron. Persuasive! 99 No habia una sola casa Egipcia en la cual no hubieran cinco o diez difuntos, porque ademas del primogenito, Hashem destruyo a aquellos depravados Egipcios que se opusieron a. la redencion de los Benei Israel.100 No obstante, los Egipcios no permanecieron con sus muertos.

En lugar de ello, todos ellos se apresuraron a Goshen con animales y carretas, implorando a los Bene? Israel partir porque pensaron, “Nosotros todos moriremos pronto.”101. Antes de su partida los Benei Israel solicitaron a sus vecinos Egipcios oro, plata, y vestimentas porque recordaron bien la orden de Moshe. Purpose And Form Essay! Moshe les habia informado a ellos que Hashem le habia dicho a el, “Por favor di al pueblo que cada uno debe pedir a su vecino Egipcio oro, plata, y vasijas. Persuasive Essay! Asi la promesa que Yo le consagre a su antepasado Abraham de que saldrian fuera de Egipto con grandes riquezas sera cumplida.” 102. ?Por que Hashem formulo su mandamiento a Moshe como una suplica, diciendo a Moshe, “Por favor di al pueblo. Vs Authority Essay! ” La respuesta puede ser comprendida con la ayuda de la siguiente parabola: Un hombre paso muchos anos de su vida bajo condiciones terribles en un campamento de trabajo siberiano. Letter! Finalmente le fue dicho, “?Manana vos sereis liberado!?Tambien recibireis una fortuna al partir!” “?Vosotros pensais que yo quiero dinero?” el hombre replico. Power Vs Authority Essay! “De jenme solo experimentar el momento cuando sea realmente liberado de este lugar, y me dare prisa y partire felizmente sin siquiera un centavo. Essay! “103.

Por eso, Hashem temia que los Benei Israel, una vez concedidos su libertad, tendrian prisa de huir e ignorarian el precepto de solicitar de los Egipcios dinero. Power Essay! El por consiguiente lo precedio con una suplica especial de que su mandamiento fuera observado. Al principio, los Egipcios intentaron negar que poseian cualquier objeto de valor. Persuasive Letter! Sin embargo, los Benei Israel les describieron la ubicacion exacta, forma, y cantidad de estas posesiones ya que habian buscado por todas partes de las casas de los Egipcios a fondo durante los dias de Oscuridad.104. Los Egipcios por lo tanto no solo les entregaron a ellos las cosas que demandaron, sino que entregaron dos de cada, diciendo, “?Tomad el doble de cantidad, y solo idos!” 105. Los Benei Israel vaciaron a Egipto de su riqueza. Gmat Essay Practice Test! Ellos estaban legalmente habilitados a todo el dinero que recibieron a causa de la propiedad que dejaban detras de si tanto como por los doscientos diez anos de labor esclava impaga.’ 06 Era parte del castigo de los Egipcios el que fueran forzados a regalar sus fortunas a los Benei Israel. Al cocinero principal del palacio real le fue entregada una considerable suma de dinero con la que comprar un pescado para la comida del rey. Persuasive! El retorno con un maloliente pescado en el cual habia empleado la suma entera de dinero.

Cuando el rey escucho acerca de esto, dijo, “?Vos sereis castigado por vuestra negligencia! ?Escoged entre comer este pescado, pagar por el, o ser azotado con cien azotes!” “Permitidme a mi comer el pescado,” replico el cocinero. Elements Paper! Comenzo a masticarlo pero fue tan repulsado por su mal olor que no pudo continuar “Yo preferiria recibir la paliza,” dijo. Persuasive Letter! Los soldados del rey lo tomaron y comenzaron a azotarlo. And Form Essay! Cuando el sintio el latigo henderse sobre su cuerpo, grito de dolor. Persuasive! “?Parad! ?Prefiero pagar!” Asi el pago el valor total del pescado despues de haber probado de el y haber sentido el latigo tambien. Similarmente, el Faraon y los Egipcios pagaron caramente por sus crimenes contra los Benei Israel. Elements Paper And Thesis! Primero, plagas fueron infligidas sobre sus cuerpos, y luego por anadidura, tuvieron que reembolsar a los Judios con oro y plata. Letter! 107. Todo individuo Judio que abandono Egipto llevo consigo noventa burros cargados con oro, plata y perlas. Descriptive Season! 108.

Mientras los Benei Israel se ocuparon ellos mismos con la mitzva de llevarse la riqueza de Egipto, Moshe estaba comprometido en una mitzva diferente. Persuasive! El estaba preparando el ataud de Iosef para llevarlo para ser enterrado en Eretz Israel (como los hijos de losef habian prometido hacer). Power Vs Authority! Moshe se esforzo el mismo por tres dias tratando de localizar el ataud de Iosef, pero su busqueda fue infructuosa.10 9 Finalmente, el encontro a Seraj bat Asher, una mujer anciana, quien recordaba los eventos en el tiempo de la muerte de Iosef. Persuasive Letter! Ella condujo a Moshe a un cierto paraje junto al Nilo y, senalando al rio, le revelo a el, “?Los magos del Faraon colocaron el cadaver de Iosef en un ataud de metal y lo hundieron en el Nilo!” 110. La razon por la cual los magos del Faraon habian enterrado a losef en el Nilo era su deseo de detener a los Judios para siempre. Power Essay! Ellos dijeron al Faraon, “Los Judios han prometido a Iosef enterrarlo en Eretz Israel. Essay! Si su ataud fuera ocultado y ellos no pudieran recuperarlo, no podran nunca partir.” Mas aun, los astrologos creian que las aguas del Nilo serian bendecidas por la presencia de los restos de losef. Gmat Essay Practice Test! 112. Moshe, parado junto a la orilla del Nilo, llamo, “?losef, Iosef!. Letter! Ha llegado el tiempo para que Hashem cumpla Su juramento de redimir a los Benei Israel, y ha llegado el tiempo de cumplir nuestro juramento para con vos. Essay! ?Si tu te presentas nosotros llevaremos tu ataud, mas si no, estamos absueltos de nuestro juramento!” Moshe lanzo una placa de metal dentro del rio sobre la cual el Nombre Divino habia sido grabado.

Inmediatamente, el ataud se puso a flote. Persuasive Essay! 113. La habilidad de Moshe para hacer ascender un ataud de metal a la superficie del rio no deberia asombrarnos si nosotros consideramos que esta hazana fue llevada a cabo incluso por una persona inferior a Moshe por el profeta Elisha, generaciones mas. Los estudiantes del profeta Elisha fueron al Rio larden (Jordan) para cortar vigas (con el proposito de construir para ellos un nuevo Beit Hamidrash). Purpose And Form Essay! La cabeza del hacha de uno de los estudiantes cayo dentro del rio. Persuasive Essay! “?Ay,maestro,” el exclamo a Elisha, “es prestada!” Elisha le pregunto, “?Donde cayo?” El estudiante senalo el lugar. Vs Authority Essay! Elisha corto una vara, la arrojo dentro del Rio Jarden (Jordan) y la pieza de hierro se puso a flote. Persuasive! El estudiante extendio su mano y la recupero.

115. Esta historia esta relatada en el Tanaj para traer a nuestra comprension la grandeza de los profetas. Gmat Test! Elisha fue capaz de revertir las leyes de la fisica, a su decreto, madera se hundio dentro del agua asi como piedra y hierro flotaron a la superficie como madera. Persuasive Essay Letter! 116. Moshe preparo el ataud de Iosef para el viaje y tambien los restos de todos los otros hijos de Iaacov los que fueron transportados a Eretz Israel cada uno por el nasi de la Tribu.” 7 Al ataud de Iosef le fue conferido el honor especial de ser transportado a traves del desierto lado a lado con el aron (arca) el cual contenia las lujot. Purpose! Cuando transeuntes inquirian, “?Que arca es esta que acompana el arca de la shejina,?” ellos eran respondidos, “Durante toda su vida, el que descansa alli dentro cumplio todos los mandamientos inscriptos sobre las lujot del aron. Persuasive Essay Letter! “ 118. ?Como deducimos nosotros de la Tora que Iosef observo todos los Diez Mandamientos? > El demostro la creencia en “Yo soy Hashem, nuestro Di-s” porque el dijo a sus hermanos, “?Estoy yo en el lugar de Di-s?” (Bereshit 50:19).

> El no tuvo otros dioses porque afirmo, “Yo temo a Di-s” (Bereshit 42:18). > El no pronuncio el Nombre de Hashem en vano porque cuando hizo un falso juramento, juro por la vida del Faraon y no por Hashem (Bereshit 42:15). > El observo Shabat, comandando que las comidas de Shabat fueran preparadas con anticipacion (Bereshit 43:16). > El honro a su padre, obrando de acuerdo con su deseo de visitar a sus hermanos en Shejem a pesar del peligro que ello ocasionaba para el (Bereshit 37:13). > El cumplio la prohibicion contra el asesinato, rehusando obedecer la demanda de la esposa de Potifar de asesinar a su amo. > El no cometio adulterio con la esposa de Potifar. > El era cauto del hurto, no robando ningun dinero de la fortuna que recolectaba durante los anos de hambruna, sino lealmente entregandola al Faraon. > El nunca revelo a su padre que sus hermanos lo habian vendido.

Si se refreno de relatar una cuestion que era cierta porque consideraba su descubrimiento incorrecto, ciertamente no mentiria, transgrediendo la prohibicion de dar falso testimonio. > El cumplio el mandamiento, “?Tu no codiciaras!” porque el no deseo a la esposa de Potifar. Ademas, nosotros encontramos en la Tora que Iosef no transgredio la prohibicion de odiar al hermano (Vaikra 19:17) ni la prohibicion de tomar revancha o guardar rencor (ibid. Essay Test! 19:18 ). Essay! Cuando el se revelo a los hermanos, no desplego odio hacia ellos sino les hablo palabras de afecto y consuelo. References Dissertation! Despues de la muerte de Iaacov, cuando los hermanos sospecharon que el estaba tomando venganza sobre ellos, lloro al ser falsamente sospechado y les explico que el no guardaba rencor y que consideraba su venta a Egipto una accion de Hashem. Persuasive Essay Letter! Tambien cumplio la mitzva de sostener a los empobrecidos hermanos (ibid. Vs Authority! 25:35) sustentando a su familia en Egipto. Letter! 119. En la noche de ietziat Mitzraim, Moshe tambien recolecto las vigas que Iaacov habia traido a Egipto y la madera que sus hijos habian plantado alli con el proposito de construir el Mis hkan. Gmat Essay Practice Test! 120. El numero de hombres Judios entre veinte y sesenta anos de edad que partieron de Egipto en pleno dia en este quince de Nisan era de 600.000 menos uno.

Dijo Hashem, “?Yo Me incluire a Mi Mismo en el numero para que sean exactamente 600.000!” 121. Los erev ray, los mejores de los Egipcios se alistaron junto a los Benei Israel. Persuasive Essay! A pesar de que Hashem habia aconsejado a Moshe en contra de aceptarlos como gueirim, Moshe insistio. Gmat! El discutio con Hashem. Persuasive Letter! “Estas personas han presenciado Tu gran fuerza en Egipto. Unpublished Dissertation! ?Si nos acompanan a nosotros, experimentaran milagros adicionales y entonces comprenderan totalmente que no existe poder fuera de Ti!” 122. Batia, la hija del Faraon, estaba entre aquellos que se unieron al exodo. Persuasive Essay Letter! 123 Ella entro a Eretz Israel (como lo hicieron todas las mujeres de aquella generacion,pues solo los hombres pecaron en el desierto y murieron alli 124 ), y, mas aun, fue una de las nueve personas rectas que fueron llevadas con vida al Gan Eden. Purpose! 125. La recompensa de Batia fue inmensa como resultado de su inmenso autosacrificio en salvar la vida de Moshe en oposicion al decreto de su padre.

Ella sabia que su edicto estaba motivado por un profundo odio por los Benei Israel. Persuasive Essay! Cuando salvo a Moshe y lo crio, ella arriesgo su vida. Gmat Practice! 126. Una vez que el tiempo de la redencion hubo llegado, los Benei Israel no fueron detenidos en Egipto por un momento extra. Persuasive Essay! 127 Partieron en la prisa mas grande.

Apremiados por los Egipcios, no tuvieron tiempo para preparar provisiones para el viaje sino llevaron consigo solo la amarga masa no leudada que habian tenido la intencion de dejar levantar y luego hornear. Of Research! Mas tarde hicieron motzot de esta masa. Letter! Un milagro ocurrio en donde aquellas matzot proveyeron alimentacion suficiente por treinta dias hasta que el man comenzo a caer el dieciseis de Iyar. Gmat Essay Test! 128 Ellos envolvieron los restos de su comida de Pesaj de matza y maror y los colocaron sobre sus hombros porque apreciaban la mitzva de Hashem tanto que no permitirian a sus burros llevar los sobrantes. Essay! 129. A pesar de que Benel Israel no sabian como ellos iban a sobrevivir en el desierto, todos ellos, hombres, mujeres, y ninos, siguieron a Moshe con la mas grande emuna que Hashem proveeria para ellos 130 Hashem en Su bondad causo que el exodo ocurriera en Nisan, un mes en el cual el tiempo es benigno y placentero, y no en una estacion lluviosa o fria. Publish A Research Paper! 131. Los Benei Israel alcanzaron su primer destino, la ciudad de Ramses. Persuasive Essay Letter! en el espacio de un muy corto tiempo. Paper! De alli fueron milagrosamente transportados a la ciudad de Sucot como si en alas de aguila.

Luego ellos continuaron viajando hasta Eitam la cual linda el desierto. Persuasive Essay! 132. El Significado de Ietziat Mitzraim (el Exodo de Egipto) para nuestra Generacion. Toda generacion tiene sus descreidos, ateos, escepticos y burlones quienes niegan la Providencia de un Di-s omnisciente e intentan persuadirnos a nosotros que no existe ni Recompensa ni Castigo. El Todopoderoso podria facilmente refutar sus alegatos realizando milagros los cuales demostrarian Su existencia y poder. ?Mas deberia Hashem causar un cataclismo del cosmos, entremetiendose en las leyes de la naturaleza, para los tontos y filosofos de cada generacion que dudan de Su existencia?

En lugar de ello, Hashem escogio demostrar Su Providencia y Poderio de una vez y por todas enviando las Plagas sobre Egipto y redimiendo a nuestros ancestros. Basic Paper And Thesis! Los eventos que tuvieron lugar antes y durante ietziat Mitzraim prueban lo siguiente: > Hashem se comunica con grandes hombres y los elige a ellos como Sus profetas como puede ser visto del hecho de que Hashem hablo a Moshe y le informo a el de las Plagas venideras. > El castiga a los reshaim (malvados) como es evidente del castigo de los Egipcios. > El guia los asuntos del mundo como esta claro de la redencion de los esclavizados Judios. Todos los eventos precitados fueron presenciados por nuestro pueblo integro. Persuasive Essay Letter! Ellos no solo fueron registrados en la Tora y transmitidos por palabra de boca de una generacion a la siguiente, sino, por anadidura, Hashem nos comando a nosotros cumplir un gran numero de mitzvot para asegurar que ietziat Mitzraim y sus milagros permanezcan por siempre frescos en nuestras mentes: > Para este proposito El nos ordeno a nosotros mencionar ietziat Mitzraim al leer el Shema (Devarin 16:3).

> El ordeno que nosotros escribamos las porciones relacionadas con ietziat Mitzraim sobre rollos de pergamino y las coloquemos en los tefilin (filacterias). > El nos mando a nosotros observar Pesaj y Shavuot en toda generacion en memoria de ietziat Mitzraim, en adicion a muchas mas mitzuot. En consecuencia, una persona que adquiere una mezuza y la fija a la jamba de su puerta no ha meramente comprado un rollo de pergamino y lo ha clavado a una viga, sino que ha de tal modo realizado una mitzva por la cual reconoce que Hashem es el Creador. Apa Style References Dissertation! En la misma yeta, la Tora pronuncia el estricto castigo de caret sobre alguien que come jametz (alimentos leudados) en Pesaj porque de este modo niega la creencia en ietziat Mitzraim y, como resultado, en todos los principios de la Tora. Essay! 133.

Quien niega ietziat Mitzraim de tal modo niega a Hashem y Su Tora, quien reconoce ietziat Mitzraim admite la verdad de Hashem y Su Tora. Dissertation! 134. Existe una m itzva especial (en esta parsha) de relatar la historia de ietziat Mitzraim en la noche del quince de Nisan al tiempo cuando la matza (la que debe ser comida en esa noche) es colocada ante la persona. Persuasive! Aun si no hay ninguna otra persona presente a quien el pudiera relatar la narrativa de ietziat Mitzraim, el se debe recitar la historia del exodo a si mismo. Essay! 135. La Mitzva de Santificar a todo Primogenito Humano Varon y tambien Aquellos de los Animales.

Hashem ordeno a Moshe, “Todo primogenito varon es sagrado para Hashem. Persuasive Essay Letter! El pertenece al kohen a menos que sus padres lo rediman entregando al kohen cinco se?aim. Elements Of Research Paper! Los detalles de esta mitzva son explicados en la parshat Koraj, (Bamidbar 18:6.) Santificar al primogenito nos recuerda a nosotros que Hashem salvo a los primogenitos Judios en Egipto. Essay! 136. El primogenito de un animal domesticado es tambien sagrado y debe ser entregado a un kohen. Season! Entre los animales tame (impuros) solo el primogenito del burro tiene una condicion especial. Essay! El debe ser redimido con un cordero o el valor de este burro el que es luego entregado al kohen. Publish A Research! Si el primogenito de un burro no fue redimido, su cuello debe ser quebrado, y ningun beneficio puede ser derivado de el. ?Por que fue el burro escogido de todos los animales impuros?

1. Essay Letter! Los primogenitos de los Egipcios son comparados a burros (Iejezkel 23:20 ). Basic Of Research And Thesis! Asi esta mitzua nos recordara a nosotros para siempre la Plaga de la Muerte de los Primogenitos. Persuasive Essay! 137. 2. Practice! Una ley especial fue dada relativa a los burros porque ellos ayudaron a los Ben el Israel que abandonaron Egipto transportando sus cargas de oro y plata. Essay! 138. Fuente: El Midrash Dice – Libro de Shemot – Editorial Bnei Sholem – Paginas 75 a 103.

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The Plight of the Mentally Ill Homeless in the US Essay. Introduction The issue of homelessness in the US has been of serious concern since the persuasive letter 1980s when the problem first became apparent. Budget deficits, brought about by massive diversions to military spending, forced a cutback on most social services. Today, approximately 7% of the population has been homeless at least once in their lives. Estimates place the number of people who experience homelessness each year at 3 million, more than half of which are families with children. (Donohoe, 2004) Of that number, roughly 25% have serious and chronic mental problems. (Mental Illness and Homelessness, 2006) The purpose of this paper is to provide a historical and social context to homelessness in the US, with particular focus on the mentally ill.

Current statistics and descriptive essay on autumn demographics for the mentally-ill homeless will also be presented followed by an analysis of programs currently being undertaken with regards to letter this sector of the population. The Numbers The homeless population can be divided into a research paper three types based on how long and often they are homeless. About 80% are temporarily homeless, those who experience a single, short period (about two weeks) of homelessness that is not repeated. The episodically homeless (approximately 10% of the homeless population) are also short-term spells of letter, homelessness but may be repeated at unpredictable intervals over a period of time. References Unpublished? The chronically homeless, 10% of the population, request the use of homeless assistance facilities and letter services over a protracted period at frequent intervals. (U. S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2003) Overall, 39% have reported mental illness of which 25% are considered seriously ill.

Among the last group, 50% are mentally ill or with substance abuse problems. This translates to approximately 150,000 chronically homeless, mentally ill people at any given time, and the mentally ill homeless have the most difficulty in relinquishing assistance programs. Of this population, 23% are veterans. (National Mental Health Information Center, 2003) Characteristics of the homeless mentally ill The mentally ill are often have been institutionalized at some point in their lives, and may have been involuntarily committed or have received treatment unsuitable for their condition. Since they are not completely functional because of their disability and poor hygiene, they tend to be prone to physical ailments, such as respiratory disease, HIV, and purpose essay tuberculosis, that remain untreated until an advanced stage, if not death. They are usually members of a community that have become alienated from friends and family because of their disability and institutionalization, losing whatever support system they may have had. Many have been charged with misdemeanors, and their life expectancy is approximately 45 years. (National Mental Health Information Center 2003) Causes of persuasive, homelessness among the mentally ill. The 1960s saw an initiative to essay reduce the number of mental hospitals in persuasive letter the US because of reports that patients were receiving indifferent treatment, and to transfer the institutionalized to community-based treatment centers. However, practically all states where unable to provide adequate facilities for the accommodation of the released patients. Many were reduced to becoming homeless. (Peirce, 2001) In the 1980s, budget constraints forced even more premature releases from gmat practice test managed care of people suffering from schizophrenia or manic depression, overburdening an already bogged-down system.

In a study of 187 released patients from essay letter Metropolitan State Hospital in Massachusetts, 27% had been homeless for unpublished more than 6 months, 66% of whom having no access to proper medication. There are more untreated mental cases in the population than the 90,000 receiving treatment in hospitals. In Berkeley, California, as many as 500 mentally ill people wander the city on any given night. Essay? (Homelessness: Tragic Side Effect of apa style unpublished dissertation, Non-Treatment, 2003) Federal assistance programs are often inadequate to provide housing for this disabled population, and persuasive letter rising housing costs make it difficult even for gmat essay practice test mentally stable people to obtain suitable housing. Mentally ill people are less likely to obtain steady employment and, though having no need for persuasive essay letter long-term institutionalization, are in need of regular access to treatment and rehabilitation services in order to function independently. The paucity of community-based health centers and basic of research suitable housing facilities increases the risk of homelessness for the mentally ill. (National Coalition for the Homeless, 2006) Homelessness is mostly associated in urban areas (Armour, 2003), 71% in cities, 21% in the suburbs and 9% in letter rural (National Mental Health Information Center, 2003). It is therefore mainly for city officials to address the problem of homelessness, especially the mentally ill who are most vulnerable to chronic homelessness and most in need of city social services.

However, the response of most cities is to make it a crime to be homeless, and many of the mentally ill homeless are incarcerated in conditions that will only worsen their condition. In the Twin Towers jail in Los Angeles, commonly referred to as the biggest jail in the world, 2,000 of the inmates are mentally ill, some imprisoned for gmat essay many years for minor transgressions. Police authorities often have no other place to put them but in jail. (Campbell, 2003) Homeless people with mental disorders are not only essay letter more likely to purpose and form die from poor physical health as a consequence of their disability, they are more likely to be raped, die from accidents and exposure to the elements, and murdered. There is a tendency for the general population to shun the homeless because of fear and intolerance for essay letter perceived laziness, and the mentally ill homeless are regarded as dangerous and unpredictable. Many treat the mentally ill homeless as sub-humans. (Homelessness: Tragic Side Effect of Non-Treatment, 2003) Initiatives Undertaken for the Mentally Ill Homeless The U. S. Department of Veteran Affairs has provided one of the largest percentages of public health care in the US, accommodating more than 8% of purpose essay, inpatient psychiatric care. Persuasive? Since 23% of the basic elements paper homeless mentally-ill population is veterans, the provision of such targeted psychiatric services to an at-risk population is a positive factor in the fight against the increase of the homeless mentally-ill. (Gamache, Rosenbeck and Tessler, 2000) However, for the other sectors of the homeless population, the Veterans Affairs program does not apply. Persuasive? In efforts to provide a more comprehensive blueprint for address the issue of the homeless mentally ill, several studies have been undertaken.

A two-year University of Pennsylvania study published in the Housing Policy Debate of gmat essay, 5,000 homeless with serious mental problems in letter New York stated that it cost the same amount in public dollars to gmat essay practice test provide supportive housing, health services and employment assistance to the mentally ill as to provide social services to homeless people for essay letter the same period. (Franzen, 2001) The Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) initiated the federal Continuum Care Program to combat homelessness, the core of which is called the Continuum of Care Initiative, which began a study of 4,000 homeless people in essay 1996 aimed at essay letter, identifying factors that pertain to homelessness in the US. The HUD released the report entitled “The Forgotten Americans – Homelessness: Programs and the People They Serve” in 2000. It was reported that 39% of the subjects were mentally ill. The report identified the primary goal of the homeless (find employment) and how much of the basic population reacted favorably (76% who lived as families and 60% who lived alone ended homelessness) to access to housing, health care and persuasive other needed services. The report outlined strategies that resulted in a US$45 million additional funding for homeless programs in 2000 and helped finance housing, employment and other self-sufficiency programs for 300,000 homeless people. (Tyler, 2002). In 2003, the U. S.Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) followed up on gmat essay test the HUD initiative and submitted a report that showed that health care costs of a homeless medically-ill person was US$ 11,000 more a year than that of the same person after being provided with suitable housing. The Needs of a Chronically Homeless Person Cross Many Service System Boundaries Source: U. S. Department of Health and essay Human Services (2003). Ending Chronic Homelessness: Strategies for Action.

Retrieved February 1, 2007 from http://aspe. htm#ch2 In response to these studies, the following services were identified as necessary for ending homelessness among medically ill people: information and referral; outreach and engagement; mental health and counseling services; inpatient services; income management and support; residential treatment services; discharge planning; life skills services; education and skills training; and employment services. With a time frame of 10 years, the HHS outlined three goals of the essay on autumn season initiative: 1. Provide easier access for at-risk populations to treatment and support services by simplifying document requirements, increasing outreach programs and extending the period of eligibility for benefits. Strategies to assist service providers in letter carrying out the objectives of the assistance programs, such as inter-agency collaboration for data sharing, in-service training for essay mainstream service providers as well as a marriage of homeless-specific and mainstream service providers working in tandem to persuasive essay letter provide services for gmat practice eligible patients are also suggested. 2. Promote efficiency and flexibility in allocating funds that address chronic homelessness by encouraging cooperation between concerned departments in the federal, state and local levels in terms of programs and service delivery. Incentives are to be formulated to encourage such collaboration, especially when it comes to mainstream and letter homeless-specific funding sources. Gmat Test? The need for persuasive a coordinating body was pinpointed. 3. Reduce the essay number of the homeless population by identifying populations at risk (i. e.veterans, deinstitutionalized mental patients) and providing programs that would ensure the ability to acquire decent housing such as employment assistance and persuasive letter regular health monitoring. (U. And Form Essay? S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2003) The response at the city level, where the issue of the homeless is most pressing, has been mixed.

Some cities still handle homelessness using punitive measures. In Sarasota, Florida, a person can be arrested for having no other place to live. Business leaders in Lawrence, Kansas, pressured city hall to curtail social services and essay pass ordinances targeted at the homeless. The anti-panhandling law in Atlanta, Georgia was imposed on a Hurricane Katrina evacuee after he was caught selling wares in an upper-class mall. Supportive housing was also banned within the city limits.

In Little Rock, Arkansas, homeless people are not allowed on buses even if they have tickets, simply because they are homeless. (National Coalition for the Homeless, 2006) Other cities are more constructive. The Ft. Lauderdale police department and vs authority The Taskforce for Ending Homelessness, Inc.have teamed up to form the persuasive Homeless Outreach Team to season provide social services and place the homeless in shelters in Broward County, Florida, cutting down the persuasive letter arrest record of the gmat homeless by 2,400 annually in the 5 years of the program’s operation. The Homeless Outreach Psychiatric Evaluation Team in Pasadena, California is a partnership of the Pasadena Police Department and letter the Los Angeles Department of Health to provide mental health services to the homeless population. A tri-city cooperation in Ohio fund programs that provide social services at during off-hours to people ineligible for state assistance. The Homeless Court Program formed in 1989 in San Diego, California assists the homeless in resolving misdemeanor charges that prevent their access to benefits such as housing and employment. In Washington, D. C. , business owners solved the problem of the essay homeless wandering the persuasive essay letter street during the day when shelters are closed by publish paper establishing a day center that can accommodate 260 people where they can get a meal, shower and do laundry. (National Coalition for the Homeless, 2006) Proposed Plan for Community-Based Assessment Program. The following is essay a generic plan and timetable for a community-based program composed of power vs authority essay, volunteers in collaboration with local police authorities based on needs assessment criteria designed to assess the level of intervention required for a population of 5,000 residents. Recruitment and orientation of potential members through flyers and announcements at persuasive essay letter, the community or city hall 1 month Data gathering on the homeless population based on arrest records and field research 3 months Tracking down identified homeless people and conducting interviews to identify perceived needs 6 months. Analysis of interviews by trained professionals for recommendations on the services needed for the target population 1 month Submission of results and recommendations of the study to the concerned city and community departments to acquire funding and power essay other assistance 1 month The above plan will address the needs of a specific population with particular demographic and social factors that will determine the essay type and scale of social services, health management, housing and employment assistance that would most effectively eliminate the homeless mentally ill population. The smallness of the target population will make it more manageable, especially for volunteer organizations, and easier to acquire and manage funding for whatever needs that are identified.

Conclusions Studies have shown what police authorities and social organizations have been pointing out for some time: the of research paper costs of incarcerating and treating mentally ill homeless people would be greatly reduced if they receive regular treatment and medication and provided with the ability to take themselves off the streets. (Campbell, 2003) This would mean more funds for more people receiving community-based health and persuasive essay letter housing privileges. The proposed plan for needs assessment is only the initial stage for providing for the homeless mentally ill at the community level for small populations. Many studies deal with the needs of a large population that may not be applicable in the micro-level, especially if the community in question has particular cultural and social issues unique to that community. Publish Paper? It may also serve as a model to identify other subgroups of the homeless such as those substance abuse problems. It must be brought to the next level, actual service and support delivery. Many of the initiatives in all levels of letter, public social service access are headed in the right direction, mostly as a result of elements, recommendations from persuasive essay letter comprehensive studies of the issue. Inter-agency collaborations are providing good models for all communities to follow, but they are a handful compared to the magnitude of the problem at hand. More cooperation is needed to essay make effective use of funds, mainstream and homeless-specific service providers, law enforcement agencies and volunteer organizations. Moreover, the letter homeless mentally ill are still victims of public ridicule and basic elements paper and thesis loathing. People of the community must acknowledge that the most effective way to essay assist the homeless mentally off the power vs authority essay streets and into persuasive productive lives is by apa style unpublished dissertation providing social services, mental health access, employment assistance and supportive housing at the community level.

In the long run, the most cost-effective way getting rid of them is to make them productive, functioning citizens. References Armour, S. (2003) Homelessness grows as more live check-to-check. USA Today.Retrieved February 2, 2007 from persuasive http://www. usatoday. com/money/economy/2003-08-11-homeless_x. htm Campbell, D. (2003) 300,000 Mentally Ill in gmat essay practice US Prisons. Common Dreams. org. Retrieved February 2, 2007 from essay http://www. commondreams. org/headlines03/0303-09. htm Donohoe, M. (2004) Homelessness in the United States. Medscape Ob/Gyn Women’s Health. Retrieved January 31, 2007 from http://www. medscape. com/viewarticle/481800 Franzen, H. (2001) Housing Mentally Ill Homeless People Makes Economic Sense. Scientific American Inc. Retrieved January 31, 2007 from http://www.sciam. com/article. cfm? articleID=000EF22A-AA04-1C5E-B882809EC588ED9F Gamache, G, Rosenbeck, R. and Tessler, R. Essay On Autumn? (2000) Factors Predicting Choice of letter, Provider Among Homeless Veterans With Mental Illness Psychiatric Services.

Retrieved February 1, 2007 from http://www. psychservices. On Autumn? psychiatryonline. org/cgi/content/full/51/8/1024 Homelessness: Tragic Side Effect of Non-Treatment (2003) Treatment Advocacy Center. Retrieved February 1, 2007 from http://www. psychlaws. org/generalResources/fact11. htm Maleque, S. and Brennan, V. (n. d. ) Homeless Mentally Ill. Factline: Tracking Health in persuasive letter Undeserved Communities. Retrieved February 1, 2007 from http://www. meharry. org/Fl/Mental_Health/Homeless_Mentally_Ill. html#mh%20disab National Coalition for the Homeless (2006) Mental Illness and Homelessness. Retrieved January 31, 2007 from and form essay http://www. nationalhomeless. org/publications/facts/Mental_Illness. pdf National Coalition for the Homeless (2006) Report accuses US cities of criminalizing the homeless. City Mayors Society. Retrieved February 1, 2007 from http://www. citymayors. com/society/homeless_usa2. html. National Mental Health Information Center (2003) Homelessness – Provision of Mental Health and Substance Abuse Services.

Retrieved February 2, 2007 from http://mentalhealth. samhsa. gov/publications/allpubs/homelessness/ Peirce, N. (2001) Help for the Mentally Ill Homeless: Rectifying a 30 Year Old Problem. Stateline. org. Retrieved February 2, 2007 from http://www. stateline. org/live/ViewPage. Persuasive? action? siteNodeId=136languageId=1contentId=14273 Tyler, R. Vs Authority Essay? (2002) Homeless in America. NewsHour Extra. Retrieved January 31, 2007 from http://www. pbs. org/newshour/extra/features/july-dec02/homeless.html U. S. Department of Health and Human Services (2003) Ending Chronic Homelessness: Strategies for letter Action Chapter 2. Publish Paper? Retrieved February 1, 2007 from essay letter http://aspe. hhs. gov/hsp/homelessness/strategies03/ch. htm#ch2 U. S. Apa Style Unpublished Dissertation? Department of Health and Human Services (2003) Ending Chronic Homelessness: Strategies for Action Chapter 5. Retrieved February 1, 2007 from http://aspe. hhs. gov/hsp/homelessness/strategies03/ch. htm#ch5 U. S. Departmentof Veterans Affairs (2006) Overview of Homelessness. Retrieved February 1, 2007 from http://www1. va. gov/homeless/page. cfm? pg=1. University/College: University of Chicago. Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter. Date: 18 April 2017.

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How to Write Persuasive Letters (with Sample Letters) - wikiHow

an essay on man pope Pope wrote his Essay on Man in letter rhyming verse. Certainly today, we think anybody that writes poetry is one who is a bit odd, to and form essay say the least. Persuasive! Back in the eighteenth century, it was not so strange. Pope stated that he had two reasons for writing his essay in essay practice such a manner. First, he thought that principles, maxims, or precepts so written, both strike the reader more strongly at first, and are more easily retained by him afterwards. The second reason that Pope gave is that he thought that he could express himself more shortly this way than in prose itself. I here make comments about the expressions and thoughts of Pope in his essay.

I have quoted at length from his essay. Certainly there is much I have left out, because, likely, certain verses referred to events, persons and things of the early eighteenth century which, quite frankly, I am unfamiliar with. Spattered throughout Pope's work are references to essay God and His great domain. Such references in the writings out of the eighteenth century are not strange. The livelihood of power vs authority writers, by and large -- as was with the essay letter case of apa style unpublished all artists back then -- depended almost entirely on the generosity of church and state, so it was necessary in those days that writers give due regard to religious authority. Believing that if Pope were looking over essay my shoulder he would have no objection, I have left out religious epaulets. Essay! Within the essay letter first few lines, we see Pope wondering about the fruitlessness of life.

We have no choice: we come to it, look out and then die. And Form! What we see as we look out on essay, the scene of man is a mighty maze! But Pope does not think this complex of and form essay existence is without a plan. Man might sort through the maze because he has a marvelous mental faculty, that of reason; man can determine the nature of the world in persuasive letter which he lives; he can see that all things have bearings, ties and essay, strong connections and nice dependencies. He, who thro' vast immensity can pierce, See worlds on worlds compose one universe, Observe how system into persuasive essay system runs, What other planets circle other suns, Look'd thro'? or can a part contain the whole? Is the great chain that draws all to agree, - And, drawn, supports - upheld by God or thee?

In his next stanza, Pope makes reference to presumptuous man! Why should one be disturbed because he cannot immediately figure out apa style, all of the letter mysteries with which he is presented? It cannot be expected that one part of existence (man) should understand all the other parts, he then continues: As of thy mother Earth, why oaks are made. Taller or stronger than the descriptive essay season weeds they shade. Persuasive! And all that rises, rise in due degree; Then, in the sale of reas'ning life, 'tis plain. There must be, somewhere, such a rank as Man. Publish A Research! When the dull ox, why now he breaks the clod, Is now a victim, and now Egypt's god, - Then say not Man's imperfect, Heav'n in essay letter fault, - Say rather Man's as perfect as he ought: His knowledge measur'd to his state and season, place, His time a moment, and a point his space.

Pope continues with this theme into his third stanza, in saying Heav'n from persuasive essay all creatures hides the references unpublished dissertation book of persuasive essay letter fate, and continues: The lamb thy riot dooms to publish a research paper bleed to-day, Had he thy reason, would he skip and play? Pleas'd to the last he crops the flow'ry food, And licks the persuasive letter hand just rais'd to shed his blood. Who sees with equal eye, as God of all, A hero perish, or a sparrow fall, Atoms or systems into ruin hurl'd, And now a bubble burst, and now a world. Then giving way to his religious bent, makes reference to the great teacher Death and continues with his most famous lines: Hope springs eternal in the human breast; Man never is, but always to be blest: The soul uneasy and confin'd from power home, Rest and expatiates in essay letter a life to come. Next, Pope deals with native people of the uncivilized territories of the world, and how they do not get hung up on such large questions as are expressed in Pope's essay: Lo, the poor Indian! whose untutor'd mind. Sees God in clouds, or hears him in the wind; His soul proud Science never taught to stray. Far as the solar walk or milky way; Yet simple Nature to his hope has giv'n, Behind the cloud-topp'd hill, a humbler heav'n; Some safer world in depth of woods embrac'd,

Some happier island in the wat'ry waste, Where slaves once more their native land behold, No fiends torment, no Christians thirst for gold! To be, contents his natural desire; He asks no angel's wing, no seraph's fire: But things, admitted to that equal sky, His faithful dog shall bear him company. Next, we see Pope start to develop the theme that runs throughout his essay; man is part of dissertation a larger setting, a part of nature. Man depends on nature for his very substance, and yet, treats her roughly. Destroy all creatures for thy sport or gust, Yet cry, if Man's unhappy, God's unjust; Ask for what end the heav'nly bodies shine, Earth for whose use, Pride answers, 'Tis for mine! For me kind Nature wakes her genial pow'r, Suckles each herb and spreads out ev'ry flow'r; Pope asserts that man is ruled from within, by persuasive essay letter, his reason and by his passion. Better for us, perhaps, it might appear, Were there are harmony, all virtue here; That never air or ocean felt the wind; That never passion discompos'd the mind. Essay! But all subsists by elemental strife; And passions are the elements of life.

The gen'ral Order since the persuasive letter whole began. Is kept in Nature, and is kept in Man. Power Vs Authority! Passion may be equated to persuasive letter instinct; and purpose, instinct is the persuasive letter sole guide of animals. Instinct is all that animals need as evolution has fitted each animal to his home environment, unlike man who is in want of the strength of bulls, the fur of bears. Here with degrees of swiftness, there of descriptive on autumn force: All in exact proportion to the state; Nothing to add, and nothing to abate. Each beast, each insect, happy in its own: Is Heav'n unkind to Man, and Man alone? Shall he alone, whom rational we call, Be pleas'd with nothing, if not bless'd with all? Again, Pope emphasizes how nature all good and wise. and letter, what it gives, and what denies has perfected itself and many of its creations: The spider's tough how exquisitely fine!

Feels at references, each thread, and lives along the line: In the nice bee, what sense so subtly true. From pois'nous herbs extracts the healing dew? In nature, we find life in a complete variety, - vast chain of being everything beast, bird, fish, insect. Or in persuasive essay the full creation leave a void, Where, one step broken, the great scale's destroy'd: From Nature's chain whatever link you strike, Tenth or ten thousandth, breaks the chain alike. The point, I think, is that there is a fearful balance of nature in essay all its variety, and we dare not destroy one aspect of nature for fear of destroying the whole. All this dread order break - for whom? for persuasive essay, thee? Vile worm! - oh madness! pride! impiety! In the last line of Pope's first epistle, he bangs home the importance of the ruling mind of nature, that while some parts might seem to us to be absurd, it is part of the general frame that all of nature, including ourselves, are but parts of one stupendous whole. This whole body of nature is vs authority through all life and extends throughout all of the universe and operates unspent. Letter! Pope concludes his first epistle: Safe in elements paper the hand of one disposing Pow'r, Or in the natal, or the mortal hour.

All Nature is but Art, unknown to thee; All chance, direction, which thou canst not see. All discord, harmony not understood, All partial evil, universal good: And, spite of persuasive essay pride, in erring reason's spite, One truth is clear, whatever is, is right. Pope opens his second Epistle much the same as he opened his first. What is the function of man, positioned as he is somewhere between a god and a beast. Man, during that brief interlude between birth and death, experiences a chaos of thought and passion, all confus'd. He finds on earth the Great lord of references unpublished dissertation all things, yet a prey to essay all. Man's function, Pope concludes, is to gmat essay practice make a proper study of mankind ; man is to persuasive know himself.

What man will come to know is of research paper and thesis that he is ruled by passion; passion is the ruler and reason it's counsellor. Alas what wonder! Man's superior part. Uncheck'd may rise and climb from art to art; But when his own great work is but begun, What Reason weaves, by Passion is undone. It is in the nature of man to first serve himself; but, on account of reason, to essay letter do so with the long range in gmat essay test view. Two Principles in essay letter human nature reign; Self-love, to urge, and Reason, to restrain; Self-love still stronger, as its objects nigh; Reason's at distance, and in prospect lie: A person is driven by descriptive season, passion, driven by his desire for pleasure; temptation is strong and passion is thicker than arguments. However, a person soon learns through bitter experience that one cannot let his or her passions run wild. Attention, habit and experience gains; Each strengthens Reason, and Self-love restrains. Self-love and Reason to one end aspire, Pain their aversion, Pleasure their desire, Pleasure, or wrong or rightly understood, Our greatest evil, or our greatest good.

Passions, tho' selfish, if their means be fair, List under reason, and deserve her care. On life's vast ocean diversely we sail, Reason the card, but passion is the gale;2. Love, Hope, and Joy, fair Pleasure's smiling train, Hate, Fear, and Grief, the letter family of Pain, These mix'd with art, and to due bounds confin'd, Make and maintain the balance of the mind: Pope's theme is again repeated: the two driving forces of man are his reason and his passion. However, passion is the king and reason but a weak queen. What can she more than tell us we are fools? Teach us to mourn our nature, not to mend. A sharp accuser but a helpless friend!

Reason (th' Eternal Art, educing good from ill) is not a guide but a guard. Passion is the mightier pow'r. Envy, Pope points out as an aside, is something that can be possessed only by those who are learn'd or brave. Ambition: can destroy or save, and gmat practice, makes a patriot as it makes a knave. With Pope's thoughts, it soon becomes clear one should not necessarily consider that envy and ambition are in themselves wrong. They are moving forces in a person and if properly guided, can serve a person well. As, in some well-wrought picture, light and shade. Persuasive Essay Letter! And oft so mix, the diff'rence is purpose essay too nice, Where ends the virtue, or begins the vice. Persuasive Letter! And virtuous and vicious ev'ry man must be, Few in the extreme, but all in the degree; Each person is references dissertation driven by self-love, but on the same occasion each on the other to depend, a master, or a servant, or a friend, bids each on other for assistance call. Each person seeks his own happiness, seeks his own contentment; each is letter proud in what he or she has achieved, no matter what another person might think of and thesis those achievements.

Whate'er the passions, knowledge, fame, or pelf, Not one will change is neighbour with himself. The learn'd is happy nature to explore, The fool is happy that he knows no more; The rich is happy in essay letter the plenty given, The poor contents him with the care of Heaven, See the a research paper blind beggar dance, the persuasive essay letter cripple sing. The sot a hero, lunatic a king; The starving chemist in his golden views. Elements Paper! Supremely bless'd, the poet in his Muse. None of essay letter us should be critical of another person's choice in life, who is to know it is right. Basic Of Research Paper And Thesis! Behold the child, by nature's kindly law, Pleased with a rattle, tickled with a straw: Some livelier plaything give his youth delight, A little louder, but as empty quite: Scarfs, garters, gold, amuse his riper stage, And beads and prayer-books are the toys of age: Pleased with this bauble still, as that before, Till tired he sleeps, and life's poor play is o'er. Pope returns, in persuasive his third Epistle, to his ever present theme, all is natural in nature and vs authority, man is a part of nature. He first observes how plastic nature is, how everything is dependant on one and the other, is attracted to one and essay, the other, down even to single atoms. Everything it's neighbour to purpose and form embrace. (While Pope did not do so, he might just as easily have observed that things in nature repel one another, equally so.

All things, in persuasive the final analysis, are held in the balance, suspended, so it seems, between the two great forces of attraction and repulsion.) All forms that perish other forms supply, (By turns we catch the vital breath, and die) Like bubbles on power vs authority essay, the sea a matter borne, They rise, they break, and to that sea return. Nothing is foreign; parts relate to whole: Then, Pope picks up once again his theme of the ruling principles, reason and essay letter, passion. Essay! Here in persuasive letter his third Epistle, he refers to instinct as the unerring guide that reason often fails us, though sometimes serves when press'd. And Form Essay! But honest instinct comes a volunteer, Sure never to o'ershoot, but just to hit, While still to letter wide or short is human wit; Sure by quick nature happiness to gain, Which heavier reason labour at in vain. Instinct can be seen at publish a research paper, work throughout nature, for example, Who make the spider parallels design . without rule or line? Not just the letter spider does things by instinct, man does. The obvious example is publish paper his artistic work, but our instincts serve us on a much broader range. Think! And you will wonder about many of the daily things that are done, automatically it seems. What, exactly, is it that prompts us to do things. Who calls the council, states the certain day, Who forms the persuasive phalanx, and who points the way?

Pope then comes to a rather critical passage in his essay, when he deals with family units in the animal kingdom versus human beings. Gmat Essay Test! The fact of the matter is, family units do not count for much in the animal kingdom, at essay, any rate, not for power vs authority essay, long. However, family connections for human beings extend over a long period, indeed, over essay letter a lifetime. I would observe that it is an evolutionary development, needed because of the long time required before a child passes into adulthood. These family feelings are important for basic elements paper, the development and cohesion of the family, but not necessarily good when extended to the larger group, society as a whole (this is a theme that I have developed elsewhere (EconEcon.doc) and which someday I hope to put up on essay, the 'net.). Thus beast and bird their common charge attend, The mothers nurse it, and the sires defend: The young dismiss'd to wander earth or air, There stops the instinct, and there ends the care; The link dissolves, each seeks a fresh embrace, Another love succeeds, another race. A longer care man's helpless kind demands; That longer care contracts more lasting bands: Reflection, reason, still the a research ties improve, At one extend the interest, and the love; With choice we fix, with sympathy we burn; Each virtue in each passion takes its turn; And still new needs, new helps, new habits rise.

That graft benevolence on persuasive, charities. Still as one brood, and as another rose, These natural love maintain'd, habitual those: The last, scarce ripen'd into perfect man, Saw helpless from him whom their life began: Memory and forecast just returns engage; That pointed back to youth, this on to age; While pleasure, gratitude, and paper, hope, combined, Still spread the interest, and preserved the persuasive kind. Pope then, continuing with his third Epistle, returns to his principle and the power of elements paper nature. Nature is persuasive essay a driving gale, a fact which can be observed in power vs authority essay the voice of nature and which we can learn from the birds and the beasts. It was the power of nature that built the ant's republic and the realm of bees. Pope observes anarchy without confusion. Their separate cells and properties maintain. Mark what unvaried laws preserve each state;- Laws wise as nature, and as fix'd as fate. In vain thy reason finer webs shall draw; Entangle justice in persuasive essay letter her net of gmat essay practice law; And right, too rigid, harden into wrong, Still for the strong too weak, the weak too strong. Essay! Yet go! and purpose, thus o'er all the letter creatures sway; Thus let the apa style references wiser make the persuasive essay rest obey; And for those arts mere instinct could afford, Be crown'd as monarchs, or as gods adored.

It is the essay practice test same voice of letter nature by which men evolved and cities were built, societies were made. That while men in the gradual and slow build-up ravished one another with war, it was commerce that brought about practice test, civilization. Men came to persuasive letter new countries with war-like intentions, but soon became friends when they realized there was much more profit in references dissertation trade. When love was liberty, and nature law: Thus states were form'd; the name of persuasive letter king unknown, Till common interest placed the sway in one. 'Twas Virtue only, or in arts or arms, So, it was trade that built civilizations, and of research paper, Pope observes, that it was tradition that preserves them. Convey'd unbroken faith from sire to persuasive son; The worker from the publish a research work distinct was known, Then, continuing in this historical vein, Pope deals with the essay development of government and of laws. So drives self-love, through just and and form essay, through unjust. To one man's power, ambition, lucre, lust: The same self-love, in all, becomes the persuasive cause.

Of what restrains him, government and laws: For, what one likes if others like as well, What serves one will, when many wills rebel? How shall we keep, what, sleeping or awake, A weaker may surprise, a stronger take? His safety must his liberty restrain: All join to guard what each desires to gain. Forced into virtue thus by self-defence, Ev'n kings learn'd justice and essay on autumn, benevolence: Self-love forsook the path it first pursued, And found the private in persuasive essay the public good. 'Twas then, the studious head or generous mind, Follower of God or friend of references unpublished human-kind, Poet or patriot, rose but to restore. Essay Letter! The faith and moral Nature gave before; Relumed her ancient light, not kindled new; If not God's image, yet his shadow drew; Taught power's due use to people and to descriptive essay on autumn season kings; Taught not to slack nor strain its tender strings; The less or greater set so justly true, That touching one must strike the other too; Till jarring int'rests of themselves create. Th' according music of a well-mix'd state. Essay! Such is the world's great harmony, that springs. From order, union, full consent of things: Where small and great, where weak and mighty made. To serve, not suffer, strengthen, not invade; More pow'rful each as needful to the rest, And in proportion as it blesses, blest; Draw to one point, and to one centre bring. Gmat Essay Practice Test! Beast, man, or angel, servant, lord, or king.

Pope makes a side observation that while government is essay necessary, its form is of less importance, what is important, is a good administration: For forms of government let fools contest; Whate'er is best administer'd is best: Pope then concludes in his third Epistle, emphasizing that regard for basic and thesis, oneself and his family has to be different than regard for persuasive essay, the whole of society, that nature link'd the gen'ral frame and bade self-love and social be the same. In his last Epistle on the Essay of Man, Pope deals with the subject of happiness. It may be any one of a number of things, it depends on the person: good, pleasure, ease, content! whatever thy name. That happiness as a plant of celestial seed will grow, and if it doesn't, one should not blame the essay soil, but rather the way one tends the soil. Though man may well seek happiness in many quarters, it will only letter be found in nature. Man should avoid extremes. Essay Season! He should not go about in life trusting everything, but on the same occasion neither should he be a total skeptic.

Take Nature's path, and letter, made Opinion's leave; All states can reach it and all heads conceive; Obvious her goods, in no extreme they dwell; There needs but thinking right, and meaning well; And mourn our various portions as we please, Equal is common sense, and common ease. To Pope, pleasure does not last, it sicken, and all glories sink. To each person comes his or her share and power vs authority, who would more obtain, Shall find the pleasure pays not half the pain. To be rich, to be wise: these are both laudable goals and a person looking about will always be able to find others who have riches and wisdom in varying degrees, but it cannot be concluded to any degree that they are happy. Happiness comes when one has health, peace, and letter, competence. It is not clear to me from Pope's lines how one might secure peace and competence; health, he says, consists with temperance alone.

It is in the nature of man to purpose and form attempt to change things; he is never happy with things as he finds them; never happy with his fellow man; never happy with the world about him. Essay! We forever strive to make things perfect, a state that can hardly be define in publish a research paper human terms. Those that reflect on man's condition will soon have Utopian dreams. Persuasive! But still this world, so fitted for the knave, Contents us not. A better shall we have? A kingdom of the just then let it be: But first consider how those just agree. The good must merit God's peculiar care; But who but God can tell us who they are? It all too often appears to us that virtue starves, while vice is fed. One might wish for man to be a God and for earth to descriptive essay on autumn be a heaven, both God and heaven coming from the imaginations of persuasive essay letter man.

But, Pope concludes: 'Whatever is, is right.' -- This world, 'tis true. Of fame, Pope says, it is but a fancied life in others' breath . A Research! All that we feel of it begins and essay, ends in the small circle of our foes and friends . Purpose And Form! It will get you nothing but a crowd of persuasive essay letter stupid starers and of loud huzzas. Purpose Essay! Of wisdom, Pope attempts a definition and points out how often the wise are bound to trudge alone with neither help nor understanding from his fellow man. In parts superior what advantage lies! Tell, for persuasive essay, you can, what is it to be wise? 'Tis but to know how little can be known ; To see all others' faults, and feel our own: Condem'd in business or in arts to drudge, Without a second, or without a judge: Truths would you teach, or save a sinking land?

All fear, none aid you, and few understand. Power Vs Authority Essay! And so we arrive at the last of Pope's lines. Show'd erring Pride, WHATEVER IS, IS RIGHT; That Reason, Passion, answer one great aim; That true Self-love and Social are the persuasive letter same . 1 The Poetical Works of publish a research Alexander Pope which includes Dr. Johnson's 65 page biography on Pope, Essay on persuasive letter, Man (31 pp.); Essay on Criticism (17 pp.), Rape of the paper Lock (19 pp.), The Dunciad (31 pp.). My vintage copy has within it two frontispiece Steel Engravings (Philadelphia: Hazard, 1857).

2 Here, again, we see Pope refer to the analogy of the persuasive sailing ship on the sea finding its way only with compass (card) for direction and the wind in the sails to drive the vessel along.

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essay om facebook Citation: boyd, danah. 2007. Viewing American class divisions through Facebook and MySpace . Apophenia Blog Essay. June 24 .

(If you have comments, please add them to the related entry on my blog. Letter? Thank you.) (I have also written a response to the critiques of this essay. This should answer some of the confusions introduced by this essay.) (Leveraging ethnographic data, I have documented these dynamics in more detail in my dissertation: Taken Out of Context: American Teen Sociality in Networked Publics. See Chapter Five.) (I take up the racist language that teens use to discuss MySpace and descriptive essay, Facebook in letter White Flight in basic elements Networked Publics? How Race and Class Shaped American Teen Engagement with MySpace and Facebook.

To be published in Digital Race Anthology, edited by persuasive letter Peter Chow-White and Lisa Nakamura.) Over the last six months, I've noticed an elements of research and thesis, increasing number of press articles about how high school teens are leaving MySpace for Facebook. That's only partially true. There is indeed a change taking place, but it's not a shift so much as a fragmentation. Until recently, American teenagers were flocking to MySpace. The picture is now being blurred. Some teens are flocking to MySpace. Letter? And some teens are flocking to Facebook. Paper? Who goes where gets kinda sticky. probably because it seems to primarily have to do with socio-economic class. I want to take a moment to make a meta point here. Persuasive Essay Letter? I have been traipsing through the essay country talking to teens and I've been seeing this transition for the past 6-9 months but I'm having a hard time putting into persuasive essay words.

Americans aren't so good at and thesis talking about class and I'm definitely feeling that discomfort. It's sticky, it's uncomfortable, and to top it off, we don't have the persuasive language for marking class in a meaningful way. So this piece is intentionally descriptive, but in being so, it's also hugely problematic. I don't have the language to purpose and form, get at what I want to say, but I decided it needed to be said anyhow. I wish I could just put numbers in front of it all and be done with it, but instead, I'm going to face the stickiness and see if I can get my thoughts across. Hopefully it works. For the academics reading this, I want to highlight that this is not an persuasive letter, academic article. It is on autumn season not trying to be.

It is based on my observations in the field, but I'm not trying to situate or theorize what is going on. I've chosen terms meant to convey impressions, but I know that they are not precise uses of these terms. Hopefully, one day, I can get the words together to actually write an academic article about this topic, but I felt as though this is too important of an issue to essay, sit on while I find the words. So I wrote it knowing that it would piss many off. The academic side of me feels extremely guilty about this; the purpose and form essay activist side of me finds it too critical to go unacknowledged. Enter the competition. When MySpace launched in essay letter 2003, it was primarily used by essay test 20/30-somethings (just like Friendster before it). The bands began populating the site by early 2004 and throughout 2004, the average age slowly declined.

It wasn't until late 2004 that teens really started appearing en masse on persuasive essay, MySpace and publish paper, 2005 was the year that MySpace became the in thing for essay letter teens. Facebook launched in 2004 as a Harvard-only site. It slowly expanded to apa style references dissertation, welcome people with .edu accounts from a variety of different universities. Essay Letter? In mid-2005, Facebook opened its doors to high school students, but it wasn't that easy to get an apa style references unpublished dissertation, account because you needed to be invited. As a result, those who were in college tended to invite those high school students that they liked. Facebook was strongly framed as the cool thing that college students did. So, if you want to go to college (and particularly a top college), you wanted to get on Facebook badly. Even before high school networks were possible, the moment seniors were accepted to a college, they started hounding the essay letter college sysadmins for their .edu account. The message was clear: college was about descriptive essay season Facebook.

For all of 2005 and most of 2006, MySpace was the cool thing for high school teens and Facebook was the cool thing for persuasive essay college students. This is practice not to say that MySpace was solely high school or Facebook solely college, but there was a dominating age division that played out in the cultural sphere. When Facebook opened to everyone last September, it became relatively easy for any high school student to join (and then they simply had to get permission to join their high school network). This meant that many more high school teens did join, much to the chagrin and horror of college students who had already begun writing about letter their lack of and form interest in having HS students on their site. Still, even with the rise of high school students, Facebook was framed as being about college.

This was what was in the press. Persuasive? This was what college students said. Facebook is what the essay college kids did. Not surprisingly, college-bound high schoolers desperately wanted in. In addition to the college framing, the press coverage of essay MySpace as dangerous and sketchy alienated good kids. Facebook seemed to of research paper, provide an ideal alternative. Essay Letter? Parents weren't nearly as terrified of Facebook because it seemed safe thanks to the network-driven structure. (Of course, I've seen more half-naked, drink-carrying high school students on Facebook than on MySpace, but we won't go there.) As this past school year progressed, the division around usage became clearer.

In trying to look at it, I realized that it was primarily about class. In sociology, Nalini Kotamraju has argued that constructing arguments around class is extremely difficult in the United States. Terms like working class and middle class and upper class get all muddled quickly. Basic Of Research And Thesis? She argues that class divisions in the United States have more to do with lifestyle and social stratification than with income. In other words, all of my anti-capitalist college friends who work in cafes and read Engels are not working class just because they make $14K a year and have no benefits. Class divisions in the United States have more to persuasive essay letter, do with social networks (the real ones, not FB/MS), social capital, cultural capital, and attitudes than income. Not surprisingly, other demographics typically discussed in class terms are also a part of this lifestyle division. Basic Paper And Thesis? Social networks are strongly connected to geography, race, and religion; these are also huge factors in lifestyle divisions and thus class. I'm not doing justice to her arguments but it makes sense. Essay? My friends who are making $14K in cafes are not of the same class as the immigrant janitor in Oakland just because the purpose share the same income bracket.

Their lives are quite different. Unfortunately, with this framing, there aren't really good labels to persuasive essay, demarcate the class divisions that do exist. For this reason, I will attempt to delineate what we see on purpose essay, social network sites in stereotypical, descriptive terms meant to evoke an image. The goodie two shoes, jocks, athletes, or other good kids are now going to Facebook. These kids tend to come from letter, families who emphasize education and going to college.

They are part of and form essay what we'd call hegemonic society. They are primarily white, but not exclusively. They are in honors classes, looking forward to the prom, and live in a world dictated by after school activities. MySpace is still home for Latino/Hispanic teens, immigrant teens, burnouts, alternative kids, art fags, punks, emos, goths, gangstas, queer kids, and other kids who didn't play into the dominant high school popularity paradigm. These are kids whose parents didn't go to college, who are expected to get a job when they finish high school. These are the essay letter teens who plan to go into the military immediately after schools. Teens who are really into music or in a band are also on gmat essay test, MySpace. Persuasive? MySpace has most of the kids who are socially ostracized at school because they are geeks, freaks, or queers. In order to demarcate these two groups, let's call the first group of teens hegemonic teens and basic and thesis, the second group subaltern teens. (Yes, I know that these words have academic and political valence. I couldn't find a good set of terms so feel free to suggest alternate labels.) These terms are sloppy at best because the division isn't clear, but it should at least give us terms with which to talk about the two groups. The division is cleanest in communities where the predator panic hit before MySpace became popular.

In much of the persuasive letter midwest, teens heard about Facebook and paper, MySpace at the same time. They were told that MySpace was bad while Facebook was key for college students seeking to make friends at college. I go into schools where the persuasive essay letter school is split between the Facebook users and the MySpace users. On the purpose and form coasts and in big cities, things are more murky than elsewhere. MySpace became popular through the persuasive essay bands and fans dynamic before the predator panic kicked in. Its popularity on the coasts and in the cities predated Facebook's launch in high schools. A Research Paper? Many hegemonic teens are still using MySpace because of their connections to participants who joined in the early days, yet they too are switching and tend to maintain accounts on both. Persuasive Letter? For the paper hegemonic teens in the midwest, there wasn't a MySpace to switch from so the switch is happening much faster.

None of the essay letter teens are really switching from Facebook to MySpace, although there are some hegemonic teens who choose to apa style references unpublished dissertation, check out MySpace to see what happens there even though their friends are mostly on Facebook. Most teens who exclusively use Facebook are familiar with and have an opinion about MySpace. Essay Letter? These teens are very aware of MySpace and they often have a negative opinion about it. Basic And Thesis? They see it as gaudy, immature, and persuasive essay letter, so middle school. Gmat Test? They prefer the clean look of Facebook, noting that it is more mature and that MySpace is essay letter so lame. What hegemonic teens call gaudy can also be labeled as glitzy or bling or fly (or what my generation would call phat) by and form subaltern teens. Terms like bling come out of hip-hop culture where showy, sparkly, brash visual displays are acceptable and persuasive letter, valued. The look and feel of gmat MySpace resonates far better with subaltern communities than it does with the upwardly mobile hegemonic teens. This is even clear in persuasive the blogosphere where people talk about how gauche MySpace is while commending Facebook on its aesthetics.

I'm sure that a visual analyst would be able to explain how classed aesthetics are, but aesthetics are more than simply the eye of the beholder - they are culturally narrated and replicated. References Dissertation? That clean or modern look of Facebook is akin to West Elm or Pottery Barn or any poshy Scandinavian design house (that I admit I'm drawn to) while the more flashy look of letter MySpace resembles the Las Vegas imagery that attracts millions every year. I suspect that lifestyles have aesthetic values and that these are being reproduced on vs authority, MySpace and Facebook. I should note here that aesthetics do divide MySpace users. The look and feel that is acceptable amongst average Latino users is quite different from what you see the subculturally-identified outcasts using. Amongst the emo teens, there's a push for simple black/white/grey backgrounds and persuasive, simplistic layouts. While I'm using the term subaltern teens to lump together non-hegemonic teens, the lifestyle divisions amongst the subalterns are quite visible on MySpace through the aesthetic choices of the backgrounds. The aesthetics issue is also one of the forces that drives some longer-term users away from MySpace.

While teens on Facebook all know about basic elements of research and thesis MySpace, not all MySpace users have heard of Facebook. Persuasive Essay Letter? In particular, subaltern teens who go to apa style unpublished dissertation, school exclusively with other subaltern teens are not likely to have heard of it. Subaltern teens who go to more mixed-class schools see Facebook as what the good kids do or what the persuasive letter preps do. They have various labels for these hegemonic teens but they know the division, even if they don't have words for it. Likewise, in these types of schools, the hegemonic teens see MySpace as where the bad kids go. Good and essay, bad seem to be the dominant language used to divide hegemonic and subaltern teens in mixed-class environments. At the same time, most schools aren't actually that mixed. To a certain degree, the lack of familiarity amongst certain subaltern kids is not surprising. Teens from poorer backgrounds who are on MySpace are less likely to persuasive letter, know people who go to universities. They are more likely to purpose, know people who are older than them, but most of essay letter their older friends, cousins, and co-workers are on of research paper and thesis, MySpace. It's the essay letter cool working class thing and it's the dominant SNS at community colleges.

These teens are more likely to be interested in activities like shows and clubs and elements of research paper, they find out about them through MySpace. The subaltern teens who are better identified as outsiders in persuasive letter a hegemonic community tend to elements paper, be very aware of Facebook. Their choice to use MySpace instead of Facebook is a rejection of the hegemonic values (and a lack of desire to hang out persuasive essay letter, with the preps and jocks even online). Class divisions in military use. A month ago, the military banned MySpace but not Facebook. This was a very interesting move because the division in the military reflects the division in high schools. Soldiers are on MySpace; officers are on Facebook. Facebook is extremely popular in the military, but it's not the SNS of choice for 18-year old soldiers, a group that is primarily from poorer, less educated communities.

They are using MySpace. The officers, many of whom have already received college training, are using Facebook. The military ban appears to replicate the class divisions that exist throughout the purpose and form military. Essay? I can't help but wonder if the reason for this goes beyond the purported concerns that those in the military are leaking information or spending too much time online or soaking up too much bandwidth with their MySpace usage. MySpace is the references dissertation primary way that young soldiers communicate with their peers. When I first started tracking soldiers' MySpace profiles, I had to take a long deep breath. Many of them were extremely pro-war, pro-guns, anti-Arab, anti-Muslim, pro-killing, and xenophobic as hell. Over the last year, I've watched more and persuasive letter, more profiles emerge from soldiers who aren't quite sure what they are doing in Iraq.

I don't have the data to confirm whether or not a significant shift has occurred but it was one of those observations that just made me think. And then the ban happened. I can't help but wonder if part of the goal is to cut off communication between current soldiers and the group that the military hopes to recruit. Many young soldiers' profiles aren't public so it's not about making a bad public impression. That said, young soldiers tend to have reasonably large networks because they tend to of research and thesis, accept friend requests of anyone that they knew back home which means that they're connecting to almost everyone from their high school. Many of persuasive letter these familiar strangers write comments supporting them. But what happens if the soldiers start to question why they're in Iraq?

And if this is witnessed by high school students from working class communities who the dissertation Army intends to recruit? Thoughts and meta thoughts. I have been reticent about writing about persuasive essay this dynamic even though I've been tracking it for a good six months now. I don't have the language for what I'm seeing and I'm concerned about how it's going to be interpreted. Power Vs Authority Essay? I can just see the logic: if society's good kids are going to Facebook and the bad kids are going to MySpace, clearly MySpace is the devil, right? ::shudder:: It's so not that easy. Given a lack of language for talking about this, my choice of letter hegemonic and subaltern was intended to at least insinuate a different way of looking at descriptive this split. The division around MySpace and Facebook is just another way in which technology is mirroring societal values. Embedded in that is a challenge to a lot of our assumptions about who does what. Essay Letter? The good kids are doing more bad things than we are willing to basic elements paper and thesis, acknowledge (because they're the pride and joy of upwardly mobile parents). And, guess what? They're doing those same bad things online and offline.

At the same time, the language and style of the bad kids offends most upwardly mobile adults. We see this offline as well. I've always been fascinated watching adults walk to the other side of the street when a group of essay letter black kids sporting hip-hop style approach. The aesthetics alone offend and most privileged folks project the worst ideas onto any who don that style. When I see a divide like this, I worry because it reproduced the apa style references dissertation idea that the good kids are good and that Facebook participation is good.

Over ten years ago, PBS Frontline put out a video called The Lost Children of Rockdale County. The film certainly has its issues but it does a brilliant job of capturing how, given complete boredom and persuasive letter, a desire for validation, many of the good kids will engage in some of the power vs authority essay most shocking behaviors. and their parents are typically unaware. By and letter, large, I've found that parents try to curtail such activities by elements of research restricting youth even more. This doesn't stop the persuasive essay letter desire for attention and thus the behaviors continue, but they get pushed further underground and apa style unpublished dissertation, parents become less in-touch with their good kids. While I think it's important to acknowledge that some of the good kids aren't that good, I don't want to imply that the inverse is true.

Many of them are. But many of the letter subaltern teens that I talk with have their heads on much tighter than the hegemonic teens. Power Vs Authority Essay? The hegemonic teens do know how to put on a show for most adults (making it more fun for me to interview them and try to work through the walls that they initially offer me). Persuasive? As a society, we have strong class divisions and of research paper and thesis, we project these values onto our kids. Persuasive Letter? MySpace and Facebook seem to be showcasing this division quite well. My hope in elements of research paper and thesis writing this out is to point out that many of our assumptions are problematic and persuasive letter, the internet often reinforces our views instead of challenging them. People often ask me if I'm worried about teens today. The answer is yes, but it's not because of social network sites. With the hegemonic teens, I'm very worried about the stress that they're under, the lack of mobility and healthy opportunities for descriptive essay play and socialization, and the hyper-scheduling and persuasive essay, surveillance. I'm worried about their unrealistic expectations for becoming rich and famous, their lack of work ethic after being pampered for so long, and the lack of opportunities that many of them have to paper, even be economically stable let alone better off than their parents. Persuasive Essay Letter? I'm worried about how locking teens indoors coupled with a fast food/junk food advertising machine has resulted in a decrease in health levels across the board which will just get messy as they are increasingly unable to afford health insurance.

When it comes to apa style, ostracized teens, I'm worried about the reasons why society has ostracized them and how they will react to ongoing criticism from hegemonic peers. Persuasive? I cringe every time I hear of basic of research and thesis another Columbine, another Virgina Tech, another site of horror when an outcast teen lashes back at the hegemonic values of society. I worry about the lack of opportunities available to poor teens from uneducated backgrounds. I'm worried about how Wal-Mart Nation has destroyed many of the opportunities for persuasive meaningful working class labor as these youth enter the workforce. I'm worried about what a prolonged war will mean for power them. I'm worried about how they've been told that to succeed, they must be a famous musician or sports player. Essay Letter? I'm worried about how gangs provide the elements only meaningful sense of community that many of these teens will ever know. Given the state of what I see in all sorts of neighborhoods, I'm amazed at persuasive how well teens are coping and I think that technology has a lot to do with that. Descriptive Season? Teens are using social network sites to build community and essay letter, connect with their peers.

They are creating publics for socialization. And through it, they are showcasing all of the good, bad, and ugly of today's teen life. Much of it isn't pretty, but it ain't pretty offline either. Still, it makes my heart warm when I see something creative or engaged or reflective. There is good out there too. It breaks my heart to watch a class divide play out in the technology. I shouldn't be surprised - when orkut grew popular in India, the caste system was formalized within the system by the users.

But there's something so strange about descriptive on autumn watching a generation slice themselves in two based on persuasive letter, class divisions or lifestyles or whatever you want to call these socio-structural divisions. In the 70s, Paul Willis analyzed British working class youth and he wrote a book called Learning to Labor: How Working Class Kids Get Working Class Jobs. He argued that working class teens will reject hegemonic values because it's the only way to continue to be a part of the community that they live in. In other words, if you don't know that you will succeed if you make a run at vs authority jumping class, don't bother - you'll lose all of your friends and community in the process. His analysis has such strong resonance in American society today. I just wish I knew how to fix it. I clearly don't have the language to comfortably talk about what's going on, but I think that this issue is important and needs to be considered. I feel as though the implications are huge. Marketers have already figured this out - they know who to market to where.

Policy creators have figured this out - they know how to control different populations based on where they are networking. Have social workers figured it out? Or educators? What does it mean that our culture of letter fear has further divided a generation? What does it mean that, in a society where we can't talk about class, we can see it play out online? And what does it mean in a digital world where no one's supposed to know you're a dog, we can guess your class background based on descriptive on autumn, the tools you use? Anyhow, I don't know where to go with this, but I wanted to get it out there. Essay Letter? So here it is. MySpace and Facebook are new representations of the class divide in essay test American youth. Le sigh.

(I have also written a response to persuasive essay, the critiques of this essay. This should answer some of the confusions introduced by this essay.) For those unfamiliar with my work, let me provide a bit of basic paper methodological background. I have been engaged in persuasive ethnographic research on and form, social network sites since February 2003 when I began studying the practices that emerged on Friendster. I followed the launch and early adoption of numerous social network sites, including, LinkedIn, Flickr, MySpace, Facebook, Twitter, Dodgeball, and Orkut.

In late 2004, I decided to move away from studying social network sites to studying youth culture just in time for youth to persuasive letter, flock to basic elements of research, MySpace. The practice of 'ethnography' is hard to describe in a bounded form, but ethnography is essay basically about living and purpose and form, breathing a particular culture, its practices, and its individuals. There are some countables. For example, I have analyzed over essay letter 10,000 MySpace profiles, clocked over 2000 hours surfing and power, observing what happens on essay, MySpace, and formally interviewed 90 teens in 7 states with a variety of different backgrounds and essay on autumn season, demographics. But that's only the essay tip of the iceberg. I ride buses to observe teens; I hang out at fast food joints and malls. I talk to parents, teachers, marketers, politicians, pastors, and power essay, technology creators. Essay? I read, I observe, I document. One of the biggest problems with studying youth culture is references that it's a moving target, constantly shifting based on a variety of social and cultural forces. While I had been keeping an persuasive essay, eye on Facebook simply because of vs authority essay my long-term interest in social network sites, I had to really start taking it seriously in the fall of 2006 when teens started telling me about how they were leaving MySpace to join Facebook or joining Facebook as their first social network site.

While social network sites are in vogue, not everyone uses them. When PEW collected data in December 2005, it found that 55% of American teens 12-17 admitted to persuasive, having a SNS profile in front of their parents. 70% of girls 15-17. These numbers are low, but we don't know how low. Gmat? In the field, I have found that everyone knows about them and has an opinion of them. My experience has been that 70-80% of teens have a profile, but they may not do anything with their account other than private messages (i.e. glorified email).

The percentage who are truly active is more like 50. Often, teens did not create their own profile, but they're perfectly OK with having a profile created by a friend. My research is intentionally American-centric, but it is not coastal centric. Letter? I have done formal interviews in California, Washington, Texas, Kansas, Nebraska, Iowa, Pennsylvania, Massachusetts. When I do this, I do not capture parents' income but I do get parents' education level and job. In each of these communities, I have spent time roaming the descriptive essay streets and talking informally with people of all ages. I have analyzed profiles from all 50 states (and DC and Puerto Rico). I use the essay letter high school data from these profiles and juxtapose them with federal information on high school voucher numbers to get a sense of the SES of the school.

I have spent time in cities, suburbs, small towns, and basic paper, some rural regions. There are weaknesses to my data collection. I have spent too little time in essay letter rural environments and purpose and form, too little time in the deep south. How I find teens to formally interview varies based on region, but it is not completely random. In each region, I am only getting a slice of persuasive letter what takes place, but collectively, it shows amazing variety. The MySpace profiles that I analyze are random. I do not have access to Facebook profiles, although I have spent an excessive amount of time browsing high schools to see what kind of numbers show up, even if I can't see the actual profiles. Vs Authority? Again, none of this is perfect, but it helps me paint a qualitative portrait of what's going on.

(I have also written a response to the critiques of this essay. This should answer some of the confusions introduced by this essay.)

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Learn Whitespace in Web Design: What It Is and Why You Should Use It. writes on November 6, 2012. In a time when we’re sounded by information, it is extremely important for letter, designers to paper, think about being clear with their layouts. We must remember to deliver a page that will get viewers’ attention, whether they’re purchasing something from a e-commerce site, reading a blog or just browsing news. Persuasive Essay Letter! The design must be readable, easy to publish paper, understand, and easy to like.

We need to essay, remember that going for a simple layout instead of a complex one is the unpublished, key to keeping readers interested. Essay Letter! A lot of elements, images, colors and different shapes in a page can make your site look more like an infomercial and causes your readers to leave because they’re uncomfortable. Check out power vs authority, our other design courses at Treehouse. A good way to deliver an essay, enjoyable experience on purpose essay, the web is to understand more about whitespace and how you can use it to create a nice, simple and elegant design. Letter! Whitespace is actually really important to web design because you can use it to improve readability and website performance. Not to mention, white space is elements paper, part of the “less is more,” “make it simple,” mantra that has been proven to be effective when designing for the web.

There are some very simple ways of explaining what whitespace is, but my favorite one is a quote from Mark Boulton’s Whitespace article: “whitespace is empty space.” Whitespace, many times referred to persuasive essay, as negative space, is the a research, portion of a page left unmarked, the portion that is left blank, or (as Mark would quote) the empty space in a page. Essay! In web design terms, it’s the apa style unpublished dissertation, space between graphics, columns, images, text, margins and persuasive essay other elements. It is the space left untouched in order to smooth things out and transform a page into something elegant. It is also the blank space that reminds us that simpler designs are beautiful and that we don’t need to create a layout filled with text and essay practice graphical elements to deliver a clear and persuasive essay direct message. Even though we call it white space, it doesn’t mean the actual space must be white. The blank space may be filled with any color as long as it is vs authority essay, free of any elements like text or images.

Whitespace is also associated with elegance and essay sophistication since it is apa style references, a way to organize text, organize elements and guide users attention to certain elements. An example of great usage of whitespace that we are all familiar with is Google. Their homepage is filled with whitespace so we can focus on what is important: search. To include more whitespace in your designs and deliver a better result, start thinking about every detail of a page. Think about margins, header, footer, menus, images and captions, items in a list, words and letters. Think about all of these elements and start leaving more space between them, always keeping in essay, mind that you want to create something elegant and clear while improving user experience.

A good experience means having space to breathe between elements and a research paper letting your reader’s eyes relax. Placing text in an 11px font and cramming it into essay letter, the bottom of the power vs authority essay, page just won’t deliver the letter, experience your readers crave. Here is an example from Mark Buton’s article showing the difference between using more white space in a direct mail piece. As you can see, the result is nice and elegant. Another good example of an interesting use of whitespace is the Made by Sofa website.

Their website commands attention through its simple and clear design. Their site’s layout shows that you can get a nice result by tastefully positioning elements while leaving blank space between them. Below you can find more examples of websites taking advantage of whitespace and that provide layouts which explore space between text, images, margins, menus and other elements: The thing to remember about designing for vs authority, the web is that you always want to deliver a great product to your clients. The way to do this is to persuasive, properly use whitespace to give your client’s readers the best experience you can so that they keep coming back for more. If your project is a e-commerce site, you want the essay practice test, user to be able to navigate the persuasive, site easily so that they keep buying products. If your project is a blog or news website, you want the user to enjoy reading so they can browse the purpose and form, articles without leaving the page. No matter what type of content the website is intended for, it’s important to essay letter, use whitespace to essay test, keep the navigation clear and smooth, and to make sure the reader’s experience continues to “flow” properly. A designer’s main goal is to persuasive letter, make the web look simple and to un-clutter the visual frenzy that often pollutes the web. We need to develop layouts that are easy on the eyes and that make people want to keep reading. Designers need to a research paper, create simple designs, even if the task of creating something simple is very complex.

Remember to use whitespace wisely to improve your designs. Keep in mind that to essay letter, make text readable you need more space between letters and headers. Remember that instead of gmat essay stacking tons of information to essay, take advantage of the all of the elements paper and thesis, space you have, you can have two or three nicely spaced columns showcasing only what is persuasive, truly important to the readers. In conclusion, I believe that the a good approach to using whitespace is to think about what you would like to see in a page. Apa Style References Unpublished! For example, would you like to read something that is squeezed in the page or you rather read something that is well-spaced? Would you like to have several different kinds of information taking up the whole page or would you rather have something that is properly organized? Thinking about improving user experience and focusing on content is always a good way to go when designing a website. Whitespace can certainly help you deliver the persuasive letter, experience that your client’s readers will enjoy, which usually leaves your client happy with the work you’ve done. 21 Responses to “Whitespace in Web Design: What It Is and Why You Should Use It”

Actually, I agree with you because it is a really good way to apa style references dissertation, relax our eyes and even this color makes the site more attractive. Essay Letter! I don’t know why, but is purpose essay, much better than to look on letter, another color , black for example.Actually the publish a research paper, design with white space makes the website more attractive. Not in vain, Google use this white space. Whitespace is an important element of persuasive essay letter design for good reason. If used well and correctly, it can transform a design and provide many advantages to your website. layout in a website is a very important part, the design and the concept needs to be made and involve the relevant stakeholders. Essay! I agree with you about the whitespace on a website design. of cource eyes needed a break and the number of colors and full content without white space on a website will make visitors feel uncomfortable and decided to leave the essay letter, website. Clarification and explanation contains an power vs authority essay, image on your article really helped me understand the concept of letter whitespace. But I believe whitespace is part of the design and concept of the website that needs more depth, I suggest if you want to create and design a website using ( I already looking for a lot of references in website design and help me so much. Excellent post very useful. Thank you!

Would love to forever get updated great site! It’s great that you are getting thoughts from this paragraph as well as from our dialogue made here. The articles doesn’t really do justice to the concept of whitespace unfortunately and I think this is one of the power essay, reasons why so many people have posted comments which clearly indicate they have no idea what whitespace actually is. 1 or 2 of the examples did show practically but I think many assume using whitespace has forces your design to letter, be minimalist, boring, flat, white which is not true. I had been wondering why my bank and building society accounts had suddenly all adopted this empty space approach resulting in endless scrolling and eyestrain trying to read tiny fonts surounded by otherwise empty cells. Tiny flotsoms of information in apa style dissertation, a sea of emptyness. I had assumed that it was due to the mass adoption of some new web design tool that was attempting to generate design pages for all platforms simultaneously. I now see that it it is due to persuasive letter, a new design dogma “white space”. Thankyou for enabling me to put a name to a design trend that I find endlessly anoying. What I want when I read a web page is well organised compact information.

If I wanted blank space I would stare at a wall. This is an apa style unpublished, old article; I would have hoped this trend would have collapsed under its own weight by persuasive essay, now, but we’re still talking about it. I agree 100% with the commenters who are sick of the overuse of whitespace! I know you acknowledged in this article that it doesn’t have to purpose, be white but so many websites out there take the essay letter, term literally and essay on autumn season give us acres of boring whiteness on every page. In the “face mask” example given, I personally dislike both. The first one looks like someone threw it together who didn’t really know how to use whatever design program they were working with – as evidenced by the blocky text backgrounds. Persuasive Essay Letter! The second one has an unreadable first word thanks to the tiny lower case font (a font which seems completely incorrect to me) and because I have to lean in to see it feels slightly pornographic. It’s important to remember that people SEE differently. In an publish a research paper, article like this, when someone says, “As you can see…” in proclaiming one design better than another, that person is failing to take differences in personality, style, and literal vision (in the eyesight sense) into account. I’m not discounting the positive effect of whitespace, but I AM saying it’s being misapplied on many web pages, and persuasive essay letter that, like all design rules, it’s meant to be bent into service rather than slavishly followed.

For me – give me lots of color (non-white whitespace) and purpose and form an abundance of visual content, wrapped around clear navigation. I hate the white space trend, as well as the oversized graphics and persuasive essay pictures for everything, and the slideshow type articles that make you click to scroll and read every sentence of the article. Put it all on one page, please. The white space requires far too much scrolling. Fit the essential high level navigation on one screen, then let the user drill down to the desired content. Essay! The white space approach instead tries to fit everything but the kitchen sink on one infinitely self-expanding scrolling nightmare. Other new interface trends that are regressive: – rollover changes – excessive, and makes pages chaotic (Netflix redesign for example, where just moving the cursor around makes the page maddeningly rebuild itself continuously; makes me seasick) – parallax scrolling: another nauseating innovation that neither behaves like actual three-dimensional parallax, nor adds anything useful or aesthetic to the design.

I go to the time and trouble to leave 2 detailed comments and you totally remove them. Persuasive Essay Letter! Very classy. Hi Herbie, two of your additional comments are approved and visible on the post. Essay Season! If there were any additional comments that aren’t visible, please let us know and persuasive essay letter we’ll look into it. Thanks! Just went to Home Depot website and essay found they have gone to one with tons of open white space. Persuasive Letter! Terrible look. Have to scroll way to much to find anything.

What is the purpose, purpose? As a 50-year editor and 35-year publisher of books, newsletters, etc., I want to make everything as easy to read as possible. Persuasive Essay Letter! That’s the purpose of writing anything. The flat design used by so many programs and references unpublished websites is hard to read, as this gray type. I am not interested in trying to letter, make something look artistically … farfetched.

I want it read with as little work as possible. Practice! Years ago I used to publish (on paper) a newsletter whose main text font was 7 point. We worked so hard to make it easily readable; kerned our own font pairs; broke articles into columns, boxes, etc; spread graphic elements within text to persuasive essay letter, guide the purpose essay, eye. Essay! People said it was very easy to read. We took what could have been 2000 pages using normal type/layout and got it into descriptive on autumn, 336 or so pages. Don’t expect that kind of layout today, but please think of the reader; don’t try to essay letter, create some far-out design just to be artsy. Reply to my own comment. Referring to Home Depot card sign-in page. I am tired of having to scroll so much, hunt for places to click.

Often if I can’t find what I’m looking for on the page without scrolling, I move on; don’t have time to go treasure hunting on a web page just to find a box to click. Purpose! Designers’ first goal should be to make something easy to essay, find, easy to read, easy to interact with. Web page is not a place to try to purpose essay, win some design competition. White (or empty) space is BAD. It makes the Visitor “work” i.e. scroll.. The initial view in THIS page (the orange panel) would normally make me hit the back button – but this fad is so User-unfriendly I had to see if Comments were possible. Because, there is so little info. Combined with minimal navigation (2 o3 3 plain text words NOT in a Menu bar) there is no incentive to explore. As Bruce says, when the empty space is white and glaring, eye-strain is on the cards.

Some sites (like this) use grey text – which is even harder to focus on. Seemingly a necessary part of this poor UX is an over-large font, reducing visible content and adding to unnecessary scrolling (work). (Even at 80% zoom the UX is worse than it needs to be) Jules is letter, mistaken. White space doesn’t mean white as in ffffff, the absence of essay color. Read up on the Buddhist concept of Mu for a better explanation than I can offer.

In other words, it doesn’t have to be ‘glaring’. He confuses design with UX (a secondary consideration). Persuasive! You can have good design without UX (magazines have been doing it for ages) but good UX requires good design, and of research paper as this article observes, good design is letter, improved through the use of white space that helps you focus on gmat practice, the important details without making you sift through (explore?) a lot of visual noise and clutter (which Jules seems to favor). As Bruce points out, it can be taken too far or handled incorrectly. Persuasive Letter! But white space is not BAD, and gmat only someone unschooled in design or unable to edit their copy and ideas would suggest it is. Two “false” arguments from Michael. 1. I did not limit the persuasive essay letter, complaint to “white” only. 2. “He confuses design with UX (a secondary consideration)” This is precisely why Users/Customers/Visitors are fed up with “designers” dictating form over function. The primary function of (almost) anything is that it should WORK (or save work).

Prettify it later. Unnecessary empty space immediately causes work. – so why do it. 3 “a lot of visual noise and unpublished clutter (which Jules seems to favor)” Another straw-man argument. I never advocated “noise and clutter” … but I do want way more CONTENT (and navigation) in letter, one view than the typical “white space” website – and power vs authority essay less work (scrolling). Thanks for your feedback Jon, we’ll review the post with your suggestions in persuasive essay letter, mind. Truth is too much white space and the new flat “look” are examples of gmat practice not understanding classic human factors and ignoring basic eye strain. the up-coming web designer are taking the of white space too far and as I write this am having a difficult time looking at my screen because of the amount of white – having limited or directed information on persuasive, websites is correct, try using softer tonal colors like grays, soft blues, greens and get the same effect without wearing your customers out. The first sentence has “In a time when we’re *sounded* by information,” should be *surrounded.* I’m a writer and I understand how typos like this can draw the reader’s attention to the mistake, not the copy, something I feel you’d like to be aware of. Nice article on white space.

People always think that white space means that it should be white in color but it’s not from design perspective. Its just the space between elements to make them more visible, clear and beautiful. Showcase some examples which is filled with other colors and falls under this article. Design refers to visuals, interaction flows, wireframes, branding, and more. Apa Style Unpublished Dissertation! Learn how to persuasive essay letter, use good design to enhance your website, mobile app, or business. Sign up for our newsletter, and we'll send you news and tutorials on web design, coding, business, and more! 2017 Treehouse Island, Inc.

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