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Loitering Essays and Research Papers. LOITERING FACTORS AND PARENTING RELATION AMONG ADOLESCENT SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN THE FOUR STATES Associate Prof. Dr. Azizi Hj. Yahaya . Famous American! Nalini A/P Madavan 15, Jalan Tembaga, Taman Sri Skudai, 81300 Skudai, Johor. ABSTRACT: The purpose of the study is to identify the list of critical thinking questions for reading dominant factors that contribute to loitering among school students and parenting relation of adolescents. Approximately 500 students from 18 schools from essayists, Johore, Malacca, Negeri Sembilan and Selangor were selected by using cluster. Childhood , Correlation and vanity, dependence , Parent 4285 Words | 14 Pages. 2008] revealed that among high school students some 60% of respondents try to spend their time actively, that is, on sports or creative activities. Others, . however, prefer passive or casual [Stebbins 1997] forms of leisure—gathering with friends, loitering in famous essayists, the city, or shopping, whereas shopping was preferred more by girls than boys (for the distinction of leisure forms and activities, see, for example, Dardis, Soberon-Ferrer and Patro  or Meeks and thinking questions, Mauldin ). This survey thus aimed.
Leisure , Mall of America , Retailing 10552 Words | 30 Pages. Should Homelessness Be Criminalized? quality of life ordinances are meant to famous american, protect the society at large. Work Cited Page! Homeless people who violate these laws can end up with a citation or even incarcerated. . Homelessness should not be criminalized, and famous, I don’t think that panhandling, camping, or loitering in on heroic deeds, public places is a crime; furthermore, some of these laws violate constitutional rights. I’m vehemently against famous anti-panhandling ordinances.
People who beg for money do so because they have a need to be met. These needs vary, but they can. Begging , Homelessness , Poverty 1006 Words | 3 Pages. Speech: Education and New School Term. your speech using the notes below:- ATTIRE:- School uniform -neat -wear white shoes and socks Hair -boys - short -girls - short or long . - long hair must be tied up Nails -short Make up-is not allowed in school! CONDUCT:- -No loitering -No handphones -No jewellery -No smoking -Be punctual -Respect teachers -Pay attention in class -No playing truant When writing the speech, remember to; - include all the points given - elaborate on. Education , Hair , High school 445 Words | 3 Pages. Survey Questionnaire for essays, baranggay Case Study. of Box culvert. 3.Traffic lights tool.
4.Appropriate street signages. Famous! 5.Maintenance of road works. QD. Brgy. . Policy/Ordinance/Implementation 1 2 3 4 5 1.Policy on thesis statement underage/children. 2.Ordinance on Curfew hour. 3.No Loitering . 4.Animals implementation on animals policy. Famous Essayists! 5.Rehabilitation of essay employee rights workplace plants and trees. American! . Academic degree , Barangay , Cleanliness 262 Words | 3 Pages.
article and examine the points she is trying to make. Essays On Heroic Deeds! Pascale begins her article by famous stating that many U.S. cities are enacting laws which would punish . homeless individuals for doing things many ?ordinary' people do all the time. For instance, loitering or sleeping in public (320). She states that the California Homeless and on heroic, Housing Coalition estimates that there are around a million homeless people in California alone. Eight self governed cities in southern California and at least one city in. Begging , Homelessness , Homelessness in the United States 1413 Words | 4 Pages. How Does Keats Tell the Story of La Belle Dame Sans Merci? first two stanzas is an anonymous character, who describes the knight-at-arms and sets the scene. It is also possible that it is the knight himself, . questioning his own actions and emotions; ‘O what can ail thee, knight-at-arms, Alone and famous american, palely loitering ?’ The first line is also repeated, reiterating the the miser essay questioning attitude, and giving the impression of american essayists quiet desperation and confusion. Keats uses these stanzas to show the effect the Belle Dame has had on the knight, and by using what we can assume.
Emotion , Knight , La Belle Dame sans Merci 969 Words | 3 Pages. can use to lock up somebody, “just because.” New York City police use “disorderly conduct.” In Baltimore it is loitering . In high-drug areas, . Essay Privacy Workplace! minor arrests are very common, but rarely prosecuted. Loitering arrests usually do not articulate the legally required “obstruction of passage.” But the famous essayists point of loitering arrests is not to convict people of the misdemeanor. By any definition, loitering is list thinking, abated by arrest. These lockups are used by famous american essayists police to assert authority or get criminals off the street.”. Constable , Drug , Drug addiction 2662 Words | 7 Pages. involved in work cited mla research, 59% of all arrests for running away from home.
Arrests for curfew and american essayists, loitering law violations were reported at 31% for female . juveniles. Females accounted for 23% of juvenile arrests for aggravated assault and 32% of juvenile arrests for other assaults (i.e., simple assaults and intimidations) in 2001. Hurricane! Females were involved in 59% of all arrests for running away from home and 31% of arrests for curfew and loitering law violations. (Snyder 2003) Violent Arrests of the Races: The text points. Assault , Crime , Crimes 808 Words | 3 Pages. consumers happy we need to productive and efficient. Unfornately, we have fallen behind in famous, our manual field department. There has been a number of complaints . on the efficiency of the statement vanity order fillers in american essayists, this particular department. There is too much loitering between the employees. Another issue is the on heroic deeds Ecard services we offer online. Famous American Essayists! Customers can print cards for free, which means they don’t have to purchase the thesis statement vanity card in-store.
It is famous, my job to provide an effective solution. Background Each employee. E-card , E-mail , Employment 1230 Words | 5 Pages. around body d) Gein suspected of murder e) No charges filed 3. Mother 3.a) Stroke b) 1945 c) “Lost his only friend and one true love” c) His Arrest . 1. 1957 Bernice Worden disappeared 1.a) Store owner b) Gein last to see her c) Was seen loitering around store 2. Investigators had warrant to search Gein’s land 2.a) Discovered human remains b) Worden’s decapitated body c) Four noses d) Whole human bones and fragments e) Nine masks of hurricane camille paper human skin f) Bowls made from famous, human skulls g) Ten. Deranged , Ed Gein , Jame Gumb 359 Words | 3 Pages. their different theme for questions, their set up.
Yes it is not easy task and challenge to enter Kumbira because not one, but more than 5 competitors you have in . different schools. Famous American Essayists! We take pictures and buy some t-shirt for ourselves. Before we continue our loitering we ate our lunch in Jollibee! For us to have energy, since there are 2 pieces of chickens in 1 lunch pack and it was too big, so we ask to take it out. Oh my god! How did the waiter do this? They were all good, their hands are fast in serving the. And It Stoned Me , Eating , I Decided 1585 Words | 4 Pages. misdemeanor assaults, prostitution, some sex offenses except for forced rape and prostitution, drug abuse, gambling, nonviolent domestic offenses, driving . while intoxicated, liquor laws, public drunkenness, disorderly conduct, vagrancy, curfew laws, loitering and runaways.
The rules apply to everybody and they speak on behalf of everybody. Almost every crime is also a tort. Proving criminal conduct is necessary to hold an individual accountable for the crime they committed. Criminal conduct is not enough. Crime , Crimes , Criminal justice 640 Words | 3 Pages. effective strategy to combat the problem of loitering . Ms. Waldo believes that loitering will decrease dramatically when . classical music is piped through the city’s outdoor speaker system, which has been installed on a few main streets downtown. The program is phased in gradually. Music is statement, played on famous american essayists the system on some days but is purposely not played on other days. This procedure enables the manager to deeds, compare differences in the number of individuals cited for essayists, loitering on music days and nonmusic days.
Ms. Econometrics , Fundraising , Non-profit organization 482 Words | 2 Pages. develop the setting of both poems, meanwhile showing subtle differences by adding characters and camille paper, heat in St. Agnes. The themes of life and . death are explored within both poems. Essayists! In Belle, the knight is introduced as ‘alone and palely loitering ’, the on heroic deeds image of his paleness may suggest that he is ill and about to die. This concept of death is reiterated throughout the following stanzas as they mention ‘the squirrel’s granary is full’ and famous american, ‘the harvest’s done’, suggesting that he is close to. John Keats , La Belle Dame sans Merci , Life 1282 Words | 4 Pages.
haughty 20. impediments Choosing The Right Word 1. vaunt 2. adapt 3. impediment 4. pithy 5. Hurricane Research Paper! attest 6. foreboding 7. Essayists! steadfast 8. malingering 9. . falter 10. Essays Deeds! imperative 11. wry 12. simper 13. waif 14. enormity 15. plundered 16. loitering 17. haughty 18. forlorn 19. vilify 20. dovetail Vocabulary In Context 1. confirms 2. huge size 3. obstacles 4. Famous Essayists! schedule woebegone Sadlier-Oxford Vocabulary Workshop Level C Answers – Unit 14 Completing The Sentence 21. On Heroic Deeds! arrogant . 22 , Defamation , Eisenstein prime 258 Words | 9 Pages. Reflection on “La Bella Dame sans Merci” associates them both with the loitering pale knight and with death; in fact, we are told that they are death-pale. The description of her . former lovers, with their starved lips and gaping mouths, is chilling. Is it appropriate that he awakens from this dream to a cold hill?” (Melani Home, (2010). Even though he knows it is a dream the american knight confesses at the end of the poem that “this is why I sojourn (going to be there awhile) here, Alone and palely loitering , Though the sedge is wither’d from. Ballad , Dewey Decimal Classification , John Keats 1511 Words | 6 Pages. Crime Rate in the Hong Kong Metro. above total crime rate happened in MTR. This is of critical thinking for reading, a very low crime rate compare with other countries.
The crimes most likely happen in MTR including indecent . assaults, pick-pocketing, shoplifting and indecent photo-taking(which will be categorized as Loitering ). This can be refers to the design of the MTR environment. This phenomenon can be explained by environmental criminology theories as a result of the special design and function of the famous american essayists MTR. Camille! Environmental criminology focuses on criminal behavior within. Crime , Crime prevention , Criminology 1312 Words | 4 Pages. Comparing the famous american Two Poems: When We Two Parted and La Belle Dame Sans Mer. rhyme also helps us to remember the line as rhyme does in camille research paper, nursery rhymes and famous american essayists, songs. The rhyming words in research, When We Two Parted are very strong such as years . and tears, however the rhyming words in La Belle Dame Sans Merci only half rhyme such as loitering and sing. Keats does this in the first and famous american essayists, last verse and I think he has done this so that those verses stand out from the poem. In When We Two Parted, Byron has used double- syllable words in rhyming such as broken and deeds, spoken, morning and. Emotion , John Keats , La Belle Dame sans Merci 1499 Words | 4 Pages.
caribbean studies i.a questionnaire. Yes No 3. Do you think there is american essayists, a relationship between the . noise level and violence on the school compound Yes No 4. Loitering is the most common type of deviance in the school, do you think that this contributes to the high noise levels? Yes No 5. What do you believe contributes to high noise levels of noise on the school compound? a) Constant. College , Education , High school 272 Words | 2 Pages. Short Interview on Street Children.
Street children are found in work page paper, many parts of the Philippines. This interview was done specifically in Dumaguete City, Negros Oriental. Street children can be . seen in the Quezon park of famous american essayists this city. The ones interviewed are aged 7 and above. They are loitering in the park and on the street. They ask anyone that passes by for “Pinaskohan” especially now, since it’s already Christmas season. Hurricane! They tend to american, follow the list thinking questions for reading person they asked for american, “Pinaskohan” until they either get something from that person or they. Beggars , Begging , Central Visayas 444 Words | 2 Pages. Explore Narrative Voice and Tone in La Belle Dame Sans Merci. interesting. There is statement vanity, a strong contrast, From the dark and famous american, sinister ambience of the list thinking sick and famous american essayists, dying knight to the happy and deeds, playful atmosphere of the fairy, . stanza 1 shows a dark mood for instance: ‘’ O what can ail thee, knight-at-arms, Alone and palely loitering ? The sedge has withered from the lake, And no birds sing.’’ As for stanza 7, it is a much more soothing and caring tone: ‘’She found me roots of relish sweet, And honey wild, and manna-dew, And sure in language strange she said— ‘I love thee.
John Keats , Knight , La Belle Dame sans Merci 498 Words | 2 Pages. Analyse the Different Forms of Power Presented in essayists, My Last Duchess, A Woman to vanity, Her Lover and La Belle Dame Sans Merci dominates the male. This poem was set in Dark Ages where knights, who guarded the land, were seen as valiant, heroic and defenders of the peace. However in . Famous! this poem John Keats portrays a totally different image where the knight is depressed, palely loitering and the miser essay, under the spell of a mysterious maiden. The female displays the power of deception over famous american essayists, the knight, which is the most overwhelming form of power in all the three poems. Of Critical For Reading! The knight explains how she intoxicates him by being sensually appealing;. Control , Duke , La Belle Dame sans Merci 2192 Words | 6 Pages.
potential candidates for being stopped and american, questioned by police officers. In these instances, police action is based upon which of the following? A) Probable . cause because loitering usually precedes criminal activity B) Proof beyond a reasonable doubt since youths who loiter are criminals C) Clear and convincing evidence since loitering is hurricane camille research paper, a status offense D) Situationally-based police discretion 2. What is the National Youth Survey? A) A publication maintained by youth in correctional facilities . Crime , Criminal justice , Criminology 1743 Words | 7 Pages. continue his investigation unimpeded by famous essayists the two aliens by allowing them to page paper, go free. Under this circumstance it would be justified since the possibility . exist that he may uncover a major drug loading area. A police officer encounters three males loitering in famous american essayists, a public garage. Further investigation uncovers one of them has a bench warrant for unpaid parking tickets. In some jurisdictions the officer will be given the choice of detaining the individual or simply letting him know that he needs to take. Alien , Constable , Discretion 1541 Words | 4 Pages. Criminal Law and Procedure Week 5 Homework.
Question 5: Based on the ruling of the Supreme Court in City of thesis Chicago v. Morales, what protections of the individual do you think must be included in an . ordinance proscribing loitering ? An individual’s protection against illegal search and seizure must be preserved. Just because a group of young people are loitering (gathering with no specific purpose) does not mean they have given up their protection from being searched. The question I have is exactly how does law enforcement know if the. Crime , Federal government of the United States , Law 1702 Words | 5 Pages. dirty to her. * In between all these antics, Romeo manages to famous american essayists, take the Nurse aside and tell her that Juliet should find an excuse to come to Friar . Statement! Laurence's church – Act III: Scene 1 During the heat of the day, Benvolio and Mercutio are loitering on the streets of Verona when Tybalt arrives looking for Romeo. Benvolio wishes to avoid a confrontation with the Capulets; however, Mercutio is deliberately provocative and famous essayists, tries to draw Tybalt into an argument so that they can fight. Thesis Vanity! Romeo appears. Characters in Romeo and Juliet , Juliet Capulet , Mercutio 778 Words | 3 Pages. individuals to be tracked and traced through the airport.
The footage can be tagged and is searchable, so that the person or event that triggered the rules . can be found, and analyzed. People who are where they shouldn't be, looking generally suspicious, loitering , or people passing items between themselves can also be checked. (James, 2009) Another way of enhancing the security would be, XD-2i Explosives Detector which was introduced in 2007.Majority of the users have had great success with its usage. Air safety , Airport security , Closed-circuit television 933 Words | 3 Pages. An experiment on the Musical reproduction of american Bean Beetles. Mosquito developed in 2005 (Campbell, 2008), is marketed as a teen deterrent. It emits a high frequency pitch that only people from list thinking, age 14-25 can hear. . Shopkeepers place it outside their places of business in order to discourage young teens from american, loitering in from of their shops.
It has become a subject of statement The Long Range Acoustic Device (LRAD) used as a communication hailing device is now being developed to help ship operators and navel captains as a non-lethal weapon against pirates and boarding parties. Female , Hypothesis , Long Range Acoustic Device 796 Words | 5 Pages. Under section 21A of the famous essayists Crimes Act 1958 Vic, a person is statement vanity, guilty of stalking if they engaged in a course of conduct that caused either apprehension or fear . in famous american, a person for their safety. This includes actions such as following, telephoning and loitering outside or near a person's home or place of business. In order to prove the charge of stalking, it is the miser essay, necessary that the prosecution prove that: a) You voluntarily engaged in a course of famous american conduct, which caused physical or mental harm to . ; and. Causality , Crime , Law 755 Words | 3 Pages. ‘’The relationship between love and illusion is something Keats returns to essays deeds, again and again in his narrative poems’’ To what extent is love always linked to famous essayists, illusion in his poems? company of the ‘faery’s child’ for thesis statement vanity, he took care in famous american, describing her appearance and actions, whether she was real or not. Once the dream and illusion dispersed . as he woke up into reality, so did the life within him as he was left ‘Alone and palely loitering ’ with his love gone. It can be argued then that true love lied in a world of fantasy, a place that mortals cannot attempt to stay in whilst simultaneously living in the real world, and employee rights, if attempted, they will only end up being enthralled and famous american, then. Existence , Interpersonal relationship , John Keats 879 Words | 3 Pages.
prices, Taco Bell embraces the relaxed environment while showing how it is a dependable late-night snack. As the old people loiter in the parking lot, they . Statement! exhaustedly reminisce on the night they just experienced. What other company would promote loitering ? To be a rebel may be a lifestyle, or a decision only chosen every once in a while. Either way, being rebellious shapes one’s ethics and values. Specifically, sneaking out american essayists past curfew is intriguing, tempting one’s ‘ethos’. Similar to the Volkswagen’s. Gerontology , Middle age , Old age 862 Words | 3 Pages. Problem of Indiscipline in School (Report) violate the rules in school.
Students should be urged to participate in co-curricular activities that can instill values. Students not only learn things from of critical thinking for reading, . these activities but also fill their time with something more beneficial to them rather than loitering around or staying at american home do nothing. The public co-operation in cited mla research, reporting cases of indiscipline will help to american essayists, control the problem of indiscipline. The school authorities must work hand in on heroic, hand with parents, the teachers and the public to famous american essayists, overcome. Education , School , Smoking 821 Words | 3 Pages.
La Belle Dame Sans Merci Annotations. being no life around or no life for the knight ‘Ail’ means bringing someone down through pain or trouble. Essay Privacy Rights Workplace! This foreshadows the discomfort the second knight . will experience later in the poem. Oh what can ail thee, knight-at-arms, Alone and palely loitering ? The sedge has withered from the famous american essayists lake, And no birds sing. On Heroic Deeds! II We would think a ‘knight-at-arms’ as a muscular and strong hero. However the famous american essayists hero is portrayed to be ‘haggard’.
This is a derogatory term for a woman being used for a man, ‘Haggard. Connotation , English-language films , La Belle Dame sans Merci 1658 Words | 6 Pages. public-order are offenses that disturb or invade society’s peace and tranquility. These offenses include the following: breach of peace- which is sometimes . called disturbing the peace, disorderly conduct, fighting, affray- fighting in the miser essay, public, vagrancy, loitering , illegally carrying weapons, keeping a disorderly house, public intoxication either by american essayists alcohol or other controlled substances, disturbance of public assembly, inciting to riot, rioting, unlawful assembly, rout, and work mla research paper, obstructing public passage (Schmalleger. Alcohol law , Crimes , Criminal law 2035 Words | 6 Pages.
sentence (I don’t know anyone under the age of 16 with that amount of money!) Ouch! Personally, I think that ‘ Loitering ’ is actually quite a . Famous American Essayists! useful part of growing up. Teenagers hanging around are often learning important lessons about getting on the miser essay with one another, I used to be very shy when growing up, but now I am bubbly, friendly and easy to get along with – this was down to famous american essayists, ‘ loitering ’, would I have been punished? In a survey taken in my area 62% of teenagers agreed that spending time with their. Ageism , Childhood , Crime 578 Words | 2 Pages. Example English Form 2 Paper 2 2012. they are taking too much time there. The Miser Essay! A lot of criminal cases happen when a student is truant from school Be in places where there are people.
When you go to . the toilet, be with your friends. Third, stay at american essayists the canteen while waiting for the bus. Loitering outside the school will expose you to risks. Loners are the thesis statement vanity targets for bad influences or they may be they want to make fun of you. You can also be accused of essayists a disciplinary case even if you do not commit it. After that, tell the disciplinary teachers. 815 Words | 5 Pages. letter next to the numbers in privacy rights workplace, the first column. Not all terms will be used. | | Definitions | Terms | | | | | 1. | h | Engaging in . sexual activities for something of essayists value | A. Disorderly conduct B. Breach of on heroic deeds peace C. Famous Essayists! Loitering D. Thesis Statement! Treason E. Perjury F. Essayists! Contempt G. Statement Vanity! Obscenity H. Prostitution I. Exploitation J. Famous American! Illegal entry into the US K. Terrorism L. Sedition M. Delirium tremens N. The Miser Essay! USA Patriot Act O. Unlawful assembly P. Confiscation Q. Habeas.
Crimes , Illinois , Law 738 Words | 3 Pages. apocalyptic scene that is essayists, cultivated in Elliot’s work appears dark and statement, “barren”, it becomes apparent that elements of the societies parties had existed with . the “cigarette ends” and famous american essayists, “other testimonies of summer nights” being referred to. Furthermore the “ loitering heirs of essay privacy city directors”, and “nymphs” being departed, is suggestive and american, not dissimilar to the constant movement of the ‘Bright Young Things’, thus one could consider that the thoughts possessed by the respective writers are not as disparate as originally. Bright Young Things , Earth , Evelyn Waugh 931 Words | 3 Pages. lots are nicely paved, with proper markings for all cars to park in with no confusion. Neighborhood around the school is a safe environment, no 2nd or 3rd . tier living conditions around this school. Cited Page Mla Research! Sanitation around the school is famous american, well kept and no loitering of strangers around the school.
Security precautions are pretty normal throughout the school, teachers keeping eyes on deeds the hallways, local police car parked in essayists, staff parking lot. However there was no sign of any Police officers on campus. Essay Privacy! There. Classroom , Education , Observation 1647 Words | 4 Pages. Human services Program and american essayists, Profession.
information regarding the the miser essay homeless. Sensitization will help reduce discrimination of this people. Famous! Most homeless people are stereotyped as being criminals . and many who are criminalized have only performed status crimes because they have been found loitering , sleeping and essay rights, trespassing. This crimes cannot be avoided since one is homeless, he has to loiter, sleep on the streets and trespass in order to look for food. American! This stereotype creates unwanted fear of the homeless people and it makes even charitable. Busking , Homelessness , Homelessness in privacy rights workplace, the United States 880 Words | 3 Pages.
This ordinance requires all public utility vehicles (PUV) to provide trash cans where its passengers may conveniently put and place their waste matters and . other garbage. This is being sanitary, clean and well-disciplined. It lessens scattering/ loitering . It reflects the personality of the essayists people especially the PUV drivers that they care for cleanliness, for the earth. It’s better to have a green community than a wasted land in essays on heroic deeds, grayscale. It would mean that Bantay is a lovely place where tourists. Filling station , Ilocos Region , Ilocos Sur 852 Words | 2 Pages. Cja354 Week 4 - Individual Worksheet. Age of consent , Criminal law , Human sexual behavior 975 Words | 6 Pages. going.
How likely a crime target any specific building is, depends on the perceived gain to famous american essayists, the perpetrator, balanced against his perceived risk of . Essay Rights Workplace! apprehension or defeat (Witherspoon, 2002). The presence of a trained guard can limit the american essayists amount of loitering or negative behavior outside and offer a feeling of safety to staff and employees who are entering or leaving the building. Technology Advancement Physical security for any facility is a major factor for keeping safe and having modern technology. Access control , Building , Closed-circuit television 950 Words | 4 Pages. model has the higher profit contribution. This strategy would involve creating 80 D1-950 printers for a total profit of $6,960. However, implementing this . strategy would create 320 minutes of the miser essay dead time on line 2, leading to unutilized equipment and loitering employees. Famous Essayists! Decision Variables | | | | | | D1-910 | X91 | 0 | | | D1-950 | X95 | 80 | | | | | | | Objective Function | | | | | | max | (42*x91)+(87*x95) | 6960 | | | | | | | Constraints | | | | | Line. Constraint satisfaction , Contribution margin , English-language films 818 Words | 4 Pages.
power than a magistrate is to take a long step down the totalitarian path, this step is desirable to cope with modern forms of lawlessness but if it is hurricane research, . taken, it should be the deliberate choice of the people through a constitutional amendment. If loitering was the essayists issue and the charge, there would be enough probable cause, but the charge is carrying a concealed weapon which hold no basis for thesis vanity, probable cause if a crime was not committed. The Supreme Court has to determine, for purposes of the Fourth. Exclusionary rule , Fourth Amendment to the United States Constitution , Frisking 961 Words | 6 Pages. Rhetorical Analysis What's the american Matter with Kid's Today by Amy Goldwasser. iPhones, Harry Potter, High School Musical; large hot drinks with gingerbread flavoring.” (Goldwasser 667) We can all relate to her example because everyday . teenagers are carrying the latest technology with them, watching the latest movies, and loitering at Starbucks. In another example Goldwasser compares the cited page older generation to “the mean girls.” Assuming you’ve seen the comedy movie Mean Girls, you would know she is saying the famous essayists adults are using the for reading Internet as a burn book, and labeling it. “…driven.
Doris Lessing , History of the Internet , Instant messaging 885 Words | 3 Pages. same store she stood at every day. Famous American! Past experiences and the miser essay, behaviors can also create significant struggles for individuals and american, families who are trying to . Statement! escape homelessness. Being homeless can lead to arrests For behaviors such as trespassing and loitering , criminal offenses such as these, and american essayists, Certainly more serious convictions can make it difficult to pass a required background check when trying to rent permanent housing. Essay! Once they have found a job and trying to famous american, turn their life around. The Miser Essay! In Atlanta. Homelessness , Homelessness in the United States , Poverty 792 Words | 3 Pages. Big Things Come in Small Packages (a Report Paper) those whom I don’t know cheerfully greeted me.
I was never used to this kind of american treatment that is why I replied nothing but thank you. I was on my fourth . year that time so everyone is essays, busy with everything concerning graduation. I, too, was busy loitering around the campus to famous, find every advisers of every organization I am in. I know very well that as a student, signatures of advisers for extracurricular activity certifications are of great necessity especially if you are a graduating one. Camille Research Paper! Walking. 2008 singles , Birthday , Birthdays 883 Words | 3 Pages. Week 2 Business Research Ethics Res 351 1. facilities should be in famous american essayists, working condition at all times for essays, the residents. With many of the residents not being able to take the stairs to get home due people . Famous Essayists! sleeping in the stairwells, security is needed.
Having security on place will stop people for loitering around the complex. Drug deals will have to of critical thinking, go to a more remote location, the health issue would become better because people will not be able to come on property and relieve themselves. With the business thinking about their resident and asking. Applied ethics , Business ethics , Ethics 817 Words | 5 Pages. around them. Kids also grow up to famous, imitate what they seen adults do, they don’t know the difference between right and wrong and may mistake smoking for the miser essay, being . cool. If there was a smoking ban on smoking in public places there would also be less loitering by people. Innocent people shouldn’t have to essayists, suffer because of someone else’s negligence. Smoking isn’t cheap nowadays, so if one was to stop smoking they could save hundreds of dollars. Some people may think that freedom of choice is more important. Cancer , Lung cancer , Passive smoking 766 Words | 5 Pages.
top reported problems were drug dealing, youth problems, traffic enforcement, and thinking questions for reading, ironically, police disregard for citizens (Katz, Walker). Police made . Famous! themselves more visible in areas where drug dealing was apparent. Citizens conducted “positive loitering ” events to deter criminal activity. The community became increasingly aware of the program and reported seeing police officers more often (Katz, Walker). The goal was for officers to identify problems and solve them. Eventually, the program reported. Chicago Police Department , Community policing , Constable 749 Words | 3 Pages. instances where white youths would be dealt with informally.
Which is masked by Affirmative Action which largely benefits white women and Jews anyways. . There were also the deeds Convict codes, which were used to put Blacks back on the plantation, the loitering laws, the famous american Bloggs Act which targeted Blacks and Mexicans for marijuana until it was realized whites use it more, the sentences disparity between crack and cocaine at a 100 to of critical questions, 1 ratio, the lynch laws and various others. African Americans blackseek. Affirmative action , Asian American , Black people 672 Words | 3 Pages. Importance of Law Enforcement Relations. see the early warning signals. From the little worries that alert you to the need to essayists, prevent bigger problems. The trick is to swing into action at the first . sign of trouble, not to wait until it comes to cited paper, your front door. Abandoned autos, people loitering , vacant homes, graffiti, a rash of break-ins, or other signs of possible trouble should be a clue to famous essayists, act now. Acting right away on small problems can prevent big ones later. There's something each person can do to help. Anyone can hand out educational.
Community , Crime , Crime prevention 938 Words | 3 Pages. Sonnet 116 and La Belle Sans Dame Merci Comparison. and weakness. The Miser Essay! He opposes to the views of Shakespeare and does not believe that love is magical and famous, seamless as others make it out to be. Hurricane Research! Finally, Keats . concludes the poem using the famous american same three lines he used in the first verse; ‘Alone and palely loitering , Though the sedge is withered from the lake, And no birds sing’. He does this to signify ending and show complete desolation and that death is surrounding him and research paper, all natural life is gone. How successful In conclusion, both poets are extremely.
Emotion , Iambic pentameter , La Belle Dame sans Merci 919 Words | 3 Pages. their offense. Essayists! If this isn’t enough to get the Ripon Record on scene, perform an aggressive pat-down of the hurricane camille research suspect claiming that you smelled cannabis on or . American! near the suspect. Second, loitering . Just the essay rights word itself should be a crime. Famous Essayists! Churches, schools, and Girl Scout cookie sale tables are hubs for dangerous loitering . The after-church crowds are the most grievous. They are large and require crowd control, particularly when part of the crowd has consumed large amounts of the miser essay sugar from the donuts they. Constable , Cookie , Crime 537 Words | 2 Pages.
Boredom- What Can Teens Do About It? malls. Yet, teenagers are still bored. Thus I think it is crucial to ask the young people would like to do, then officials can plan their activities and . Famous! build the venues accordingly. If we don't, we will face the risk of continually seeing teens loitering around at work paper the back alley or even committing crimes.
More town meetings and conferences involving teenagers is american essayists, vital to planning activities that they will enjoy. List Thinking! To simply assume that these adolescents will benefit from certain activities without. Adolescence , Attention , Boredom 955 Words | 3 Pages. Deliver Us from Evil: an Interpretation of American Prohibition. abolish saloons and famous american, even becoming dry states before the 18th amendment was passed. Hurricane Camille Research Paper! Clark writes of how in Pomona CA, out of hundreds of saloons that existed . only two survived. But even then they weren’t allowed to have seats to famous american essayists, discourage clients from loitering to the miser essay, long. As well as only american essayists, being able to paper, sell liquor during certain hours.
The fact that a local city was used as an example in famous american essayists, the book made me realize that there was such wide support for statement, this cause. Clark also demonstrates that many politicians. American way , Anti-Saloon League , Eighteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution 943 Words | 3 Pages. But prefects are never off duty altogether, and american essayists, may still administer discipline in an area they are not not assigned. In general, monitoring an area entails . ensuring the students are maintaining good behavior, that there is no yelling, running, loitering or other disorderly behavior, and that the the miser essay area is american essayists, kept clean and free of trash. Prefects also must make sure any queue lines are orderly and that movement in and out of the area is carried out in an effective and camille research paper, efficient manner. 2.Uphold School. Harry Potter , Head Boy , High school 809 Words | 3 Pages.
Edward Scissor Hands (Film)- Creative Task to change a scene. right in famous american, that jail! I know somethin’ about bein’ different. -Edward looks puzzled- Black Officer: [Uses a lot of hand gestures] Them white folks’, they . don’t ask no questions. They just assume you guilty. Why I remember when my son was caught loitering on the side walk, just after a robbery was committed. Well he was thrown into jail. Paper! No questions asked! Then when they found the famous american real thief, he was let off with not so much of an paper apology!
That’s what it’s like bein’ different! Edward: I’m really. Andy Summers , Coming out , Gesture 737 Words | 3 Pages.
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Contemporary American Essayists You Should Be Reading Right
Why Banks Fail: A Case Study of Northern Rock, Lehman brothers, and Union Bank of Switzerland (UBS)? Master's Thesis 2012 61 Pages. 1.1 Background information. 1.2 Research problem. 1.3 Purpose of the study. 1.4 Chapter summary. 2.0 Aim and objectives of Research. 2.2 Research Questions. 2.3 Structure of the dissertation. 2.4 Chapter summary.
3.0 Literature Review. 3.2 Explaining bank crises. 3.2 Weakening Economic Factors. 3.3 Banks’ Regulations. 3.3.1 Government Deposit Insurance Plan. 3.3.2 Regulating the Deposits Interest Rates.
3.3.3 Limiting Banks to Open Branches and Investments. 3.3.4 Capital Requisite. 3.3.5 Insufficient Reserve Requisite. 3.3.7 Lender of Last Resort. 3. 4. Mismanagement. 3.4.2 Bad Risk Management Practices.
3.5 Deregulation of the Baking System. 3.6 Political Interference. 3.7 Market Competition. 3.8 Banks failure and the macroeconomy. 4.0 Research Methodology. 4.2 Research method.
4.3 Research strategy. 4.3.1 Strengths and weakness of case studies. 4. 3.2 Selecting the case study to use. 4.4 Data collection methods. 4.6 Data analysis. 4.7 Reliability and Validity. 4.8 Chapter Summary. 5.0 Research Results. 5.2 Case study 1: Northern Rock bank Collapse. 5.2.3 The start of problems. 5.2.4 The Run on american essayists, Northern Rock.
5.2.5 The 2007 global financial crisis and Northern Rock. 5.2.6 The end of thinking for reading Northern Rock. 5.2.7 An overview of essayists UK banking system. 5.3.0 Case study 2: Lehman Brothers Collapse. 5.3.2 A brief history of Lehman Brothers. 5.3.3 The entry into subprime mortgage market.
5.3.4 Lehman’s biggest mistake. 5.3.5 The collapse begins. 5.3.6 Moving towards failure. 5.3.7 Lehman Brothers becomes bankrupt. 5.3.8 An overview the USA banking regulatory framework. 5.4 Case study 3 USB Collapse. 5.4.3 Missed chance by deeds, UBS to recover. 5.4.4 An overview of Swiss banking regulations. 5.5 Chapter Summary. 6.0 Research Discussions.
6.1 Poor risk management practices. 6.4 Chapter Summary. 8.0 Recommendation of the research. 8.1 Suggestions for future research. 8.1.1The effects of subprime mortgage market. The introduction chapter presents the background information of the study “ why banks fail: A case study of Northern Rock, Lehman brothers, and Union Bank of Switzerland (UBS)? ” This is famous american essayists, then followed by the problem statement and purpose of this research. Bank failures are common occurrences that happen in many countries across the world; certainly each country has witnessed one of thesis statement its bank failure at one point or another (Basu, 2002). The cost that accompanies bank failure can be huge, and this destabilises the financial system of a country, which consequently impacts the country’s economic growth rate. Accordingly, the famous american essayists government or the the miser essay central bank of the concerned country has to essayists intervene by providing a rescue deal for the collapsing banks. However, such rescue deals are costly and difficult to provide particularly in this competitive business environment (Donaldson, 1993).
Though, banks failure seem to occur more in those countries that have liberalised their financial markets and carried out deregulated, there are also common in countries where banks have dished out bad loans and undertaken a high percentage of non-performing loans, a common aspect in countries that were in the past highly regulated and the miser essay, depended on government subsidies to famous american survive. This brings us back to our question; why do banks fail? Owing to the miser essay the experience learned from the Great Depression, many scholar such as Wigmore (1987), claimed that bank failures, mainly arose from the panic by depositors, which results in a run on the bank. According to Wigmore (1987) the cause of american this panic may be due to speculative attack on the stock of the banks, or as noted by Diamond Dyvbig, (1983); Donaldson (1993) illiquidity shocks, or according to Calomiris Gorton (1991) due to shocks suffered by statement, the banks’ asset value. From the above causes, one can note that the main cause of depositors’ panic is information asymmetry that exits between the banks and their depositors. The consequence of this is that the depositors are unable to famous american essayists know whether a particular bank is stable or unstable. However, the depositors can watch the effect of the shock on the bank’s portfolios, which lead in a run on that particular bank, resulting in for reading, bank failure (Bhattacharya Thakor, 1993) When a bank fails, stakeholders normally suffer negative consequences, besides the consequences suffered by the failed bank. At times the consequences are also suffered by famous, the non-banking industries. As observed by Smith Walter (1997) a bank failure results in employee privacy rights, loss of employment and livelihood, financial growth as well as other related public interests.
Hooks (1994) contributing this subject underscores that bank failure greatly affects the economy in a negative way, and therefore it should be examined very critically. Kaufman (1996) has also stressed the bank failure and famous, the associated consequences. Accordingly, Kaufman (1996) states that banking failure creates losses to stakeholders through the interference that occurs to essay employee rights workplace the settlement system; more so, it has a systemic impact on famous essayists, the whole economy. Similarly, Caprio Klingebiel (1999) in their study of 114 cases of essays on heroic deeds bank failure in 46 countries, they established that bank failure has negative impact on the economic development. Northern Rock was the one of the biggest casualty of the global financial crisis that occurred between 2007 and 2009. During this period, the bank faced liquidity problems, and famous, was forced to borrow from the the miser essay Central Bank of famous England to resolve its liquidity issues. However, things did not change and depositors got afraid of the situation promoting them to essays on heroic withdraw their savings from the famous essayists bank. This resulted in a bank run, and Northern Rock had to be nationalized in essays deeds, 2008 (Stucke, 2008). In an attempt to resolve the financial issues surrounding the famous essayists bank, the on heroic deeds bank was privatised in essayists, 2011 to work page mla research Virgin Money.
Lehman Brothers became bankrupt on 15th September 2008. At that time the bank had an american assert base worth 639 billion dollars and debts worth 619 billion dollars. As noted by investopedia.com, the bankruptcy of Leman was the essays on heroic biggest in american essayists, history of bank failure, since its asset was much more than those of past bankrupt huge organisations such as WorldCom and Enron. The Miser Essay. Indeed, Lehman Brothers was the fourth-biggest American investment bank when it collapsed. At the famous american same time, Lehman’s collapse as well marked the largest victim of the US financial crisis that affected global financial markets. According to the miser essay investopedia.com (2009), this was an changing moment that highly worsened the 2008 financial crisis and resulted in a loss of about $10 billion trillion in terms of famous american essayists market capitalization from deeds, global financial market (investopedia.com, 2009). UBS is the famous american essayists biggest Swiss bank with a global presence in more than 40 countries (Krystof et al., 2012). The bank has been in operation for more than hundred years.
UBS offers usual banking services (e.g. Essays Deeds. saving and deposit services), investment banking as well as wealth management services. The bank as many Swiss banks, is known for its confidentiality and fidelity. When Union Bank of famous american Switzerland and Swiss Bank Corporation merged in 1988, it became UBS (Krystof et al., 2012). Hurricane. This merger saw UBS outgrow the market considerable in profits and famous essayists, assets; a high proportion of its growth was from its investment division. As at 2006, UBS was one of the employee workplace biggest banks globally with more than $2trillion worth of famous assets (Krystof et al., 2012). However, in 2007, UBS reported huge losses and faced similar financial crisis as Lehman brothers and Northern Rock. Matters worsen in work mla research, 2008 when UBS posted a loss of more than 30billion Swiss Francs. This was the biggest corporate loss in the history of Switzerland. Essayists. The Swiss government had to step in mid-2008 and bail out the questions for reading bank (Krystof et al., 2012). . UBS loss shock the famous whole Swiss banking industry and affected the economy greatly is banking is the main global asset of Swiss (Krystof et al., 2012). Various theories have been formulated by hurricane camille, different scholars to explain the causes of bank failure.
Hook (1994) citing Kindleberger (1989) states that bank failure are caused by rapid increase of bank credit. American Essayists. However, some like Calomiris Gorton (1991) have argued that bank failure results from government involvement. According to Palubinskas Stough (1999) bank failure is caused by several factors including, legislation, mismanagement, poor management and deposit insurance. a view shared by Hempel Simonson (1999) who agree that mismanagement, governmental involvement and regulation interference contribute to bank failure. On his part Chu (1996) claims that free banking is one of the list of critical thinking questions for reading causes of bank failure. It is important for the researcher to identify and describe the research topic when writing a dissertation (Yin, 1994).
This means that the researcher has to take enough time to describe the research problem. In addition, Yin (1994) recommends that the research topic has to be logical and famous american, structural so that it can address the questions regarding what, who, why, where and how. This allows the essay employee privacy rights researcher to formulate the correct approach to use. As stated before in the background information section, increase in famous american essayists, bank failure has lead to many economists, bankers, regulatory bodies and even governments to take more great interest in this issue because it affects financial stability of a country. Chu (1996) notes that there is a general acknowledgement that banks are crucial element in economy and bank crises cost the of critical questions entire economy thus, need for famous american essayists banking stability. Hurricane Paper. Banks accepts deposits from their customers and also gives loans to these customers; this means that they are financial intermediaries. A part from that, banks also allows their customers to pay bills through their accounts making them central in the payment system. these functions and many more that are undertaken by the banks makes them to a play an important and critical role in monetary policy of american essayists a country and their failure begs us to ask of hurricane camille research paper research question: why do banks fail, a case study of famous american Northern Rock, Lehman brothers, and Union Bank of Switzerland (UBS)? The main rationale of this study is to establish why bank fail with special attention to three banks; Northern Rock, Lehman brothers, and Union Bank of essay rights workplace Switzerland (UBS). Essayists. Banks as financial institution contribute a lot to the stability of a nation’s economy. However, in the recent past the numbers of banks that have collapsed have been on the increase.
Thus, the need to re-examine the causes of bank failure, more so, the present research will provide additional understanding and the miser essay, knowledge to this subject. In summary, this chapter has provided the background information on american, causes of bank failure. In addition, the chapter has outlined the problem statement, purpose of the study. As noted in the earlier sections, bank failure results in considerable financial impact to the economy and negative impacts to other stakeholders. List For Reading. These huge costs from bank failures necessitate the need to examine causes of bank failure. Several theories have been formulated to explain the causes of bank failure; these theories will be tested against the case studies. 2.0 Aim and objectives of Research. This chapter takes up from chapter one and outlines the aims and objectives, research questions and also gives that the structure of the whole dissertation. The research will be aimed at investigating the causes of bank failure. Further objectives of the proposed research are as follows: The main aim of the present research is to famous american essayists examine why banks fail.
Other objectives of the research are stated below: - To examine the deeds concepts of causes of bank failure in the past literature. - To study the causes that resulted in Northern Rock bank, Lehman brothers, and (UBS) Union Bank of Switzerland failure. - To investigate the impact of american macro-economy (subprime crisis) on the case study banks (Northern Rock, Lehman brothers, and cited paper, Union Bank of famous american essayists Switzerland UBS. As mentioned by Yin (1994) research questions are very crucial for examining research problem in the right direction of the study. Work Cited Page Mla Research. Accordingly, this research presents the famous following research questions. - What are the concepts outlined in the literature that causes bank failure. - How did Northern Rock, Lehman brothers and UBS (Union Bank of Switzerland) fail? - What caused bank failure of Northern Rock, Lehman brothers, and (UBS) Union Bank of list for reading Switzerland? The dissertation is arranged in 5 chapters as follows: i. Famous. Chapter 1: Introduction: this chapter opens the with research paper by providing the background information of the dissertation, outlining the research problem, the rationale, and hurricane paper, the aim and objectives of the study.
ii. Chapter 2: Literature review: this reviews the past literature on history of bank failures and theories of bank failure. iii. Chapter 3: Methodology: this chapter describes the research methodology, instruments and famous american essayists, techniques adopted by this dissertation to gather and analyze the thesis statement data. iv. Chapter 4: Data analysis: Describes both qualitative and quantitative techniques to be used in presenting and interpretation of the data and explains the findings based on the case studies and american essayists, the literature review. v. Chapter 5: Conclusions, Recommendations: This is the last chapter; it summarizes the findings the first four chapters as a conclusion, and provides recommendation based on the findings of the research. This short chapter has outlined the aims and objectives of the study, the research questions and the structure of the dissertation. As stated in the aims and thesis vanity, objectives, this research aims at finding out why banks fail. 3.0 Literature Review.
The following chapter will review the theories regarding why banks fail and past studies on why banks fail. It is important for the various stakeholders including customers, regulators and the management to understand the causes behind bank failures. Essayists. Such an understanding will help the take stakeholders take an active role in preventing bank failure. Work Cited Page Paper. Bank fail particularly concerns the management and the external regulators including the government. As noted by famous essayists, Hook (1994) when a bank fails, managers loss their jobs, the regulators shoulder the blame, and the government is expected to intervene.
Similarly, other stakeholders should as well understand the causes of bank failure to be able to prevent it before it occurs. Certainly, when banks failure happens, all stakeholders suffer. How does bank failure occur? Though there are many ways in which banks fail, there is one common denominator of bank failure, the inability of banks to the miser essay provide funds that depositors want. Boyd De Nicolo (2005) explains that this will not create any problem supposing the rate at which the essayists bank is growing in terms of deposits is essays on heroic deeds, more than the famous american deposit interest rate. As noted by Wheelock Wilson (2000) in such a situation, depositors are in essence transferring money to the banks, and the banks are able to maintain they liquidity even when they include all their loans. Nonetheless, supposing the rate of growth of banks deposits is below that of the deposit interest rate, it follows that banks have to make a full transfer of funds to depositors. For this to happen, banks must transfer funds from their borrowers (debtors), or use their liquidity funds. According to Boyd De Nicolo (2005) problems happen when the amounts required to be transferred is very high. This could be cause by deeds, high local interest rate, or due to low or negative deposit growth rate making it impossible for banks to get the demanded funds from their borrowers of famous american essayists their liquidity funds. In theory, banks can get the thesis statement demanded funds by merely requesting those with loans to pay back (Mannasoo Mayes, 2009).
But, in reality, this cannot happen because whatsoever the set maturity dates of the loans, borrowers would view an abrupt demand of credit as very disruptive. Supposing the market is going through a credit crunch, corporate borrowers can be able to pay their loans if the credit crunch does not last for long, by cutting down some of their activities. However, if the credit crunch is prolonged, the corporate borrowers may be forced to default on american, these loans (Boyd De Nicolo, 2005). Work Cited Page. Some of the causes and concepts of banks’ failure are discussed in american essayists, the following section. According to Hook (1994) weakening economic factors affecting the local market such as high interest rates and inflation contribute to thesis statement vanity bank failure. This view is supported by Eisenbeis (1986) who claims that macroeconomic factors, for example, abrupt negative changes in a country’s trade balance and instability in world interest rate worsen the banking environment leading to famous bank failure . Similarly, Gooldhart et al (1998) add their voice on this issue by restating that interest rate instability result in banking failure. Eisenbeis (1986); O’Driscoll (1998) both agree that government regulations and interference contribute to bank failure. Contributing this viewpoint, Hempel and Simonson (1999) asserts that when a government gets involved in bailing out a bank from collapsing, customers and list of critical thinking questions for reading, creditors seem to depend on the government to also safeguard their welfare. Famous Essayists. Hempel and Simonson (1999) ague that the involvement does not motivate other bodies, customers and essay employee rights workplace, creditors to successful check their welfare (interests) in the banks in a self-determining manner. Goodhart et al., (1998) highlight the various situations that could result in a bank collapse. Enactment of very many strict rules could result in famous essayists, banks overlooking these rules since the banks may view them as unnecessary.
A number of risks that affect banks may be very complex to be tackled through laws and regulations. Mla Research Paper. A strict and inflexible framework of rules and regulation could prevent banks from choosing the most efficient strategy of attaining regulatory objective set and this may de-motivate banks from seeking improvement of their operations (Goodhart et al., 1998) Likewise, ineffective regulatory framework contributes to bank failure (Spollen, 1997). Famous Essayists. Hooks (1994) points out that the banking industry does not require government regulations since they do not bring any advantage. 3.3.1 Government Deposit Insurance Plan. According to Goodhart et al., (1998) where there is no any attempt to assist banks facing financial problems; such banks are likely to suffer depositors’ runs.
Still, when a government offers full deposit insurance plans and other measures meant to rescue banks, it was observed that stakeholders get put off from checking the activities undertaken by thesis statement vanity, the intermediaries. That responsibility of checking is left to essayists the bank only. This explains why industry regulators safeguard the interest of stakeholders and the general public by advocating for less risk-seeking activities. Hooks (1994) point out when banks are given fixed-rate deposit insurance; it encourages them to invest in cited page mla research, risky ventures. Hook (1994) further notes that flat-rate fee deposit insurance also motivates banks to undertake risky ventures.
Similarly, Palibinskas and famous american essayists, Stough (1999) supports Hook (1994)’s arguments by stating that insurance plans leads to unpaid loans, owing to the fact that banks and essays deeds, customers do not suffer any loss when deposits are poorly invested or lost through corrupt ways. The same note White (1993) observed that in cases where the government offers a deposit insurance plan, cases of incompetent management and frauds are common even if regulations are tight. 3.3.2 Regulating the Deposits Interest Rates. It has been pointed out by Selgin (1996) that the objective of setting a ceiling on how high deposit interest rate can be charged by banks is to stop banks from taking large amounts of deposits by offering borrowers huge amounts of funds that bring big interest earning to these banks. According to Hooks (1994) a ceiling on deposit interest rates encourages banks to undertake risky businesses. More so, banks usually attempt to overlook the ceiling by provision of famous essayists additional services to depositors, ultimately leading to increased transaction costs and reduced earnings. Accordingly, Selgin (1996) asserted that rather than reducing the possibilities of bank failures, setting ceiling on deposit interest rates decreases the capacity of banks to mobilise funds in cases where they become illiquid. Thus, Selgin (1996) argues that such a regulation of deposit interest rates works against banks, hence can contribute to bank distress.
3.3.3 Limiting Banks to Open Branches and Investments. Limiting banks to certain geographical areas creates a major threat to their operations (Selgin, 1996). More so, Selgin (1996) enumerates that these kind of restrictions have the following consequences on the banks; increases the exposure to statement various threats; increases systemic risks, while blocking market forces from circumventing failures. All these aspects increase the possibility of bank failure. In related observations, Hooks (1994) reports that branching limitations could limit banks from expanding their investment ventures in famous american essayists, various locations and regions. Essays On Heroic. Hooks (1994) adds that this geographical limitation, together with restrictions on investments limits diversification efforts by banks. Contributing to this aspect, Goodhart et al., (1998) observes that lack of proper diversification in operations result in bank collapse.
According to Hempel and famous american essayists, Simonson (1999) when banks are restricted in rights workplace, terms of famous opening branches, their capacity to cited paper mobilize enough amounts of steady retail deposited is limited. Famous. This kind of research paper a situation forces banks to depend heavily on american, unsteady funding sources that come from deeds, money market creditors. Hooks (1994) underline that banks may apply the freedom they have on flexible investment to concentrate on restricted higher-risk ventures. According to Selgin (1996), though the objective of geographical restriction is to famous american prevent banks from undue clustering and control competition, such an objective overlooks the cited paper benefits brought by bank branching as well as the significance of competition within the industry. Selgin (1996) (citing White, 1986) argues that branching restrictions increases the bank’s exposure to risks for american essayists both its liabilities and assets. Similarly, branching restriction regulations have encouraged banks to venture in risk-taking activities. Statement. Others regulations have as well restricted banks from venturing into various banking activities. Thus, regulation on famous american, branching restriction contributes to bank failure, since banks’ capacity to avoid risk is restricted, and this compels banks to venture into risky activities (Selgin, 1996). Accordingly, Selgin, (1996) views this restriction on essays on heroic, branching as very hard hitting. According to Hooks (1994), the fewer amounts a bank has in terms of capital, the higher its chances to collapse. Famous. This viewpoint is supported by Goodhart et al., (1998) who state that when a bank’s capital reduces, it forces such a bank to get engaged in survival activities, which results in the bank undertaking risky activities.
Thus, the cited mla research probability of failure increases with the decrease of famous essayists capital. Thesis. Similarly, Palibinskas and Stough (1999) as well assert that one way of preventing bank failure is increasing the amount of capital banks should hold. This stipulation forces banks to increase the capital they hold, or merge with other banks or stop banking operations. As noted by Hooks (1994) capital is necessary since it cushions the banks from the losses they suffer. In situations where banks have insufficient capital, they normally hide this from american essayists, stakeholders and the public fearing to reveal their illiquidity. However, if the management and thesis statement vanity, regulatory bodies do not successfully tackle capital reduction before it worsens, the concerned bank may go under. Goodhart et al., (1998) agrees with this observation by stating that sufficient capital lowers risk-taking ventures, whereas inadequate capital encourages banks to undertake activities meant to ensure their survival, even when such activities are very risky. 3.3.5 Insufficient Reserve Requisite. White (1999) explains that a reserve requirement entail a percentage of cash in terms of net deposits, which banks are required to keep.
This measure ensures that banks operate in a prudential way and there is fiscal control on ventures undertaken by american, banks. In addition, a government requires banks to on heroic reserve some funds so as to enhance the real need for famous american essayists base money. Hooks (1994) contributes to this point by stating that bank failures occur because banks fail to maintain their deposits in thesis statement, accordance to reserve requirements. As explained by Hempel and famous american essayists, Simonson (1999) a number of regulatory bodies have regulations that allowing forbearance. However, this worsens bank crisis by allowing banks going through financial difficulties to continue with operating instead of liquating such banks.
The objective of forbearance is to help banks recoup some profits. But, this negatively impacts the banks since they normally do not have enough capital to operate healthily, and as they continue their operations, they continue to loss the little capital they are left with. Most countries use their central banks, which are lender of last resort to assist banks going through financial difficulties (Selgin, 1996); (White, 1999). However, when more banks face financial problems, the amount of money reserved to assist these banks reduced. Vanity. The government then is left with limited options; it can either increase the amount in reserve or combine the banks going through financial difficulties. nonetheless, if banks know that they central bank will always to be there to assist when they are going through financial difficulties, they will be encouraged to get involved in risky activities that can result in their collapse. Spiegel et al (1996) note that management determines the success of any business. Indeed, mismanagement is blamed for causing several banks failure in the 1980s and at the start of 1990s (Spiegel et al., 1996). Famous Essayists. According to the miser essay Spiegel et al (1996) banking crisis usually arise from the lack of effective management and poor decisions taken by management.
Thus, competency of the managers and focus are important in banking. White (1993) observes that mismanagement, particularly extreme risk taking by the management, is the leading cause of bank distress. White (1993) further points out american essayists that even though the management is blamed for mismanagement, it is on heroic deeds, hard to ascertain that the laxity of management is the sole reason for bank failure. In a study carried out by Spollen (1997) he established various issues that causes businesses to american essayists collapse, which can be applied to the banking sector as well. They include: - Failure of management to value and management a business. - Failure of management to conform to regulations. In most cases where a business collapses, the failure is blamed on absence of policies, and where policies are in place, they are either inadequate or are not followed. - Lack of enough staff, especially in the miser essay, middle management positions, which can lead to existing employees to be overworked, which may ultimately result in the failure of the business. - Failure of famous essayists businesses to apply basic control processes. - Lack of essays on heroic involving internal audit in formulation of policies and procedures made by the board of directors.
- failure of the board of directors to effectively deal with issues raised by audit (both internal and external) - Over-dependence on a few staff members. In many cases businesses are swindled by workers employed in these businesses, in many cases those with long serving years who are trusted by the businesses (Spollen, 1997). Heffernan (1996) supports Spollen (1997)’s observations by american, stating that there are practical cases such as the collapse of Barings Bank, which was blamed on fraud by employees. Thesis Statement. Goodhart et al (1996) contributes to this debate by stating that supposing employee compensation is related to performance, and yet his performance is below par, the manager may fabricate the performance because of being afraid of getting sacked. Such a move could finally contribute to essayists bank failure for (example what happened to cited page mla research Barings Bank). According to Palubinskas Stough (1999) asserts that a shortage of skilled and experienced bankers in various fields such as credit management, risk appraisal, evaluation of cash flow and financial management, contributes a lot to loan defaulting. Palubinskas Stough (1999) further note that lack of competent professional results in a situation banks fail to essayists effectively perform credit evaluation.
At times bankers merely enforce and monitor credit manual, which is ineffective and difficult to update. This position is cited paper, supported also by Goodhart (1998).
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fieldwork essay Visit the american essayists SocMag-Archive. Fieldwork in Social Work Education and Training: Issues and Challenges in the Case of list questions, Eastern and american essayists Southern Africa. Jotham Dhemba , National University of Lesotho. Social work is an international profession and similarly social work education internationally has always embraced both academic and practical components. Social work education comprises of a theoretical component taught in the miser essay the classroom and field- based education involving integration of the academic aspect and famous american practice. Thesis Statement Vanity? Fieldwork, which is also known as field instruction, field placement, field education, practicum or internship is therefore an integral component of social work education. Though the definition of social work seems to be a contested terrain, the International Association of american, Schools of Social Work (IASSW) and the International Federation of Social Workers (IFSW) (2004) convey, its basic meaning quite concisely.
They contend that, The social work profession promotes social change, problem- solving in of critical human relationships and american essayists the empowerment and liberation of people to enhance well-being. Utilising theories of human behavior and social systems, social work intervenes at camille paper the points where people interact with their environment. Principles of human rights and social justice are fundamental to social work. From this definition it is clear that social workers follow a formal procedure in helping clients to cope with their life tasks and to realise their aspirations. This involves developing their ability to deal with their problems more effectively at any given point in time and also in the future. Furthermore, social work intervention helps people connect with needed resources and to negotiate problematic situations which might also involve changes to american, existing structures where these present blocks to human growth and development. To this end, social work is professional discipline anchored on work page, a unified curriculum consisting of both theory and fieldwork components.
As shall be noted later, social work education started in Europe and famous North America in the last quarter of the 19th century. Its history goes back to the era of the Charity Organisation Societies when students learned social work by apprenticeship, that is, learning by doing. As Royse, Dhooper and Rompf (2007) observe, students obtained firsthand knowledge of poverty and adverse conditions through “applied philanthropy”. They also note that the apprenticeship model emphasised learning by doing and rights workplace “deriving knowledge from that activity”. By the end of the 19th century, social work gradually evolved from the famous american essayists apprenticeship method with the launching of the first social work training in 1898. This was a summer school established at the New York City Charity Organisation Society.
Six years later, in 1904, the Society established the New York School of Philanthropy, which offered eight months training in social work. Further to these developments, George, (1982) cited in Royse, et al (2007) contents that Mary Richmond, an early social work practitioner, teacher and theoretician, advocated for complementing field learning with academic education. Royse, et al (2007) also quote Austin (1986) who observes that early in social work education, students spent about half of their academic time in field settings. From the above, it is quite evident that fieldwork is the forerunner of work page paper, social work education and that theory and practice are equally important. Leading social work scholars, among them, Kaseke (1986), Mupedziswa, (1997) and Osie-Hwedie (1996) also unequivocally assert the famous essayists importance of both field instruction (fieldwork) and classroom instruction. On the same note, Hall (1995:38) asserts that, “a generally accepted view today is that field instruction is of equal importance to academic instruction”. It is therefore self-evident, even from the history of social work in Europe and North America where it originated, that social work education and training has always embraced the view that fieldwork and classroom instruction are essential elements of social work education.
However, the thesis statement reality at social work training institutions as Kaseke (1990) observes, is that fieldwork is marginalised when compared to its academic counterpart. Kaseke asserts that, “there is essayists, very little written on this subject matter, thus leaving social work educators, students and field supervisors without any meaningful and comprehensive guide to field instruction”. Mupedziswa (1997) also corroborates this view, contenting that “social work institutions need to recast their fieldwork in order to give it equal importance to work page, academic instruction”. This study assessed the fieldwork programme at american essayists three social work training institutions in Eastern and Southern Africa, namely the Institute of Social Work (ISW) in Tanzania, National University of Lesotho (NUL) and the miser essay School of Social Work, University of Zimbabwe. The International Association of Schools of Social Work Directory of 2002, an umbrella body of social work training institutions lists these training institutions as members. NUL and the School of Social Work, University of Zimbabwe offer undergraduate and postgraduate degrees in social work, while at the time of the study the ISW offered a three year undergraduate Advanced Diploma in Social Work as its main programme. The study focused on the Advanced Diploma (ISW) and Bachelor of Social Work students. 2 The role of famous american, fieldwork in social work education and training.
It is quite evident from the foregoing, that fieldwork has always been part of social work training and is an essay rights workplace integral component of social work education. As Hepworth and Rooney and Larsen (2002) observe, fieldwork engages the student in supervised social work practice and provides opportunities to marry theory and practice. A widely used definition of famous american, fieldwork is one by Hamilton and Else (1983) who view it as, “a consciously planned set of experiences occurring in a practice setting designed to move students from their initial level of understanding, skills and attitudes to levels associated with autonomous social work practice.” As the social work curriculum is based on both theory and practice, the provision of sound theory is critical as is fieldwork experience. It is camille paper, critically important for social work students to acquire, in a classroom environment, practice principles, values and ethics and the scientific basis for practice. Equally important is the need to apply the theoretical content covered in famous american essayists the classroom, to real life situations as part of a student’s preparation to become a professional social worker. It takes more than academic fitness, but also evidence-based knowledge, field- tested skills and a wealth of hands-on-experience to become a fully backed social worker.
As Shardlow and hurricane camille research paper Doel (1996:6) observe, “..these two contexts for learning about social work practice, class and famous american essayists fieldwork need to be integrated, complementary and mutually consistent”. They further point out that the challenge for the miser essay, the student and agency supervisor, is to famous essayists, make this a reality”. Kaseke (1986:55) also observes that fieldwork is an instrument of thesis vanity, socialisation since it prepares the student for a future role as a social work practitioner. He further asserts that, “a meaningful fieldwork placement is one that enhances the students understanding of the social work profession and the nature of the problems the profession addresses itself to”. Learning therefore takes place at various levels, that is, intellectually, emotionally and practically. Furthermore, fieldwork is an opportunity for aligning theoretical knowledge and learning, with the needs of society and the market place. It also affords students the opportunity to take responsibility for american, addressing people’s problems. The Miser Essay? Therefore, if handled effectively, fieldwork becomes an important tool in bringing about a social work curriculum that is appropriate and responsive to topical social development issues. Fieldwork also develops in students, skills that will enable them to respond appropriately to the needs of clients.
Furthermore, Safari (1986) observes that, “In the field, the student comes into contact with needy people, their problems, their reactions to the problems and their attitude towards social workers and thus the essayists student discovers his or her ability to help”. It is through observation and doing the job and feeling responsible for the job of helping people to cope with their problems, that social work students acquire skills. Likewise, fieldwork is designed to give the student exposure and experience on the functioning of social welfare agencies and social welfare provisioning. The general purpose of fieldwork is therefore, to acquaint students with actual social work situations, in preparation for professional social work practice. It is an of critical thinking questions for reading instrument that is used to initiate students into the profession through among others, inculcation and essayists assimilation of social work ethics, principles and values. It is widely accepted that it is a basic requirement of all professions to have a knowledge base, principles, values and ethics that guide and inform practice. Similarly, it is through opportunities to practice that students assimilate these principles, values and ethics of the profession. Statement of the problem.
While ideally, the academic and practical components of social work education are of equal importance, there are indications that fieldwork is the miser essay, marginalised. Furthermore, there is essayists, evidence showing that agency supervisors who are responsible for the practical training of social work students are not sufficiently resourced to undertake their supervisory role and yet they are expected to provide opportunities for students to develop their professional knowledge and on heroic skills. Furthermore, as pointed out elsewhere, Kaseke (1990) observes that there is famous, not much documented literature on this subject and as a result stakeholders do not have an adequate grasp of the issues involved, which inevitably compromises the quality of students learning on fieldwork. Justification of the study. Considering that there is not much literature on fieldwork in social work education and deeds training, this study is intended to make a contribution towards filling this gap. The study builds on existing knowledge on fieldwork, including but not limited to the fieldwork curriculum, the management of fieldwork and the needs and challenges faced by students, agency supervisors and training institutions.
The aim of this study was to examine the nature, form and challenges experienced in the management of fieldwork at social work training institutions in Eastern and famous american essayists Southern Africa. The specific objectives of the study were: · to establish the nature, form and content of fieldwork practice at selected social work training institutions in Eastern and Southern Africa. · to ascertain whether fieldwork is treated as being equally important to deeds, its theory counterpart (classroom instruction) at the selected training institutions. · to assess the famous essayists needs and challenges faced by training institutions, agency supervisors and students on fieldwork. This section covers the research design for the study, target population, sample and sampling techniques, data gathering and data analysis. This study is essentially descriptive in nature though it has both quantitative and qualitative elements. The study covered fieldwork coordinators, agency supervisors and students on block fieldwork placement from the vanity Institute of Social Work (ISW) in american essayists Tanzania, the National University of Lesotho (NUL) and list thinking questions for reading the School of Social Work, University of Zimbabwe.
An agency supervisor is an employee of the organisation providing the setting for social work students learning. He/she is responsible for the teaching and learning of famous, a social work student on practical attachment. A sample of cited page mla research, 10 students and their agency supervisors participated in the study from the Institute of Social Work, where the famous american essayists author was on sabbatical leave in 2004. At the work page paper National University of Lesotho, a total of 78 fourth year students and six agency supervisors were covered in american the study in 2009 and at the School of Social Work, University of Zimbabwe, a total of 16 second and third year students and their supervisors also participated the study in 2007 and work cited page paper 2008. Therefore, a total of 104 students and 32 agency supervisors from the three institutions participated in american essayists the study. Students and agency supervisors. In the case of the ISW and School of Social Work students and their agency supervisors, these were covered in the course of students’ assessments. The students who participated in the miser essay the study were those allocated by fieldwork coordinators at the respective institutions. Famous? There was therefore no attempt to stratify the study population as data were gathered from statement vanity, students that were allocated for american essayists, assessment. As for NUL students it was not possible to have a similar arrangement as students assessment was carried out work cited paper as a team of famous essayists, school supervisors. This being the case, a 100% sample of fourth year students was covered after they had completed their fieldwork.
Purposive sampling was used for agency supervisors as it was quite convenient to select the supervisors of students who participated in thesis statement vanity the study. In the case of NUL only six agency supervisors were selected for american essayists, the study also on the basis of the miser essay, convenience and willingness to be interviewed. Purposive sampling was also used for fieldwork coordinators (a member of the fieldwork committee at Institute of Social Work and a Lecturer involved with students placements at NUL) at the respective institutions. Data gathering techniques. An interview guide covering selected themes on the nature and practice of essayists, fieldwork was used to obtain information from the target population comprising of social work students, agency supervisors and fieldwork coordinators. However, in the case of cited mla research paper, NUL, a questionnaire was used for students and this was completed after they returned from american, fieldwork. Assessment of deeds, students at the National University of american essayists, Lesotho was done as a team of the miser essay, school supervisors and logistically it was not convenient to interview them for the study at the time of their assessment. Relevant fieldwork documents at the selected institutions were also reviewed. Data was analysed on the basis of selected themes, including the essayists nature and form of fieldwork, duration of fieldwork, agency and school supervision, and challenges experienced in the management and practice of fieldwork among others.
Presentation and discussion of findings. The purpose of this study was basically to unravel the vanity nature and form of fieldwork and challenges in the management of fieldwork at the Institute of Social Work in Tanzania, National University of Lesotho and the School of Social Work, University of Zimbabwe. The study is premised on the view that while theory and fieldwork are of equal importance in american essayists social work education and training, the latter is marginalised and it is not accorded the thesis vanity importance that it deserves. The presentation and discussion of the study findings shall be done simultaneously in essayists the sub-sections below. Forms of fieldwork. Social work training institutions generally use one of four forms of employee rights workplace, fieldwork, namely concurrent, block, a combination of both concurrent and block and in-service placements. The block placement arrangement is used at the three institutions. However, the ISW uses both concurrent and block placements. The National University of american essayists, Lesotho also uses block placements at the undergraduate level and concurrent fieldwork at essay employee privacy workplace the postgraduate level (MSW).
A block fieldwork placement refers to a continuous full-time engagement of famous essayists, a social work student at the miser essay a fieldwork agency for a period ranging from at least a month to one year depending on the institution. The School of american, Social Work, University of Zimbabwe, uses the block placement system with fieldwork occurring in the second and third year for a period of three months and three weeks. At the ISW, there is only one block placement which occurs in essays on heroic the third year for american essayists, a period of three months. At the National University of Lesotho, the block fieldwork occurs in the second year for a month and in the third and fourth year for two months respectively. Concurrent fieldwork at the ISW occurs at the second year level. As pointed out earlier, the School of Social Work uses block placements only, but first year students also go for field visits in the second semester as part of their orientation to the profession. Concurrent fieldwork occurs simultaneously with classroom instruction.
The students’ time is divided between classroom learning and field based learning. Typically, students spend two or three days in a week at the field agency and they take classes for the remaining two or three days of the thesis statement vanity week. The beauty of the concurrent fieldwork arrangement lies in the simultaneous and immediate application of famous american, theory learnt in the classroom into practice. An added advantage of this form of fieldwork is that students can share and readily discuss their placements while at the training institution and this can contribute to effective integration of theory and the miser essay practice. However a major limitation of american essayists, this arrangement is cited page, that students have to be attached at agencies within the proximity of the famous american essayists training institution. Therefore, on this basis, students are denied the opportunity to work in remote rural areas where social work intervention is probably most needed as most social work training institutions are urban based. Furthermore, this arrangement may not work well as the work cited mla research student has to be reporting to both his or her training institution and the agency supervisor. In support of this view, Hall (1990: 31) states that, “ the disadvantage is the possibility that the essayists fieldwork experience becomes more fragmented and students are unable to do justice to either theory or practice because of the overlapping expectations of workplace and school”. It is also difficult to come up with a structured programme for a student working on a part-time basis. There is also the risk of hurricane, agency supervisors neglecting or forgetting about their students as they only meet them twice or thrice in a week. It appears the rationale for using concurrent placements initially at first or second year levels or both levels and then blocks at higher levels is to offer students an opportunity to gradually acquaint themselves with the famous essayists profession.
This is hurricane research, so considering that in the first or second year of the course expectations are not very high. Students are required to american, observe the supervisor in action and to perform tasks befitting their level. Hurricane Camille Paper? Placements at this level are therefore of an exploratory character with the student carrying out tasks that are not too complex. Essayists? However, at higher levels the student is expected to be active at a practical level, carrying out tasks that have considerable scope for increasingly independent execution of duties and skills. While the block placement allows students to immerse themselves in essay workplace the work of an agency and is more conducive to the pursuit of intellectually and professionally stimulating tasks, it also has its weaknesses. One problem is the postponement of application of theory into practice until a certain level of theoretical knowledge is attained.
Additionally, there is famous american, a clear separation of the timing and context in thesis vanity which theory and practice take place as students are away from the training institution for a period ranging from one month to a year. On the other hand, in-service placements are appropriate in situations where social work training is designed as part of famous american, in-service training. On Heroic? Students go back to their places of employment, for fieldwork experience in famous american essayists the context of their existing jobs. Hall (1990) cites the example of the Department of Social Services, at Kaduna Polytechnic in Nigeria which offers an in-service training course and employee privacy rights workplace uses in-service placements for its fieldwork programme. However, such programmes are mounted on a one-off basis and are therefore not sustainable in the long term as it would be difficult to famous american, guarantee a regular supply of students from employers. It must however be appreciated that the choice of the most appropriate form or combination, is based on the demands of classroom instruction in work page mla research paper terms of course configuration and the amount of time required for each subject. Famous American? Each institution is therefore unique in terms of prevailing circumstances and conditions but it is important to thesis vanity, settle for american essayists, the most effective form of fieldwork that guarantees professional growth and development for the student. Nature of fieldwork.
In describing the nature of hurricane camille paper, fieldwork at the institutions covered in the study it is important to famous american essayists, refer to mla research, the IASSW and IFSW (2004) Global Standards on Social Work Education and of special interest are standards relating to duration of fieldwork, expectations and requirements for famous american essayists, agency supervision, the questions fieldwork curriculum. These shall be examined in the sections below. It also needs to be noted from the outset that it was very evident from the collation of data gathered that, in many regards, fieldwork at the three institutions is generally the same. There are however significant differences in the structure of fieldwork in terms of form, level at which it takes place and the duration of fieldwork. As pointed out earlier, the block fieldwork placement is common at the three institutions, though there are differences in duration and the levels at which it occurs.
The other notable difference, as indicated previously, is that the ISW and NUL (at Masters Level only) also utilise concurrent fieldwork. Duration of fieldwork. As stipulated by american essayists the IASSW and IFSW the duration of fieldwork should be sufficient and challenging enough to prepare students for professional practice. Cumulatively, the total fieldwork time for block placements at undergraduate level (at the social work training institutions covered) is as follows: No. of block placements Total duration. Institute of Social Work (one block placement) 3 months.
National University of vanity, Lesotho (3 blocks at second, third. and fourth year) 5 months. School of Social Work (2 block placements at 6 months, 3 wks. Second and third year) (27 wks) It is clear from the table above, that if one considers block placements only, the total fieldwork time is longest at the School of Social Work, where it is 6 months and three weeks. It is shortest at the Institute of Social Work (as of 2004) where it is only three months.
This is essayists, probably because the Institute is not a degree awarding institution as it offers a three-year Advanced Diploma in Social Work whereas the other institutions offer four-year degree programmes. The majority of the essay employee rights workplace agency supervisors and students from the Institute of Social Work were of the view that three months of fieldwork is rather short. Considering that the students only have one block placement, it is understandable that they preferred a longer placement which enables both students and supervisors to pursue the fieldwork objectives to the end. Essayists? The majority of School of Social Work students and essays deeds their supervisors were also of the opinion that their fieldwork was short. American Essayists? This is also understandable considering that the fieldwork takes place at two levels, that is, second and third year, for 8 and 15 weeks respectively. Though cumulatively, the fieldwork is longer at the School of Social Work, the time allocated per block placement was considered to cited page paper, be inadequate. While there are both advantages and disadvantages in having a single or multiple block placements at the undergraduate level, it is important to american essayists, consider these in relation to the context in the miser essay which training is taking place and the learning needs of students. An obvious advantage of at least two block placements is famous american essayists, that students get varied experiences, which prepares them to function in any social work setting when they qualify.
A single placement limits the student particularly in third world contexts where resources are scarce and poverty abounds. At NUL, students go for block placement at the beginning of the miser essay, second, third and fourth year. Though the duration of fieldwork was deemed to be generally inadequate by agency supervisors, 72% of the students expressed contentment with the two months fieldwork. Fewer students indicated that the fieldwork was too long. The main reason given for this position was that social work students do not have holidays, unlike students in other programmes. Fieldwork at NUL takes place during the long vacation from american, end of May to July thus denying students their much needed break in between semesters. Some students actually wished it could be reduced to one month and they argued that it should be done during semester time, like the academic courses. The other problem raised was that students on fieldwork experience acute financial hardships as they do not get adequate financial support from government. One student summed up the problems pointing out that, “We endure so many hardships as a result of inadequate financial support when doing fieldwork. It is actually a mystery that some of us last the two months. Two months is too long without financial support for our upkeep and transport”.
Some also indicated that they did not have much work to occupy them and they were therefore idle most of the essays deeds time. However, agency supervisors were of the essayists feeling that eight weeks was too short considering that students needed time to learn and to adjust to the new situation. While it would be difficult to prescribe the form and duration of fieldwork as training institutions are unique in list of critical questions their own right, what is emerging from this study is the need for block fieldwork to be long enough for students to develop and consolidate their skills. The Council on Social Work Education (CSWE) (in the USA), quoted in Royce, Dhooper and Rompf (2007) requires that undergraduate students do fieldwork for a minimum of essayists, 400 contact hours. This translates to a minimum fieldwork period of three months. Therefore, if one is to use the CSWE standard to measure the adequacy of the duration of fieldwork, then clearly, the three institutions covered in this study meet this requirement. The study found that the three institutions covered in the study did not have a comprehensive fieldwork curriculum. At best, the fieldwork curriculum at the institutions is fragmented. However, when compared to the miser essay, its academic counterpart (classroom instruction) taught courses have a well-organised structure based on essayists, a clearly defined curriculum. This makes the learning and teaching manageable and on heroic focused.
Shardlow and Doel (1996:79-80) suggest the following advantages of essayists, having a fieldwork curriculum: the requirements of social work practice can shape the content of what is learned by students through a practice curriculum. students are empowered through the existence of an explicit written practice curriculum; they can have an understanding of required learning at the start of the placement. practice teachers are empowered through the development of the curriculum as a common currency, so there is an opportunity and a reason to become connected with each other. It is possible to organise practice learning so that simple or core skills, basic knowledge or fundamental values are learned before the more complex elements are attempted. It is possible with a practice curriculum to the miser essay, know when learning has been achieved in given areas, and then to move on to other components of the curriculum or to find ways to compensate for deficiencies in the learning environment – if, for famous, example, live practice with clients is not generating appropriate learning experiences, other methods of thesis, learning can be used. The curriculum allows for american, a range of different learning opportunities and learning methods to be used: this can be well- organised and planned before the start of the placement. The examination of practice competence can be structured and harmonized to fit with the pace of learning. An analysis of the camille research fieldwork course materials at the institutions reveals that the only documents in use are fieldwork placement forms, that is, background information forms, assessment forms, guidelines for writing fieldwork reports, contract forms in the case of the School of Social Work, and letters of introduction for students. Of concern was the essayists lack of Fieldwork Manuals at two of the institutions. Manuals provide valuable reference material for students, agency supervisors and social work educators. Though the School of Social Work has a fieldwork manual, which probably needs updating as it is a 1990 publication, agency supervisors indicated that they did not have this manual.
Commenting on the state of fieldwork at one of the essay training institutions one fieldwork coordinator had this to say, “Agency supervisors sometimes phone us wanting to know the expectations for fieldwork. To be honest with you we are also at a loss as to what to tell them. We do not have much documented materials on fieldwork apart from students’ fieldwork reports and fieldwork placement forms. I believe this is also compounded by the fact that our students go to a diversity of agencies which makes it difficult to come up with a universally applicable fieldwork programme”. Criteria used in the choice of fieldwork agencies.
Students covered in famous essayists the study were placed in a wide range of agencies including but not limited to government ministries and departments, local authorities and Non Governmental Organisations (NGOs), indicating flexibility in the criteria used to select fieldwork agencies. Understandably, agencies of first choice for students were those that pay allowances and other incentives. As most students did not get allowances for fieldwork, the the miser essay need to minimise costs on transport and other expenses prompted them to famous, choose agencies within close proximity to their places of residence and list thinking questions for reading not necessarily those with the essayists greatest potential for the miser essay, provision of learning. However on the part of training institutions, the main consideration was to minimise the costs involved in fieldwork assessment visits (follow-ups). Based on this reality, most placements were in urban settings. However, at the School of Social Work, students did their fieldwork only in Harare (where it is famous american essayists, located). Furthermore, the fieldwork coordinator at one of the institutions pointed out statement vanity that “there is an acute shortage of agencies willing to take students on placement which makes it difficult to secure placements for all the students if we are to follow a rigid selection criterion.
We have to be flexible if all students are to be placed”. However, on famous american essayists, the same note, the employee privacy Council on essayists, Social Work Education, quoted in Royse et al (2007:5) stipulates that fieldwork should occur in settings that reinforce students, “identification with the essay workplace purposes, values, and ethics of the profession, fosters the integration of empirical and famous essayists practice based knowledge and promotes the development of professional competency”. Quality of agency supervision. Though the use of qualified and experienced supervisors is quite critical in statement vanity any professional training this study found the supervision of students by non-social workers to be a common practice. The study revealed that, 52.5% of agency supervisors of the american essayists School of Social Work students were not social workers. 50% of the ISW students indicated that their supervisors were not social workers. 63% of social work students at NUL indicated that they were supervised by essays non social workers. These findings are perhaps not surprising considering that there is an acute shortage of suitable fieldwork agencies and in the case of the School of Social Work in Zimbabwe this was also compounded by the massive exodus of qualified social workers during the american period 2002-2009 as a result of political and economic challenges facing the country then. Also problematic is that most of the agency supervisors did not have a programme showing how the teaching and learning was to happen.
It was indicated that training institutions did not provide them with any guidelines and essay privacy rights as a result they just ended up improvising. An agency supervisor at one of the District Social Welfare Offices in Lesotho indicated that there was just an understanding with the student, that in a five-day week she would spend two days doing administrative work at the office and three days in the community carrying out home assessment visits. Similarly, the majority of the students from the National University of famous american essayists, Lesotho indicated that their programme was rather informal. Both students and agency supervisors revealed that school supervisors did not ask for work paper, any written material on their assessment visits. American Essayists? On this basis, it is clear that without a guide or programme (curriculum to follow) it is difficult to achieve the objectives of fieldwork, let alone provide quality learning and mentoring for students, particularly in the case of unqualified supervisors. Support given to employee privacy workplace, agency supervisors. It cannot be overstressed that field supervisors play an important role in the training of famous american essayists, social workers. They are partners in the training process with responsibility to manage the transition from the for reading classroom to the field and this requires support and continuous dialogue between the training institution, the agency supervisor and the agency. It is probably in recognition of this fact that the IASSW and IFSW spell out the need for training institutions to provide fieldwork manuals and orientation to agency supervisors.
This enables them to appreciate expectations of american essayists, their role it also ensures that students are given optimum opportunity to develop professional knowledge and skill. Notwithstanding the recognition that the role of agency supervisor is ever more prominent and important, this study found that there is essays on heroic deeds, no clear exposition of the process and nature of the teaching and learning required on fieldwork. It was reported that the training institutions are severely constrained in their efforts to empower agency supervisors to perform their roles effectively. As pointed out earlier, the majority of the agency supervisors were just groping in the dark as they did not have a clear understanding of the nature and type of learning to provide students on fieldwork. This is consistent with the view expressed by one non-social work agency supervisor that they experience problems completing students’ assessment forms at the end of the placement as some of them are not social workers and they also do not understand what is expected of them. Famous? ”As a result most of the assessment forms are returned to the training institution incomplete” commented the supervisor.
With the increasing use of non- social work agency supervisors, the provision of training and other supportive materials such as handbooks/manuals would go a long way in the miser essay enhancing the quality of famous american essayists, practice learning. Though the IASSW and IFSW (to which they are members) stipulate the need for list of critical thinking questions, training institutions to capacitate agency supervisors, none of the institutions had provided training or fieldwork materials in the five years prior to the study. In spite of the School of Social Work having a fieldwork-training manual, agency supervisors indicated that they did not have the manual, an indication that there is probably not much interaction between the institution and american agency supervisors. Ironically, the essays deeds study also found that all agency supervisors had not received any training or orientation prior to the commencement of fieldwork. Though it was reported that training workshops had been held in the past, such workshops need to be carried out regularly. In the case of the School of Social Work, the last training workshop was said to have taken place in 2001. As Shardlow and Doel (1996:4) observe, “learning, for a student on placement, does not just happen by osmosis; it requires effort and planning by both student and practice teacher”. These problems were reported to be largely as a result of lack of or under-funding of famous, fieldwork related activities. Challenges in the management of fieldwork. The study also sought to find out challenges experienced in the management of fieldwork.
It was found that the on heroic deeds shortage of qualified and experienced supervisors, shortage of american essayists, suitable fieldwork agencies, inadequate funding and timing of fieldwork were the major challenges the institutions have to grapple with. Work Cited Page Mla Research? These challenges are examined below: (a) Shortage of qualified agency supervisors. The shortage of famous american, qualified and experienced agency supervisors was found to be a common problem. Invariably, qualified and experienced social workers should handle practical training in list thinking questions for reading social work. However, the situation obtaining in the three countries, that is, Lesotho, Tanzania and Zimbabwe is that not all social development and welfare agencies, where students can do their fieldwork, employ social workers. This is the case as it is not a requirement in the three countries for one to be registered as a social worker in order to practice social work. Resultantly, there is an infiltration of the profession as some of the social welfare agencies are employing workers from other disciplines to carry out social work roles. What is also worrisome is that even in some agencies that are primary social work settings, students can be supervised by non- social workers.
A typical example is that of the Department of Social Welfare in Zimbabwe, which started employing non- social workers from around 2002, ostensibly because of the shortage of social workers. Many social workers were reported to have left the country mainly to South Africa and the United Kingdom, owing to political and economic problems experienced then. In the famous essayists case of NUL, this problem is list of critical thinking, also compounded by the timing of fieldwork as second, third and fourth year students go for famous american essayists, fieldwork at the same time. This is the miser essay, a big challenge considering that a total of about 300 students have to be accommodated in the few agencies operating in the country. However, as social work is practiced in a variety of settings, it is inevitable that non- social workers will have to supervise social work students. Furthermore, in spite of famous american essayists, this crippling shortage of qualified agency supervisors, it needs to be acknowledged that non-social work agency supervisors have contributed significantly to the survival of the fieldwork programme at institutions covered in the study. (b) Shortage of suitable agencies for fieldwork. Both students and fieldwork coordinators confirmed that it was a nightmare securing fieldwork placements. In the case of the School of Social Work in Harare, this problem was compounded by the fact that students were restricted to Harare-based agencies only, where the School is situated. It was indicated that owing to financial constraints, it was difficult for school supervisors to follow up students on the miser essay, fieldwork outside Harare.
Furthermore, Departments of american, Social Welfare in the three countries, which ideally should host the bulk of the students on fieldwork, were reportedly seriously short-staffed and not well resourced in terms office space and transport. Resultantly only a limited number of students could be absorbed. Also compounding the problem was competition from other programmes at the training institutions that were also sending their students for attachment at organisations that traditionally took social workers only. Apparently this was a problem at the three institutions covered in the study. Furthermore, as pointed out on heroic deeds earlier, the timing of fieldwork at famous american NUL, where three groups go for the fieldwork at the same time is also contributing to the shortage of the miser essay, suitable agencies. The challenge is famous, placing about 300 students at one go. Financial support for students on of critical thinking questions, fieldwork. The majority of the famous american essayists students failed to understanding why they did not get fieldwork allowances and yet they had a longer academic year than other students. While third and fourth year students at NUL and at the ISW received allowances for fieldwork, the amount was considered to be very little and not even enough to essays, cover their transport costs. School of Social Work students indicated that they did not get any allowances for fieldwork.
On this basis students wondered how they were expected to apply themselves seriously “on an empty stomach”. American? It was complained that support levels for essay employee, social work students’ are the same with students in famous american purely academic programmes without a practical component. This is thinking questions, also an anomaly, if one considers that the academic year for social work students, unlike students in other programmes is extended by two to three months and that they also have to contend with transport and subsistence costs while on fieldwork. Lack of visitation by school supervisors. While school supervision visits provide opportunities for students and agency supervisors to get guidance in american essayists pursuing the objectives of the placement and also to assess their performance students such visits were reported to be erratic at one of the institutions. Statement Vanity? This obviously diminishes the importance of fieldwork and it also undermines the learning process. Essayists? A follow-up of this matter with the fieldwork coordinator concerned revealed that fieldwork does not always get a budgetary allocation and that if allocated it is always far from adequate. “Sometimes school supervisors use their own resources for supervision and obviously there is on heroic deeds, limit to famous, which they can subsidise fieldwork” commented the fieldwork coordinator.
Highlighting the importance of supervision visits by school supervisors, Raphael and Rosenblum (1987) observe that even the planning of these visits, has an energising effect on the placement. They assert that: “Knowing that a faculty member who represents the School will be coming on a specific date to list of critical thinking for reading, review progress stimulates the field instructor and student to assess their progress. The heightened energy available at such times should be consciously used to facilitate change for educational purposes” (1987:158) Failure by school supervisors to assess students on fieldwork can have a very damaging effect on the morale of the student and agency supervisor and the placement in general. It can also affect relations between the training institution and fieldwork agencies. At one of the institutions it was reported that some agencies threatened to stop taking students if school supervisors did not make follow-up visits. While it is evident from the study that fieldwork in social work education is marginalised, there are indeed very promising prospects of raising its effectiveness and quality of training. Of significance is that the institutions covered in the study treat fieldwork as a compulsory course notwithstanding the many challenges faced in its management. American Essayists? Furthermore, as pointed out elsewhere, it is also encouraging that the IASSW and hurricane paper IFSW came up with qualifying standards for social work education, fieldwork included. If adopted, these would go a long way in transforming fieldwork practice.
Specifically, these include, among others, the need to appoint qualified and experienced agency supervisors, the need to provide orientation and training to famous american essayists, the same, the thesis vanity need for american essayists, social work training institutions to camille paper, develop fieldwork manuals and also to ensure that the essayists duration of fieldwork is sufficient. Furthermore, while the challenges confronting the fieldwork component in the training of social workers require intervention at the highest level, that is government and management at essay employee privacy rights workplace training institutions, it is also necessary that those involved in fieldwork execute their roles and responsibilities effectively. Specifically, the fieldwork coordinator, agency supervisor, students and school supervisors should be competent and resourceful in discharging their roles and responsibilities. Suggestions on strengthening fieldwork. It is clear that fieldwork in social work education faces a number of challenges. While the primary responsibility for addressing these challenges lies with the social work department or unit, there are issues that need the intervention of central administration at the training institution. Chief among these is inadequate funding for fieldwork related activities. Second is the famous american lack of essay privacy rights workplace, a clear learning content for american, fieldwork. Third, and on a related matter, is the lack of training for agency supervisors. In order to develop fieldwork to its fullest potential and to enhance the quality of learning, it is necessary to adopt the following measures:
There is need to allocate and to increase the budget for fieldwork. Social work is a professional discipline that has both theoretical and practical components. There is therefore need for training institutions to of critical thinking questions, allocate a separate budget for fieldwork in order to cater for the training of agency supervisors, school supervision, development of fieldwork manuals and other related activities. Development of fieldwork manuals. It is imperative that schools of social work develop their own fieldwork manuals, covering the teaching and learning content for american, fieldwork. This is particularly important considering that each institution is thesis statement, unique in terms of the prevailing socio-economic conditions, challenges and experiences, the social work education curriculum in a given country.
Manuals are a useful resource for social work educators, students and agency supervisors. Introduction of famous american essayists, a taught course on fieldwork theory and practice. While the academic component of social work education (theory courses) also prepares students for their field education, it is the view of the author that fieldwork should have a taught component (in class). This will address two concerns. List Of Critical? First, is the concern that students lack knowledge and understanding of american, learning experiences on fieldwork. This would therefore prepare students for actual practice and also facilitate the learning process during fieldwork. Secondly, there seems to be a lack of interest on fieldwork issues among social work scholars, which partly explains the paucity of literature on the subject. A taught component on fieldwork would contribute towards generating research interest on fieldwork issues among social work scholars.
In making this suggestion, the author is aware that the Institute of Social Work in Tanzania has a theory course on field instruction that students take before proceeding for field practice. Total duration of block fieldwork. While the duration of fieldwork varies at the three institutions, it is recommended that the camille total duration be at least six months, which is 960 contact hours. This is american, based on the view that fieldwork needs to be long enough for students and field supervisors to accomplish their objectives for the placement. With regard to the number of privacy rights workplace, placements at the undergraduate level, it is necessary to have two, preferably in the last two years of training. However, this should be at different agencies, which gives students varied experience through learning to adjust to new situations. Dominelli, L. (2002) International Association of essayists, Schools of Social Work Directory.
UK, IASSW and Department of hurricane camille paper, Social Work, University of Southampton. Hall, N. American? (1990) Social Work Training in Africa: A Fieldwork Manual. Harare, Journal of Social Development in Africa. Hepworth, D.H, Rooney, R. and mla research paper Larsen, J.A. (2002) Direct Social Work Practice: Theory and famous Skills. List Thinking Questions? U.S.A., Brooks/Cole.
IASSW and IFSW (2004) Global Standards for famous american essayists, the Education and Training of the Social work Profession. Bern, Switzerland, Sage. Kaseke, E. (1986) The Role of Fieldwork in Social Work Training, in: Social Development and Rural Fieldwork. Proceedings of a workshop held in Harare. Harare, Journal of Social Development in Africa, pp. 52-62. Kaseke, E. (1990) Foreword, in: Hall, N. Essay Employee Rights Workplace? Social Work Training in Africa: A Fieldwork Manual.
Harare, Journal of Social Development in Africa. Mupedziswa, R. (1997) Training Social Workers in an Environment of Economic Reforms: The Mother of all Challenges? In: Social Work/Maatskaplke Werk Vol. Famous? 33 (33) Osei-Hwedie, K. (1996) The Indigenisation of Social Work Practice and Education, in: Africa: The Dilemma of Theory and Method in Social Work/Maatskaplike Werk, 32 (3) Raphael, F. B. and Rosenblum, A. F. (1987) “An Operational Guide to the miser essay, the Faculty Field Liaison Role”, in: Social Casework: The Journal of Contemporary Social Work, March, pp.156-163. Royse, D., Dhooper, S. and Rompf, E. (2007) Field Instruction: A Guide for Social Work Students. Boston, Pearson Educational Inc. Safari, J. (1986) The Role of Fieldwork in the Training of Social Workers for Rural Development in: Social Development and Rural Fieldwork, Proceedings of a Workshop held 10-14 June, Harare.
Zimbabwe. Journal of Social Development in Africa, pp 74-80. Shardlow, S. and Doel, M. (1996) Practice Learning and Teaching. Famous? London, Macmillan Press Ltd.