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bowlby essay R. Chris Fraley | University of Illinois. Research on adult attachment is guided by the assumption that the same motivational system that gives rise to the close emotional bond between parents and their children is responsible for the bond that develops between adults in assignment, emotionally intimate relationships. The objective of this essay is to provide a brief overview of the how to help with and anxiety history of adult attachment research, the key theoretical ideas, and write assignment background, a sampling of some of the research findings. This essay has been written for people who are interested in learning more about research on clinical experience adult attachment. Background: Bowlby's Theory of Attachment. Write! The theory of attachment was originally developed by John Bowlby (1907 - 1990), a British psychoanalyst who was attempting to how to help, understand the intense distress experienced by infants who had been separated from their parents. Bowlby observed that separated infants would go to extraordinary lengths (e.g., crying, clinging, frantically searching) to prevent separation from their parents or to write assignment, reestablish proximity to a missing parent. At the time of Bowlby's initial writings, psychoanalytic writers held that these expressions were manifestations of immature defense mechanisms that were operating to repress emotional pain, but Bowlby noted that such expressions are common to how to depression, a wide variety of mammalian species, and speculated that these behaviors may serve an evolutionary function. Drawing on ethological theory, Bowlby postulated that these attachment behaviors , such as crying and searching, were adaptive responses to separation from a primary attachment figure --someone who provides support, protection, and care. Because human infants, like other mammalian infants, cannot feed or protect themselves, they are dependent upon the care and protection of older and wiser adults. Assignment! Bowlby argued that, over the course of evolutionary history, infants who were able to maintain proximity to an attachment figure via attachment behaviors would be more likely to how to help depression and anxiety, survive to write background, a reproductive age.

According to Bowlby, a motivational system, what he called the attachment behavioral system , was gradually designed by natural selection to regulate proximity to an attachment figure. The attachment behavior system is an creative writing important concept in attachment theory because it provides the conceptual linkage between ethological models of human development and modern theories on emotion regulation and personality. Assignment! According to Bowlby, the attachment system essentially asks the following fundamental question: Is the attachment figure nearby, accessible, and attentive? If the process engineer child perceives the answer to this question to be yes, he or she feels loved, secure, and confident, and, behaviorally, is likely to write assignment, explore his or her environment, play with others, and extended+essay+the+color+purple, be sociable. If, however, the child perceives the answer to this question to be no, the child experiences anxiety and, behaviorally, is likely to exhibit attachment behaviors ranging from simple visual searching on the low extreme to active following and vocal signaling on background the other (see Figure 1). Learn Writing! These behaviors continue until either the write background child is extended+essay+the+color+purple able to reestablish a desirable level of background, physical or psychological proximity to the attachment figure, or until the child wears down, as may happen in the context of a prolonged separation or loss. In such cases, Bowlby believed that young children experienced profound despair and writing, depression. Individual Differences in write, Infant Attachment Patterns. Although Bowlby believed that the letter basic dynamics described above captured the background normative dynamics of the attachment behavioral system, he recognized that there are individual differences in the way children appraise the accessibility of the attachment figure and how they regulate their attachment behavior in response to threats. However, it wasn't until his colleague, Mary Ainsworth (1913 – 1999), began to systematically study infant-parent separations that a formal understanding of these individual differences was articulated.

Ainsworth and her students developed a technique called the strange situation --a laboratory paradigm for studying infant-parent attachment. In the abelard and heloise questions strange situation, 12-month-old infants and their parents are brought to the laboratory and, systematically, separated from and reunited with one another. In the strange situation, most children (i.e., about assignment 60%) behave in the way implied by extended+essay+the+color+purple, Bowlby's normative theory. They become upset when the parent leaves the room, but, when he or she returns, they actively seek the parent and are easily comforted by him or her. Children who exhibit this pattern of behavior are often called secure . Assignment Background! Other children (about 20% or less) are ill-at-ease initially, and, upon separation, become extremely distressed. Importantly, when reunited with their parents, these children have a difficult time being soothed, and often exhibit conflicting behaviors that suggest they want to be comforted, but that they also want to punish the parent for leaving. These children are often called anxious-resistant . And Anxiety! The third pattern of attachment that Ainsworth and her colleagues documented is called avoidant . Avoidant children (about 20%) don't appear too distressed by the separation, and, upon reunion, actively avoid seeking contact with their parent, sometimes turning their attention to play objects on the laboratory floor. Ainsworth's work was important for at least three reasons. First, she provided one of the first empirical demonstrations of how attachment behavior is write assignment background patterned in both safe and frightening contexts.

Second, she provided the first empirical taxonomy of individual differences in infant attachment patterns. According to her research, at least three types of children exist: those who are secure in their relationship with their parents, those who are anxious-resistant, and those who are anxious-avoidant. Finally, she demonstrated that these individual differences were correlated with infant-parent interactions in abelard questions, the home during the first year of life. Children who appear secure in write assignment background, the strange situation, for example, tend to have parents who are responsive to their needs. Clinical Experience! Children who appear insecure in the strange situation (i.e., anxious-resistant or avoidant) often have parents who are insensitive to their needs, or inconsistent or rejecting in the care they provide. Write Background! In the years that have followed, a number of researchers have demonstrated links between early parental sensitivity and responsiveness and attachment security. Although Bowlby was primarily focused on understanding the nature of the pictures infant-caregiver relationship, he believed that attachment characterized human experience from the write assignment background cradle to the grave. It was not until the mid-1980's, however, that researchers began to take seriously the possibility that attachment processes may play out in extended+essay+the+color+purple, adulthood.

Hazan and Shaver (1987) were two of the write assignment first researchers to explore Bowlby's ideas in the context of romantic relationships. According to Hazan and Shaver, the extended+essay+the+color+purple emotional bond that develops between adult romantic partners is partly a function of the same motivational system--the attachment behavioral system--that gives rise to the emotional bond between infants and their caregivers. Write Assignment Background! Hazan and Shaver noted that the relationship between infants and caregivers and the relationship between adult romantic partners share the following features: both feel safe when the other is extended+essay+the+color+purple nearby and responsive both engage in close, intimate, bodily contact both feel insecure when the other is inaccessible both share discoveries with one another both play with one another's facial features and exhibit a mutual fascination and preoccupation with one another both engage in baby talk On the write assignment background basis of these parallels, Hazan and Shaver argued that adult romantic relationships, like infant-caregiver relationships, are attachments, and that romantic love is a property of the attachment behavioral system, as well as the motivational systems that give rise to caregiving and sexuality. Three Implications of Adult Attachment Theory.

The idea that romantic relationships may be attachment relationships has had a profound influence on modern research on close relationships. There are at process engineer letter least three critical implications of this idea. Write Assignment! First, if adult romantic relationships are attachment relationships, then we should observe the same kinds of individual differences in creative inspiration, adult relationships that Ainsworth observed in infant-caregiver relationships . We may expect some adults, for example, to write background, be secure in their relationships--to feel confident that their partners will be there for them when needed, and open to depending on others and process engineer cover, having others depend on write assignment them. We should expect other adults, in contrast, to be insecure in their relationships. For example, some insecure adults may be anxious-resistant : they worry that others may not love them completely, and be easily frustrated or angered when their attachment needs go unmet. Others may be avoidant : they may appear not to care too much about close relationships, and may prefer not to essay, be too dependent upon other people or to have others be too dependent upon them. Second, if adult romantic relationships are attachment relationships, then the way adult relationships work should be similar to the way infant-caregiver relationships work . In other words, the same kinds of factors that facilitate exploration in children (i.e., having a responsive caregiver) should facilitate exploration among adults (i.e., having a responsive partner). The kinds of things that make an attachment figure desirable for infants (i.e., responsiveness, availability) are the kinds of factors adults should find desirable in romantic partners.

In short, individual differences in attachment should influence relational and personal functioning in adulthood in the same way they do in write assignment background, childhood. Third, whether an essay experience adult is secure or insecure in his or her adult relationships may be a partial reflection of his or her experiences with his or her primary caregivers . Bowlby believed that the assignment background mental representations or working models (i.e., expectations, beliefs, rules or scripts for behaving and thinking) that a child holds regarding relationships are a function of his or her caregiving experiences. For example, a secure child tends to believe that others will be there for questions, him or her because previous experiences have led him or her to this conclusion. Once a child has developed such expectations, he or she will tend to seek out relational experiences that are consistent with those expectations and perceive others in a way that is colored by those beliefs. According to Bowlby, this kind of process should promote continuity in background, attachment patterns over the life course, although it is possible that a person's attachment pattern will change if his or her relational experiences are inconsistent with his or her expectations. In short, if we assume that adult relationships are attachment relationships, it is possible that children who are secure as children will grow up to be secure in their romantic relationships. Or, relatedly, that people who are secure as adults in their relationships with their parents will be more likely to forge secure relationships with new partners. In the sections below I briefly address these three implications in light of extended+essay+the+color+purple, early and contemporary research on adult attachment. Do We Observe the Same Kinds of Attachment Patterns Among Adults that We Observe Among Children?

The earliest research on adult attachment involved studying the association between individual differences in assignment background, adult attachment and and heloise, the way people think about write assignment their relationships and their memories for what their relationships with their parents are like. Hazan and Shaver (1987) developed a simple questionnaire to measure these individual differences. (These individual differences are often referred to process cover, as attachment styles , attachment patterns , attachment orientations , or differences in assignment, the organization of the process engineer cover attachment system .) In short, Hazan and write assignment, Shaver asked research subjects to process engineer, read the three paragraphs listed below, and indicate which paragraph best characterized the background way they think, feel, and behave in with depression, close relationships: A. I am somewhat uncomfortable being close to others; I find it difficult to trust them completely, difficult to allow myself to depend on them. I am nervous when anyone gets too close, and often, others want me to be more intimate than I feel comfortable being. B. I find it relatively easy to get close to others and am comfortable depending on them and write, having them depend on me. I don't worry about essay being abandoned or about someone getting too close to write, me. C. I find that others are reluctant to get as close as I would like. I often worry that my partner doesn't really love me or won't want to stay with me. I want to get very close to my partner, and this sometimes scares people away.

Based on this three-category measure, Hazan and extended+essay+the+color+purple, Shaver found that the distribution of categories was similar to that observed in infancy. In other words, about 60% of adults classified themselves as secure (paragraph B), about background 20% described themselves as avoidant (paragraph A), and about 20% described themselves as anxious-resistant (paragraph C). Although this measure served as a useful way to study the association between attachment styles and relationship functioning, it didn't allow a full test of the hypothesis that the same kinds of individual differences observed in infants might be manifest among adults. Creative Writing! (In many ways, the Hazan and Shaver measure assumed this to be true.) Subsequent research has explored this hypothesis in a variety of ways. Background! For example, Kelly Brennan and how to help with depression and anxiety, her colleagues collected a number of assignment, statements (e.g., I believe that others will be there for me when I need them) and studied the way these statements hang together statistically (Brennan, Clark, Shaver, 1998). Brennan's findings suggested that there are two fundamental dimensions with respect to adult attachment patterns (see Figure 2). One critical variable has been labeled attachment-related anxiety . People who score high on this variable tend to future learn creative, worry whether their partner is available, responsive, attentive, etc. People who score on the low end of this variable are more secure in write, the perceived responsiveness of abelard and heloise, their partners.

The other critical variable is called attachment-related avoidance . People on assignment the high end of this dimension prefer not to rely on engineer others or open up to others. People on the low end of this dimension are more comfortable being intimate with others and are more secure depending upon and having others depend upon them. A prototypical secure adult is low on both of these dimensions. Brennan's findings are critical because recent analyses of the statistical patterning of behavior among infants in background, the strange situation reveal two functionally similar dimensions: one that captures variability in the anxiety and resistance of the child and another that captures variability in the child's willingness to use the parent as a safe haven for support (see Fraley Spieker, 2003a, 2003b). Functionally, these dimensions are similar to creative writing inspiration, the two-dimensions uncovered among adults, suggesting that similar patterns of attachment exist at different points in the life span. In light of assignment, Brennan's findings, as well as taxometric research published by Fraley and Waller (1998), most researchers currently conceptualize and measure individual differences in attachment dimensionally rather than categorically.

That is, it is assumed that attachment styles are things that vary in degree rather than kind. The most popular measures of adult attachment style are Brennan, Clark, and clinical, Shaver's (1998) ECR and Fraley, Waller, and Brennan's (2000) ECR-R--a revised version of the ECR. Write! [Click here to take an on-line quiz designed to process engineer letter, determine your attachment style based on these two dimensions.] Both of these self-report instruments provide continuous scores on write assignment background the two dimensions of attachment-related anxiety and writing inspiration pictures, avoidance. [Click here to learn more about self-report measures of individual differences in adult attachment.] Do Adult Romantic Relationships Work in the Same Way that Infant-Caregiver Relationships Work? There is now an increasing amount of research that suggests that adult romantic relationships function in ways that are similar to infant-caregiver relationships, with some noteworthy exceptions, of course. Naturalistic research on adults separating from their partners at an airport demonstrated that behaviors indicative of attachment-related protest and caregiving were evident, and that the regulation of these behaviors was associated with attachment style (Fraley Shaver, 1998). For example, while separating couples generally showed more attachment behavior than nonseparating couples, highly avoidant adults showed much less attachment behavior than less avoidant adults. In the sections below I discuss some of the assignment background parallels that have been discovered between the way that infant-caregiver relationships and process cover, adult romantic relationships function. Cross-cultural studies suggest that the secure pattern of write assignment, attachment in infancy is writing pictures universally considered the most desirable pattern by assignment, mothers (see van IJzendoorn Sagi, 1999). For obvious reasons there is no similar study asking infants if they would prefer a security-inducing attachment figure. Adults seeking long-term relationships identify responsive caregiving qualities, such as attentiveness, warmth, and sensitivity, as most attractive in potential dating partners (Zeifman Hazan, 1997). Despite the attractiveness of secure qualities, however, not all adults are paired with secure partners.

Some evidence suggests that people end up in relationships with partners who confirm their existing beliefs about attachment relationships (Frazier et al., 1997). Secure base and safe haven behavior. In infancy, secure infants tend to be the most well adjusted, in the sense that they are relatively resilient, they get along with their peers, and are well liked. Similar kinds of patterns have emerged in research on abelard essay adult attachment. Write Assignment! Overall, secure adults tend to essay experience, be more satisfied in their relationships than insecure adults. Their relationships are characterized by greater longevity, trust, commitment, and interdependence (e.g., Feeney, Noller, Callan, 1994), and write, they are more likely to use romantic partners as a secure base from which to creative inspiration pictures, explore the world (e.g., Fraley Davis, 1997). A large proportion of research on write assignment adult attachment has been devoted to uncovering the behavioral and and heloise, psychological mechanisms that promote security and secure base behavior in adults. Background! There have been two major discoveries thus far. First and in process cover, accordance with attachment theory, secure adults are more likely than insecure adults to seek support from their partners when distressed. Furthermore, they are more likely to assignment background, provide support to and anxiety, their distressed partners (e.g., Simpson et al., 1992). Second, the attributions that insecure individuals make concerning their partner's behavior during and write background, following relational conflicts exacerbate, rather than alleviate, their insecurities (e.g., Simpson et al., 1996).

Avoidant Attachment and Defense Mechanisms. Recent research on learn creative writing adult attachment has revealed some interesting complexities concerning the relationships between avoidance and defense. Although some avoidant adults, often called fearfully-avoidant adults, are poorly adjusted despite their defensive nature, others, often called dismissing-avoidant adults, are able to write assignment background, use defensive strategies in an adaptive way. For example, in an experimental task in which adults were instructed to discuss losing their partner, Fraley and Shaver (1997) found that dismissing individuals (i.e., individuals who are high on the dimension of attachment-related avoidance but low on the dimension of attachment-related anxiety) were just as physiologically distressed (as assessed by skin conductance measures) as other individuals. When instructed to suppress their thoughts and feelings, however, dismissing individuals were able to process engineer cover letter, do so effectively. That is, they could deactivate their physiological arousal to some degree and minimize the attention they paid to attachment-related thoughts. Fearfully-avoidant individuals were not as successful in suppressing their emotions. Are Attachment Patterns Stable from Infancy to Adulthood? Perhaps the most provocative and controversial implication of adult attachment theory is that a person's attachment style as an adult is shaped by his or her interactions with parental attachment figures. Although the idea that early attachment experiences might have an influence on write background attachment style in romantic relationships is relatively uncontroversial, hypotheses about the source and degree of overlap between the two kinds of attachment orientations have been controversial. There are at least two issues involved in considering the essay question of stability: (a) How much similarity is there between the security people experience with different people in their lives (e.g., mothers, fathers, romantic partners)? and assignment, (b) With respect to any one of these relationships, how stable is security over time?

With respect to this first issue, it appears that there is a modest degree of overlap between how secure people feel with their mothers, for with depression and anxiety, example, and assignment, how secure they feel with their romantic partners. Fraley, for example, collected self-report measures of one's current attachment style with a significant parental figure and a current romantic partner and found correlations ranging between approximately .20 to essay clinical experience, .50 (i.e., small to moderate) between the assignment two kinds of future learn creative writing, attachment relationships. [Click here to take an on-line quiz designed to assess the similarity between your attachment styles with different people in your life.] With respect to the second issue, the stability of one's attachment to write, one's parents appears to engineer cover, be equal to a correlation of about .25 to .39 (Fraley, 2002). There is only one longitudinal study of which we are aware that assessed the assignment link between security at age 1 in the strange situation and security of the same people 20 years later in and anxiety, their adult romantic relationships. This unpublished study uncovered a correlation of write, .17 between these two variables (Steele, Waters, Crowell, Treboux, 1998). The association between early attachment experiences and cover letter, adult attachment styles has also been examined in background, retrospective studies. Creative Writing! Hazan and Shaver (1987) found that adults who were secure in assignment, their romantic relationships were more likely to recall their childhood relationships with parents as being affectionate, caring, and accepting (see also Feeney Noller, 1990).

Based on these kinds of clinical experience, studies, it seems likely that attachment styles in the child-parent domain and write, attachment styles in the romantic relationship domain are only moderately related at best. What are the implications of such findings for abelard questions, adult attachment theory? According to some writers, the most important proposition of the theory is write background that the attachment system, a system originally adapted for the ecology of infancy, continues to influence behavior, thought, and feeling in adulthood (see Fraley Shaver, 2000). This proposition may hold regardless of whether individual differences in the way the system is organized remain stable over a decade or more, and stable across different kinds of intimate relationships. Learn Writing! Although the social and cognitive mechanisms invoked by attachment theorists imply that stability in attachment style may be the background rule rather than the exception, these basic mechanisms can predict either long-run continuity or discontinuity, depending on clinical the precise ways in which they are conceptualized (Fraley, 2002). Fraley (2002) discussed two models of continuity derived from attachment theory that make different predictions about long-term continuity even though they were derived from the same basic theoretical principles. Each model assumes that individual differences in attachment representations are shaped by write assignment background, variation in process engineer, experiences with caregivers in early childhood, and that, in turn, these early representations shape the quality of the assignment individual's subsequent attachment experiences. However, one model assumes that existing representations are updated and revised in light of new experiences such that older representations are eventually overwritten. Mathematical analyses revealed that this model predicts that the long-term stability of how to depression, individual differences will approach zero. The second model is similar to the first, but makes the write additional assumption that representational models developed in the first year of writing inspiration, life are preserved (i.e., they are not overwritten) and continue to influence relational behavior throughout the life course. Analyses of this model revealed that long-term stability can approach a non-zero limiting value.

The important point here is that the principles of attachment theory can be used to derive developmental models that make strikingly different predictions about the long-term stability of write background, individual differences. In light of this finding, the existence of long-term stability of individual differences should be considered an writing pictures empirical question rather than an write assumption of the theory. Outstanding Questions and Future Directions for Research on Adult Attachment. There are a number of extended+essay+the+color+purple, questions that current and future research on attachment needs to address. For example, it is probably the background case that, while some romantic relationships are genuine attachment relationships, others are not. It will be necessary for future researchers to find ways to better determine whether a relationship is actually serving attachment-related functions.

Second, although it is creative inspiration pictures clear why attachment behavior may serve an assignment important evolutionary function in infancy, it is not clear whether attachment serves an important evolutionary function among adults. Third, we still don't have a strong understanding of the precise factors that may change a person's attachment style. In the interest of improving people's lives, it will be necessary to learn more about the with factors that promote attachment security and relational well-being.

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Plasma Research Center, University of Tsukuba, Kawabe, Japan. non-equilibrium plasmas, chaotic phenomena, plasma based neutron sources, plasma-solid surface interactions, environmental plasma technologies (especially dissociation of CFC and dioxin gases), plasma light sources, organic thin film for future computers, lead battery enhancement Laboratory of Plasma, Laser, and Computational Electromagnetism (LaPlace), Kyushu Institute of Technology. spacecraft plasma environmental interaction, gas insulation, electromagnetic compatibility Plasma Laboratory, Seoul National University, Seoul, South Korea. flat panel display development, (phys. educ.) plasma and RF devices (Gun-Sik Park) Physics Dept, Plasma Research Laboratory University of write background, Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. pulsed capillary discharge, flash x-ray tube and pulsed electron beam source, low-temperature plasmas, including glow, RF, microwave and clinical corona discharges, plasma opening switches, experiments: plasma opening switch, plasma focus Plasma Physics and Radiation Technology, Eindhoven University, The Netherlands. [Equilibrium and write assignment Transport in essay clinical experience Plasmas(ETP Group)] fast tomography on plasmas, deposition, incineration gases analyses, high-intensity atom source, inductively coupled plasmas (ICP), lighting plasmas. [Elementary Processes in GasDischarges (EPG Group)] dusty plasmas - coulomb crystals, Mie scattering ellipsometry, coating/etching of particles suspended in write plasmas etching/depositing plasmas, plasma display panels, corona discharges - removal of chemical contaminations in essay waters Institute of Applied Physics, Nizhny Novgorod, Russia. plasma electrodynamics, nonlinear processes, high-power electronics, laser-plasma interactions Institute of RadioEngineering Electronics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow.

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Also, don#8217;t feel pressured to how to depression say you want to save the assignment, world. Columbia certainly appreciates a socially conscious mindset; however, you will not be dinged for wanting to be successful in creative writing inspiration, a more traditional business field or industry. Despite the word #8220;Columbia#8221; being absent from the school’s career goals essay prompt this year, you should still briefly mention how the assignment background, Columbia MBA would help you achieve your goals in experience, your essay. Work Columbia details in thoughtfully and avoid a laundry list of classes and clubs. Write Background. The laundry list approach (squeezing in essay experience, as many class and club names as possible without elaborating on them) reads as hurried and automatic, whereas choosing one or two CBS features reads as carefully considered and genuine.

You might mention, for example, that the CBS #8220;Healthcare Investment and Entrepreneurship#8221; course will be critical to helping you achieve your post-MBA goal of joining a healthcare startup. Essay 2: The full-time MBA experience includes academics, recruiting, and networking. What are your personal priorities and how do you anticipate allocating your time at assignment, Columbia Business School? (250 words) Columbia MBA Essay 2 gives you the opportunity to extended+essay+the+color+purple demonstrate your knowledge of and enthusiasm for Columbia. Write Background. In your response to this essay, be sure to extended+essay+the+color+purple incorporate Columbia-specific examples and avoid being generic. A candidate who writes that they are interested in Columbia#8217;s international offerings and in write assignment background, joining the school#8217;s women#8217;s organization is not as appealing as one who says they want to help organize a Chazen study tour and take on a leadership role in CWiB. As such, it naturally follows that your essay will become stronger after extensive research about CBS.

Visit campus, sit in on help depression a class, attend a local info session, tune in for webinars, and assignment background, chat with current students. Writing Inspiration Pictures. You should develop a sense of your priorities for your time at Columbia through several conversations and deep engagement with members of the Columbia MBA community. By asking how you anticipate allocating your time, Columbia wants to ensure you understand that time will be at a premium during your time in business school. If you list a dozen clubs you plan to join and lead, you will sound naive or, worse, disingenuous. You won#8217;t succeed with this essay simply by cramming in assignment background, sound bites and lists from the Columbia website. How To Help Depression. Be thoughtful in your choices, show that you#8217;ve done your homework, and try to strike a realistic balance between academic, professional, and social opportunities. Essay 3: Please select and background, answer one of the following essay questions: (250 words) a. Please tell us what you feel most passionate about in life. b. If you were given a free day and could spend it anywhere, in any way you choose, what would you do? Columbia MBA Essay 3 has long been the place where applicants get to share more about questions themselves on a personal level. Assignment. Resist the temptation to future learn creative write more about your job here; instead, use this space to provide new information and shed light on another dimension of your life, personality, and interests. Columbia wants to admit people who are not only background academically capable and professionally accomplished, but also interesting and fun #8212; people who have the passion and flair to enliven the business school community.

In terms of choosing whether to write essay #8220;a#8221; or essay #8220;b,#8221; neither essay is an objectively better choice #8212; it all depends on your content. Before choosing which essay to write, consider how you might answer both of these questions. Creative Writing Inspiration. If you have a great deal of write assignment background detail about what you feel most passionate about and essay clinical, examples to provide to show your passion, essay #8220;a#8221; can be a good choice. If you struggle to narrow down a passion but can come up with an interesting way you’d spend a free day, essay #8220;b#8221; is the better choice. a. Please tell us what you feel most passionate about in write background, life. Whatever your passion #8212; be it eating pizza or ending world hunger #8212; strengthen your essay by using specific examples and future learn writing, showing why this passion is meaningful to you. The Columbia AdCom does not appreciate bragging or arrogance. For example, if you want to write about your volunteer work, be sure to write let the AdCom know why you are involved with a particular organization and how it has impacted you, instead of only highlighting how you have made a difference. Keep in mind that running, cooking, and travel tend to be very popular topics in creative inspiration pictures, business school essays; you might consider making another choice. If you are going to write about assignment one of those topics, be sure you do so in a way that#8217;s interesting and demonstrates why that passion is personally meaningful. Essay Clinical. b. If you were given a free day and could spend it anywhere, in write assignment, any way you choose, what would you do? You can take this question in with, any number of directions.

Again, a day spent traveling will likely be a common answer, so be sure your content is write assignment original and specific if you opt to write about travel. This essay has room for (appropriate) humor and levity, and abelard essay questions, if you have humble plans for catching up on sleep or walking your dog, make sure your personality leaps off the page. If you would spend your free day hanging out with your family, that#8217;s fine too #8212; as long as you back that up with a compelling, interesting narrative. Assignment. Remember, the Columbia MBA program wants to admit applicants their classmates will enjoy having around #8212; so use this essay to engineer cover letter show off the best side of yourself. Optional Essay: Is there any further information that you wish to provide the Admissions Committee? If so, use this space to provide an explanation of any areas of concern in your academic record or your personal history. This does not need to assignment background be a formal essay. You may submit bullet points. (Maximum 500 Words) You would be wise to use the optional essay if you have additional information to provide around an help with and anxiety employment gap, a poor grade in write assignment background, college, an upcoming GMAT test date, or another weak spot in your candidacy. If you are discussing a weakness in your application, such as your GMAT score or a low college grade, avoid making excuses or pointing fingers. The AdCom would much rather see someone with low grades take responsibility for partying too much than blame an clinical unfair professor.

You may suggest that the nature of write assignment background your work is better evidence of your quantitative ability than your GMAT score, for example, but be sure to maintain a tone of maturity and how to, accountability. Do not criticize the test or say that you are simply too busy with work to devote time to write assignment studying. How To Depression. Do not use the optional essay to upload an essay you wrote for another school that you feel the AdCom would enjoy seeing. Word count should be kept low in the optional essay, and, as stated in the application, even bullet points are fine; there is assignment no need for a cohesive essay. Your GMAT score is just one component of your MBA candidacy. We will give you a free, personalized report card on your entire candidacy. Let us assess your strengths and weaknesses in clinical experience, the following areas: Academic Profile Test Scores Career Progress Leadership Career Goals Knowledge of Target Schools. Find out if you make the grade for the world's top-ranked business schools!

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Writing Better University Essays/Referencing. By referencing the sources you use in your essay, you do a number of things. First of write assignment all, you comply with an academic convention. Secondly, you make your essay look more professional. In fact, it not only looks more professional, but its argument becomes more powerful. Thirdly, you allow others to check your sources. Abelard Questions? This is assignment background often only creative writing, a hypothetical issue, but a look through the list of your references will allow others to judge your argument quickly. Fourthly, you acknowledge your sources and thus admit that like everyone else, you’re a dwarf on background, the shoulders of the giants. The essential bits of abelard and heloise questions referencing require you to provide enough information to others so that they can identify the source. What exactly is assignment background meant by enough is cover open to debate, and this is also where conventions come in. Essential is assignment that you do provide references.

Ideally, you would do so properly. It’s not so difficult, and the sooner you get into the habit of referencing, the creative pictures, better. There are two forms to do the write, referencing: including them as footnotes, or use a variation of the Harvard system. Your institution may have a preference, or even a house style. In most cases, your markers will be happy with a consistent and appropriate system.

The Harvard system is also known as author/date, and inspiration pictures, will be described here in more detail. Within your essay, whenever you make a statement that is essentially based on somebody else’s work, you should attribute the assignment, source. You do this by stating the author(s) and the year of the publication you consulted. Where the clinical experience, name of the author occurs naturally in the text, it does not need to assignment background, be repeated. Essay Questions? The references are usually included at the end of write assignment background a sentence, or where inappropriate in a place where the text flow is not interrupted too much, such as in front of a comma. This may be necessary, for example, if only the first half of your sentence is based on essay experience, someone else’s work.

Switzerland seems to be the ideal place for studying the effects of direct democracy, since no other country has gone as far in assignment background, terms of implementing such means (Franklin, 2002). The name of the author is inspiration pictures included in brackets, together with the year of publication. Some styles put a comma between the two, others just a space: (Franklin 2002). Assignment Background? Where there are two authors, both names are included: (McLanahan Sandefur, 1994). Some styles prefer the word and , others prefer the ampersand ( symbol). Where there are more than two authors, the essay questions, name of the first author is given, followed by et al. (which literally means and others ): (Almeder et al. , 2001). Some styles put et al. into italics, others don’t. If you have two or more references for the same argument, you should separate the references with a semicolon (; symbol): (McLanahan Sandefur, 1994; Steinberg, 1999). If there are very many references to write background, an argument, use your own judgement to select the most relevant ones.

What should you reference? Basically references should be included to any argument made by and heloise questions, someone else, including numbers you cite. Write? However, statements of general nature need not be attributed to anyone. A statement that the sky is blue alone does not require a reference. However, if you state that the sky is blue because of a specific reason, then you should include a reference. Help? If you use the exact words of an author (quotation), you’ll need to give the number of the assignment, page where you copy from. This is needed so anyone can quickly check the and anxiety, original words, should he or she feel so. See the separate section on quotes. It’s not uncommon that you want to use the arguments of say Max Weber, even though you have not actually read this particular book. Strictly speaking, you should not reference Weber’s work for such a statement, because you have not actually read it. Can you really be sure this is what Weber said or meant?

The technically correct trick is to add cited in after the reference: (Weber, 1918, cited in Hamilton, 2002). You should always reference the work you consulted, and this includes the year of publication. Many books are published in their second and third editions, so giving the correct year can be helpful. Write Background? Similarly, even if a book is merely a reprint by abelard questions, a different publisher, give the year of the edition you consulted. The page numbers may differ. If it’s just a second print of the exact same book, use the original date.

Some readers find this unsatisfactory, since Weber surely did not publish anything this year. The convention to write, circumvent this issue is to give both years: the help with, year of the write assignment, original publication, together with the one of the work you consulted. Sometimes slashes are used between the dates (/ sign), others prefer the used of square brackets ([ and ] sign): Burke (2004/1774) or Burke (2004 [1774]). Another small issue occurs where an author published more than one book or article in a single year, and you want to cite more than one of them. The trick here is to add letters from the how to with, alphabet after the year to assignment, identify which of the works you refer to. Use the letter a for the first of your references, the letter b for the second and so on: (McManus, 1994a) and future writing, (McManus, 1994b) are two different works. To sum it up, inside the write background, text, you give the family name of the and heloise essay, author, followed by the year of the publication. Always cite the background, text you consulted, because in the end it’s your responsibility that the references are correct.

At the end of pictures your essay you should include a list of references. Such a list of references provides more details than just the name of the author and the year of publication. It’s this list that allows identifying the work cited. Each work you cited in the essay is write assignment cited once, and listed in alphabetical order. Creative? Note that a bibliography and list of references is not technically the same. Write Assignment? A bibliography is a list of abelard essay questions relevant sources that may or may not be cited in the main text. References are the write, sources you cited, even if they are rather trivial. Use the heading references for creative, your references. For books, you put the write background, family name of the author(s) and essay clinical, their initials, followed by the year of publication in brackets, the write assignment background, title in italics, the place of publication, and finally the creative inspiration pictures, name of the publisher.

If there are editors, give their names instead of the authors’. Assignment? If there is a subtitle to the title, this is usually separated using colons (: sign). Where there are more than four authors, it’s common to use et al. after the first three, but some styles insist on citing all authors. Sometimes a book is how to help and anxiety co-published by two publishers, and this can be indicated by using a slash (/ sign). Where you give the write background, editors rather than the actual authors, you indicate this by adding (eds) after their names, or (ed.) if there is extended+essay+the+color+purple only one. The title is capitalized. Assignment? For example: Anderson, C. Zelle, C. (eds) (1998) Stability and Change in German Elections: How Electorates Merge, Converge, or Collide , London, Praeger. Granovetter, M. Clinical? (1974) Getting a Job: A Study of Contacts and Careers , Chicago, Chicago University Press. Grass, G. (1963) Katz und Maus , Neuwied am Rhein, Rowolth/Hermann Leuchterhand.

Hall, S. (ed.) (1997) Representation: Cultural Representations and Signifying Practices , London, Sage. Halsey, A., Heath, A. Write Assignment? Ridge, J. (1980) Origins and Destinations , Oxford, Clarendon Press. Chapters in a book are cited separately, especially if the book is edited. You give the family name of the author and his or her initial, the year, the name of the clinical, chapter in single speech marks (‘ and ’ sign; not capitalized), followed by the word in , and the name and year of the editor(s). If you cite only one chapter, you can give the whole reference at the end; otherwise it’s enough to give the name and year of the editor. In this case, however, the book itself needs to be included in write background, the list of references, too. For example: Allen, J. (1995) ‘Global worlds’ in Allen, J. Extended+essay+the+color+purple? Massey, D. (eds) (1995). Hardin, R. (1990) ‘Public choice versus democracy’ in Chapman, J. Write? Wertheimer, A. (eds) (1990). Leroy, P. Verhagen, K. (2003) ‘Environmental politics: Society’s capacity for political response’ in Blowers, A. Hinchliffe, S. (eds) (2003) Environmental Responses , Chichester, Wiley.

An entry in a printed encyclopaedia or a dictionary can be cited if it was a chapter in a book. The editors are often given on the front of the reference book. For example: Jackman, R. Future Learn Creative? (2001) ‘Social capital’ in Smelser, N. Baltes, P. (eds) (2004). Journal articles are cited in a way that is assignment background quite similar to chapters in a book.

The main difference really is that details about the volume and page numbers are included, too. Extended+essay+the+color+purple? The reference starts with the name and initial of the background, author, the year in cover letter, brackets, the title of the article in write assignment background, single speech marks (not capitalized), followed by the name of the engineer cover letter, journal in write, italics (capitalized), and further details. The details of journals are commonly abbreviated as follows: the inspiration, volume number followed by a colon and the page numbers of the article. If there are different numbers to a volume, this is indicated by including it in brackets before the colon, if known. Online journals may not have page numbers. For example: Burt, R. (1987) ‘Social contagion and innovation: Cohesion versus structural equivalence’, American Journal of Sociology , 92:1287–335. Write Assignment? Thoits, P. Hewitt, L. (2001) ‘Volunteer work and well-being’, Journal of extended+essay+the+color+purple Health and write, Social Behaviour , 42(2):115–31. Small, C. (1999) ‘Finding an invisible history: A computer simulation experiment (in virtual Polynesia)’, Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation , 2(3).

Valente, T. (1996) ‘Social network thresholds in the diffusion of information’, Social Networks , 18(1):69–89. Pages on the internet should be cited where used. You should bear in mind the quality of the and heloise essay questions, site before citing from it, but if you use a web site, reference it, too. There are many internet sites that are perfectly acceptable as sources for your essays. The reference includes the name of the author and initial, the year in write, brackets, the writing, title of the document in italics, the word online in square brackets, the place of publication, the publisher, the words available from : followed by the URL, and the date when the document was accessed in brackets. The date is important, because unlike printed works, web sites often change their content or even disappear. Many web sites include a copyright note at the bottom, giving you an indication when the content was written. For example: Moser, P. (2005) Politik im Kanton Zurich—eine Synthese [online], Zurich, Statistisches Amt des Kantons Zurich, available from: http://web.archive.org/web/20051224111845/http://www.statistik.zh.ch/statistik.info/pdf/2005_15.pdf [accessed 27th October 2005]. Chan, T. Goldthorpe, J. (2004) Social Status and Newspaper Readership [online], Oxford, Oxford University, available from: http://users.ox.ac.uk/ sfos0006/papers/news4.pdf [accessed 31st March 2005]. Newspaper articles are very similar to assignment, journal articles in the way they are cited.

The key difference is that rather than the volume, the date is given. The reference therefore includes the name and initial of the author, the year of publication in brackets, the title in single speech marks, the name of the newspaper in italics (capitalized), the date, and finally the essay clinical, page where the article was found. For one page it’s customary to use the abbreviation p. , for articles running over assignment background two or more pages, the abbreviation pp. is clinical experience common. For example: Cockburn, P. Usborne, D. (2004) ‘Burning with anger: Iraqis infuriated by new flag that was designed in London’, The Independent , 28th April, pp.2–3. Handouts from a lecture can be referenced and should be referenced if they are used as the basis of what you write. Assignment? It’s normally a better idea not to abelard and heloise essay questions, use lecture notes, but try to find the original referred to in the lecture. Not only will you have more control over what was actually said, but also can your readers more easily access books and journal article than lecture handouts.

The reference to a lecture handout includes the name and initial of the lecturer, the year in write, bracket, the title of the help with depression, handout in single speech marks, the words lecture notes distributed in followed by the name of the course in italics, the word at and the name of your institution, the place, and date of the lecture. For example: Burt, S. (2005) ‘Survey sampling and administration’, lecture notes distributed in Survey Research Methods at Cambridge University, Cambridge, 9th February 2005. Personal conversations are not commonly considered good sources, but if they are what you use as the basis of background your essay, you should include such conversations. Future? It’s usually a good idea to have another reference to a printed piece, but sometimes this is not an option. In terms of giving the reference, personal conversations are very easy: the name of the person you spoke to, the year in brackets, the words conversation with the assignment background, author and the date of the conversation.

For example: Smith, E. (2004) conversation with the essay, author 6th July 2004. The same format can also be used for personal e-mail, or instant messengers. Once again, bear in mind the credibility of your sources. With e-mail messages it’s customary to write background, include the extended+essay+the+color+purple, e-mail address of the sender in background, brackets after the name, but it’s essential that you obtain consent from the process engineer, author. The subject line of the e-mail is assignment background often included as the title. With all forms of extended+essay+the+color+purple personal conversation, the issue of assignment consent is pictures important. It’s always a very good idea to check with the author first. There are sometimes cases that are not so straightforward as the average book or journal article. For everything there is write assignment a solution in the academic conventions. If you refer to musical works, television programmes, or pieces of art, check with your institution how this should be done.

If everything else fails, remember the function of referencing, and provide a reasonable amount of information for others to chase the creative inspiration, work. Common problems include the lack of authors, unpublished documents, or lack of publisher. Where there is write background no author, often there is an organization. Put the name of the organization. If there is no-one, it’s customary to put the word “Anon” instead of the author’s name. For example: IDEA (1998) Women in extended+essay+the+color+purple, Parliament: Beyond Numbers [online], Stockholm, International IDEA, available from: http://archive.idea.int/women/parl/toc.htm [accessed 28th February 2006].

UN Statistics Division (2006) Social Indicators [online], New York, UN Statistics Division, available from: http://unstats.un.org/unsd/demographic/products/socind/inc-eco.htm [accessed 20th February 2006]. Sometimes the year of a document is not known. Assignment? Where you have a rough idea, you can put a c before the date, such as in (c.1999). Where you just have no clue, there is no need to creative writing inspiration, panic: simply put the word unknown instead of the year. Documents that are unpublished as such, for write background, example a thesis or a draft article you were sent, should come with the indication that they are not published. And Heloise Essay? This is easily done by including the word unpublished in brackets at write, the end of the reference.

With articles sent to you, you should always ask permission to learn writing, cite; just like you would with an ordinary e-mail. For theses it’s common to include the kind of thesis after the title, such as PhD thesis or MA thesis . Where the name or place of the publisher is unknown a very simple solution is used: leave the information blank. This is particularly an issue with internet sites. Including the URL is in this case much more helpful than trying to guess the name of the publisher. Course materials provided to you are treated very similar to the lecture handouts. Give the name of the author, the year in brackets, the assignment, course code if there is one, the how to with depression, course title in italics (capitalized), the kind of material and its title in single speech marks, place of publication, and publisher. For example:

Peake, S. (2003) U216 Environment , Video 4 ‘Shanghai Boom’, Milton Keynes, The Open University. The Open University (2004) DD305 Personal Lives and Social Policy , CD-ROM 2 ‘Interviews and Interviewing’, Milton Keynes, The Open University. The capitalization of titles may seem a bit confusing, but it follows a simple logic: it’s the write, main title that is capitalized. In the case of a book, the main title is engineer that of the book. Write Assignment Background? In the learn creative, case of background journal articles, on the other hand, the abelard and heloise essay questions, main title is thought to be that of the journal itself. It might be confusing that within the journal, the title of an article often is capitalized. Capitalization is write assignment background not very hard to achieve. Put in capital letters are all nouns, proper names, the first word, verbs, and adjectives. This is in fact almost everything. Not put in capital letters are words like and , in process cover letter, , or , or with . Unfortunately most word processors don’t capitalize properly when told to, and put every single word in capital letters, including the ands and withins that should not come with capital letters.

Different publishers have different house styles, and you might come across a title with a word you would normally spell differently. This is common with British and American variants, but there are other words, too, such as post-modernity . No matter how strongly you might disagree with the spelling, you should always use the original spelling in assignment background, the references. It’s perfectly fine to change them in how to help with, your essay itself, but not in the references. A good manual of assignment style, such as the Oxford Style Manual (Ritter, 2003) will be able to give you further guidance. Many course providers have their own preferences or house styles, and it’s advisable to follow these conventions.

Where there are no house styles, using a system such as the one outlined in this guide in a consistent manner will be well received. Engineer Letter? You’ll find full references to every work mentioned in this book at assignment, the end. It’s difficult to future learn creative writing, write about referencing without mentioning plagiarism. Plagiarism describes the act or result where you take the write assignment, words or ideas of somebody else and present them as your own. Plagiarism is extended+essay+the+color+purple considered serious academic misconduct and can be punished severely. Most importantly, however, your reputation is on the line. The origin of the word plagiarism gives you an idea what others will think of you when you plagiarize. The word goes back to the Latin plagiarius , a thief and write assignment, kidnapper—in particular a child snatcher and somebody abducting slaves.

The modern use in academia brands you a literary thief (OED, 2005). There are a number of and heloise questions reasons why plagiarism occurs. The worst case is deliberate plagiarism (for whatever reason). Careless work may lead to plagiarism, but is not commonly considered as severe an offence as the deliberate case. Careless work is assignment background often a sign of students working too closely to the original, and this can be easily remedied. Without changing your habit, simply by including references to where you got the process, ideas from, and putting speech marks where you quote, you technically are done. In practice, you still might rely too much on the original and not deliver as good an essay as you could.

Deliberate plagiarism, often motivated by laziness, can’t be remedied directly. At the time, it may seem a reasonable risk to assignment background, copy from the internet, but is it really worth it? Bear in mind that there is something in for letter, you, too—that is something in addition to the grades. Assignment Background? The more you write, the easier it gets. If you work too closely to the original, there is a simple solution: don’t write the essay with the books in front of extended+essay+the+color+purple you.

By so doing, there is very little danger that you copy word by word. In a way, you force yourself to make the material your own: and that is a good thing—it makes a better argument, your essay will be more original, and not least, you’ll also get better grades. Rather than having the write background, original works in front of you, try using your notes. As you still will need to put those references for how to help with and anxiety, the ideas you take from others, make a note whenever you do so. I use brackets with three X inside, to remind myself that I need to put a proper reference. Often I remember very well who said this, so I include, for example, (Granovetter XXX) inside the text. When checking the essay, it’s hard not to write assignment, notice the triple X; and writing, there is always the search facility in the word processor. By putting a place holder, I can get on with the job of writing without interrupting my thoughts. Equally important, I leave some traces indicating to myself that there is some more work to assignment, be done: finding the proper reference, for example. If you think plagiarism is hard to future learn writing, detect by your marker, think again. There are a great number of signs that give plagiarized work away.

Technology-wise, your markers are likely to have the same possibilities than you have if not more. If you can copy and paste something you found on the internet, it’s equally easy for your marker to find it on a search engine, again. It would, of course, be possible, to change plagiarized work to the extent that the deed is no longer easy to spot. Usually, however, this is just as much work as writing the essay yourself. Just to give you an idea, the markers of your essay will not only have access to the same search engines than you have. There is software to scan essays for duplicates; and many institutes even have access to essay banks (sites on the internet where complete essays are sold). The most successful tool, however, is probably the human brain with its incredible ability to remember.

If you copy from a colleague, chances are that your marker has read this one, too. Write Background? If you copy from a set reading, chances are that your marker has read this one, too. Knowing what is on the reading list helps spot essays that refer to other works a great deal, or don’t refer to and heloise questions, some of the assignment background, core reading. Your marker can estimate how many readings you had time to engineer cover, read, or whether you’re likely to have read a great number of papers on the Belgian perspective of whatever issues is set in the question. An even easier sign is having the same paragraph twice in background, the same essay, for essay, example. There are more subtle signs, too, such as sudden changes in write assignment background, style or formatting. Many people are unaware of how idiosyncratic one’s writing style is. They are in fact so individual that writing styles can be used to determine how many people wrote a document, such as the Christian Bible (Jakoblich, 2001). Future? Writing style includes the tenses we use, the level of formality, our own choice of words, the kinds of metaphors we put, whether we use American or British English, choices over punctuation, the length of write sentences, or the use of specialist terms.

Typographic signs include font size, choices of where to abelard questions, break paragraphs, spaces in between lines, and things like proper m- and n-dashes (when copying from electronic articles). The presence or lack of references is often an easy sign: for write, example, where there are many references inside the future learn creative writing, text, but few at the end, or where the citation style changes within a single essay. A marker may get suspicious where there is assignment background suddenly a section with many references, or suddenly none. Sometimes, students even include hyperlinks in references when copying from future learn, electronic journals; and have them automatically underlined by the word processor. Even where you take care of these issues, a paragraph copied from the internet will very unlikely link well with the rest of your essay. The style may be inappropriate, or just different. Write Assignment Background? Essays from an essay bank may be internally consistent, but very rarely are they really relevant to the exact question you have been set. In summary, you can avoid plagiarism easily. This is done by writing freely without having the books right in extended+essay+the+color+purple, front of you. Instead, work with your notes, and take care to put references where you use the ideas from assignment background, others. Don’t use the internet to experience, copy from, no matter how tempting it is.

It will hardly ever be worth it. There is an write assignment, important difference between citations and quotations. Unfortunately, confusion is commonplace; and the terms are frequently used incorrectly. Knowing your citations from your quotations is useful when writing essays. It’s essential, in fact, if you want to reference properly. Citations are about ideas you take from others. Quotations are about the exact words used by essay clinical, others. This is really the whole distinction. Assignment? So, when using your own words, you cite; when you use the words of someone else, you quote. “Why can’t a man be more like a woman?” (Blankenhorn, 1995, p.117) is a quotation, because I use the exact same words Blankenhorn did. However, when stating that families in the US are increasingly defined by the absence of a father (Blankenhorn, 1995), I only use the idea, not the exact words. When putting a reference, the difference between a citation and a quotation is that for extended+essay+the+color+purple, a quotation we always put a page number.

This is done to enable the reader to check the words in the original context. In the write background, list of references at the end of the text, there is no difference. Short quotations are included in the text, and enclosed by speech marks. Longer quotations are set apart from the main text by indenting the quotations, and usually putting in a slightly smaller font. Longer means about 3 to 4 lines or more. For example: It is true that many voters may be voting for reasons wholly unconnected with social inequalities in any of the three dimensions. They may attach greater importance to extended+essay+the+color+purple, some specific issue such as foreign affairs, or they may vote out of personal reasons or habits with which egalitarianism has nothing to do. (Runciman, 1966, p.136) When quoting someone else, you should take great care to copy the words exactly. Sometimes, you might want to change a quote slightly in order to make it fit your essay.

If these changes are substantial, you should use your own words and cite the work instead. If the changes are small, use square brackets to indicate that you have changed the text. For example, you might quote Rawls (1999, p.87) that intelligent people don’t “[deserve their] greater natural capacity”. I have included the words that I changed in assignment, square brackets, leaving the and heloise essay, rest the same. This indicates to my readers that the words in square brackets are not the exact same as Rawls used. For reference, the original reads: “No one deserves his greater natural capacity” (p.87). I made the changes, because I wrote about intelligent people, and Rawls was talking in assignment, more general terms. Whilst quotations can lighten up an essay, you should not rely on them too much.

Your own writing is much more important, and abelard essay, often text you quote was written for a different purpose. The consequence is that the quotations may be relevant in content (what is being said), but in assignment, terms of style don’t fit well with what you wrote. If you rely too much on quotations, you run the risk that your readers will think that you maybe don’t really know what you’re writing about: that you have not understood the material well enough. When writing an essay, particularly when writing an extended essay, it’s easiest to put the references whilst you write. This is the case, because you still know where you got the idea from.

I keep a place holder to remind myself that a reference is needed if I can’t remember the author right away. Often, I will know at process engineer, least some of it, and write this down. By putting a place holder rather than chasing the reference right away, I can stay focused on write background, the writing. However, I also indicate that the writing pictures, essay is not completed. Place holders like (Baudrillard, XXX) or (XXX last week’s reading) will help me find the full references once I completed the essay or section. References are needed whenever you write an academic piece of writing. Even where you can get away without referencing, by including references your essay will be taken more serious. It’s a good habit to put references all the time, so when you really need to—such as in your thesis—you’ll not struggle, or spend days trying to find out how to reference a chapter in a book. There are a number of write assignment software packages such as Endnote , Refworks , Scholar’s Aid Lite , or Bibus that help you putting references. These computer applications interact with your word processor, and automate much of the referencing process.

They manage citations, and usually let you search libraries and and heloise essay, journal databases. Useful and flexible as they are, such software packages need some time to get used to. It’s thus a good idea to familiarize yourself with their working before the deadline is menacing. For example, make sure you know how to put page numbers for quotations. Even if you don’t use a dedicated computer program to manage your references, it might be useful to assignment, collect references in a separate file. Creative Writing? So, after completing your essay, copy all the references to a separate file. The next time you cite the same paper, it’ll be a simple case of copying and pasting, without the work of formatting the reference.

Keeping the full references with your notes can safe a great deal of time, too.